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THE LIBRARY OF CHRISTIAN 
CLASSICS 



GENERAL EDITORS 



JOHN BAILLIE 

Principal, New College, 
Edinburgh 



JOHN T. McNEILL 

Auburn Professor of Church History, 

Union Theological Seminary, 

New York 



HENRY P. VAN DUSEN 

President, Union Theological Seminary, 
New York 



THE LIBRARY OF CHRISTIAN CLASSICS 

Volume 

I. Early Christian Fathers. Editor: CYRIL C. RICHARDSON, 
Washburn Professor of Church History, Union Theological 
Seminary, New York. 

II. Alexandrian Christianity. Editors: HENRY CHADWICK, Fellow 
of Queens' College, Cambridge; J. E. L. OULTON, late 
Professor of Divinity, Trinity College, Dublin. 

III. Christology of the Later Fathers. Editor: EDWARD ROGHIE 
HARDY, Professor of Church History, Berkeley Divinity 
School, New Haven, Connecticut. 

IV. Cyril of Jerusalem and Nemesius of Emesa. Editor: WILLIAM 
TELFER, formerly Master of Selwyn College, Cambridge. 

V. Early Latin Theology. Editor: S. L. GREENSLADE, Van 
Mildert Professor of Divinity, University of Durham. 

VI. Augustine: Earlier Writings, Editor: J. H. S. BURLEIGH, 
Professor of Ecclesiastical History, University of Edin- 
burgh, and Principal of New College, Edinburgh. 

VIL Augustine: Confessions and Enchiridion. Editor: ALBERT 
COOK OUTLER, Professor of Theology, Perkins School of 
Theology, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. 

VIIL Augustine: Later Works. Editor: JOHN BURNABY, Fellow of 
Trinity College and formerly Regius Professor of Divinity, 
University of Cambridge. 

IX. Early Medieval Theology. Editor: GEORGE E. MCCRACKEN, 
Professor of Classical Languages, Drake University, Des 
Moines, Iowa. 

X. A Scholastic Miscellany : Anselm to Ockham. Editor: EUGENE R. 
FAIRWEATHBR, Associate Professor of Dogmatic Theology 
and Ethics, Trinity College, University of Toronto, 
Toronto, Canada. 

XL Nature and Grace: Selections from the Swnma Theologica of 
Thomas Aquino*. Editor; A* M, FAIRWRATHER, Lecturer 
in Philosophy, University of Edinburgh. 

XIL Western Asceticism. Editor: OWEN CHADWIOK, Master of 
Selwyn College and Dixie Professor of Ecclesiastical 
History, University of Cambridge. 

XIIL Late Medieval Mysticism. Editor: RAY C. PETRY, Professor 
of Church History, The Divinity School, Duke University, 
Durham, North Carolina. 



LIST OF TITLES 

XIV. Advocates of Reform: From Wyclif to Erasmus, Editor; 
MATTHEW SPINKA, Waldo Professor of Church History, 
Hartford Theological Seminary, Hartford, Connecticut. 

XV. Luther: Lectures on Romans. Editor: WILHELM PAUCK, Pro- 
fessor of Church History, Union Theological Seminary, 
New York. 

XVI. Luther: Early Theological Works. Editor: JAMES ATKINSON, 
Canon Theologian of Leicester. 

XVII. Luther and Eramus on Free Will Editor: E. GORDON RUPP, 
Professor of Ecclesiastical History, University of Man- 
chester. 

XVIll. Luther: Letters of Spiritual Counsel Editor: THEODORE 
G, TAPPERT, Schieren Professor of the Synod of New York 
and New England, Church History, Lutheran Theo- 
logical Seminary, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. 

XIX. Melanchthon and Bucer. Editor: F. J. TAYLOR, Principal 
of Wycliffe Hall, Oxford. 

XX, Cabin: Institutes of the Christian Religion. Editor: JOHN T. 
XXL McNEiLL, lately Auburn Professor of Church History, 
Union Theological Seminary, New York, 

XXIL Calvin: Theological Treatises. Editor: J. K. S. REID, Professor 
of Theology, University of Leeds. 

XXIII. Calvin: Commentaries. Editor: JOSEPH HAROUTUNIAN, Cyrus 
H. McCormick Professor of Systematic Theology, Me- 
Cormick Theological Seminary, Chicago, Illinois. 

XXIV, gwingK and Bullinger. Editor: G. W. BROMILEY, Rector of 
St. Thomas' Episcopal Church, Edinburgh, 

XXV. Spiritual and Anabaptist Writers. Editor: GEORGE HUNTSTON 
WILLIAMS, Winn Professor of Ecclesiastical History, The 
Divinity School, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massa- 
chusetts; ANGEL M, MEROAL, Professor of Theology, 
Evangelical Seminary of Puerto Rico, Rio Piedras, Puerto 
Rico, 

XXVL English Reformers, Editors: R, D* WHITEHORN, Principal, 
and Professor of Church History, Westminster College, 
Cambridge; NORMAN SYKBS, Dean of Winchester, 



VOLUME XII 
WESTERN ASCETICISM 



THE LIBRARY OF CHRISTIAN CLASSICS 

Volume XII 

WESTERN 
ASCETICISM 



Selected Translations with 
Introductions and Notes by 

OWEN CHADWIGK 



PHILADELPHIA 

THE WESTMINSTER PRESS 



Published simultaneously in Great Britain and the United States of America 
by the SGM Press, Ltd., London, and The Westminster Press, Philadelphia. 



First pMisfied MGMLVlU 



Library of Congress Catalog Card No. ; 58-8713 



Typesst in Guat Britain 
Printtdin tht United State of America 



GENERAL EDITORS' PREFACE 



The Christian Church possesses in its literature an abundant 
and incomparable treasure. But it is an inheritance that 
must be reclaimed by each generation. THE LIBRARY OF 
CHRISTIAN CLASSICS is designed to present in the English 
language, and in twenty-six volumes of convenient size, a 
selection of the most indispensable Christian treatises written 
prior to the end of the sixteenth century. 

The practice of giving circulation to writings selected for 
superior worth or special interest was adopted at the beginning 
of Christian history. The canonical Scriptures were themselves 
a selection from a much wider literature. In the Patristic 
era there began to appear a class of works of compilation (often 
designed for ready reference in controversy) of the opinions 
of well-reputed predecessors, and in the Middle Ages many 
such works were produced. These medieval anthologies actually 
preserve some noteworthy materials from works otherwise lost. 

In modern times, with the increasing inability even of those 
trained in universities and theological colleges to read Latin 
and Greek texts with ease and familiarity, the translation of 
selected portions of earlier Christian literature into modern 
languages has become more necessary than ever; while the 
wide range of distinguished books written in vernaculars such 
as English makes selection there also needful. The efforts that 
have been made to meet this need are too numerous to be noted 
here, but none of these collections serves the purpose of the 
reader who desires a library of representative treatises spanning 
the Christian centuries as a whole. Most of them embrace 
only the age of the Church Fathers, and some of them have 
long been out of print A fresh translation of a work already 

9 



IO GENERAL EDITORS 3 PREFACE 

translated may shed much new light upon its meaning. This 
is true even of Bible translations despite the work of many 
experts through the centuries. In some instances old translations 
have been adopted in this series, but wherever necessary or 
desirable, new ones have been made. Notes have been supplied 
where these were needed to explain the author's meaning. The 
introductions provided for the several treatises and extracts 
will, we believe, furnish welcome guidance, 

JOHN BAILLIE 
JOHN T. McNnx 
HENRY P. VAN DUSEN 



CONTENTS 

General Introduction . . . . . 13 

I. THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 

Introduction ....... 

The Text 33 

1 . Of the progress of the fathers in perfection 3 7 

II. Of quiet ...... 40 

III. Of compunction .... 43 

IV. Of self-control 48 

V. Of lust ...... 59 

VI. That a monk should possess nothing . 77 

VII. Of patience, or fortitude ... 82 

VIII. That nothing should be done for show . 96 

IX. That we should judge no man . .102 

X. Of discretion . . . . .105 

XI. That it is right to live soberly . . 131 

XII. That we ought to pray earnestly and 

unceasingly . . . . 141 

XIII. That we ought to be hospitable and show 

mercy with cheerfulness . , .144 

XIV. Of obedience 149 

XV, Of humility 156 

XVL Of patience 175 

XVII. Of charity 181 

II. THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 

Introduction . . . . . . .190 

The Text 

L On the monk's goal , . . 195 

IX. On prayer . . . . .214 

X. On prayer ..... 233 

XL On perfection ..... 246 

XV. On miraculous gifts .... 257 

XVIII. On the three sorts of monks . . . 264 

XIX. On the aims of the coenobite and hermit 279 

IX 



12 CONTENTS 

III. THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 

Introduction . . . . * * .290 
The Text . . . . . , - 



APPENDIX ....... 338 

SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY . . . . .361 

INDEXES ....... . 363 



General Introduction 



The monks always looked back to the apostolic Church as the 
source of their way of life. Medieval monks supposed that their 
corporate societies were successors, in a continuous line, of that 
primitive group of disciples which possessed all things in com- 
mon. To support the texts of the Acts they used a treatise of 
Philo which described a group of contcmplatives contemporary 
with the apostolic age, a group now believed to be Jewish but 
then thought to be Christian. From Philo's treatise St Jerome 
deduced that "the earliest members of the Christian Church 
lived in the way in which the monks of today try earnestly to 
live." 

Though a stronger sense of history discarded this faith, it 
contained more truth than the nineteenth century suspected. 
The little primitive Church was puritan. Its moral standards 
were lofty, its discipline rigorous, its demands upon the faithful 
exacting. The monks were the puritans of a Church which in 
captuiing society had partially jettisoned its puritanism. They 
were the successors of at least one facet, an important facet, of 
primitive Christianity. 

When in the first age Christian evangelists preached the 
gospel to the Gentiles, they published the coming of the King- 
dom, the otherworldly and apocalyptic message which the 
gospel contained. The circumstances in which they first 
preached the gospel naturally led them to seize upon those 
texts and those ideas which looked to another world. They 
expected the end of the world soon: the sense of detachment 
from the stuff of this mortal life was sometimes overwhelming. 
St Paul was not the only writer to use the imminent approach 
of the end as a ground for advising freedom from the cares of 
marriage. The earnest waited for the end in continence, prayer, 
faith. Here and there this expectation of the end persisted for 
centuries: and among the many in whom it became weaker, 
the feeling of detachment and otherworldly expectation was 

13 



14 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

maintained in other ways. The government was hostile. In the 
spasms of persecution the Christian was in hourly danger from 
the mob or from arrest. In the Apocalypse we sec how the 
suffering of persecution and the awaiting of death were mingled 
with the expectation of the Lord's Second Coming "Come yc 
out and be separate." They believed the Church to be a society 
set apart from and antagonistic to earthly society with its 
cruelty and immorality. Every martyr fortified this sense of 
antagonism. The blood of the martyrs not only propagated the 
gospel: it ensured that the kind of gospel propagatcxl was that 
which showed the Christians as strangers and pilgrims upon 
earth, that their life was in another and a heavenly Zion. 

The Christian sources of the second century already show 
groups of virgins or ascetics in the Christian congregations. By 
the end of that century the existence of celibates was one of the 
first facts which enquiring pagans noticed when they examined 
the institutions of Christianity. 

In the New Testament the demand for ascesis, self-discipline, 
possessed many other aspects besides the advice about con- 
tinence. The cardinal demand, from the Sermon on the Mount 
downwards, was the demand for detachment; and towards 
detachment it was believed that continence could bo a useful 
aid. But already in the second century virginity was beginning 
to appear to be the act of asceticism par excellence, the, necessary 
foundation to the earnest and disciplined life. 

Many critics have found in the oriental depreciation of the 
body the source of this concentration upon a particular element 
in the detachment advocated in the gospel. This view has been 
found to be an inadequate historical explanation. It can hardly 
be doubted, indeed, that throughout the history of Christian 
asceticism from the second to the filth century and beyond, the 
eastern suspicion of the body and certain pagan concepts of 
ascesis did in divers times and divers persons reinforce an al- 
ready existing trend. It cannot be doubted that during the 
second century the Christian leaders were forced to fight a 
strenuous battle against a lack of balance in ascesis. Groups 
which not all contemporary Christians would have regarded as 
heretical exalted continence beyond the limits suggested by 
the New Testament. The apocryphal writings represent the 
level to which popular religion tended. Some Gnostics and 
quasi-Gnostics Cerdo and others exacted continence as a 
condition of membership. Marcion refused to baptize any 
married person who would not agree to dissolve his marriage. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 15 

One saintly bishop who asked for abstinence from sexual union 
as a necessary element in Christian living was criticized as 
rigoristic rather than heretical. But a religion based upon the 
Incarnation could not succumb to any theory that the body was 
evil. Theologians like Irenaeus and Justin Martyr fought for 
the Biblical doctrine of Creation and Incarnation. When the 
struggle was passed, the ascetic life was admitted to be an 
honourable, earnest and devout way of serving the Lord; and 
the ideals of the ascetics had come to dominate the Christian 
conceptions of holiness. But marriage was also honourable: the 
married Christian could also, in has different way, serve the 
Lord. 

Meanwhile, the work of the congregations, in the narrower 
sense of "work," needed to be performed. The sick must be 
visited, the widows shepherded, prayers must be said, alms 
must be distributed. Apocalyptic feeling and the sense of anta- 
gonism to society prevented much idea that one could serve the 
Lord effectively by the performance of a secular vocation. Some 
of the professions most useful to society like magistrates or 
schoolmasters were disliked by earnest Christians because 
their functions were often entangled with pagan ritual. "Serving 
the Lord" most naturally meant what the modern age has 
called "church work." It was patently true that if to serve the 
Lord one must engage in a life of "church work," of prayer, 
almsgiving, and holy acts in the congregation, then the married 
woman could not serve the Lord like the virgin or widow: and 
what was obviously true of females might be held to be true, if 
less obviously, of males. 

These primitive ascetics possessed no more than the most 
rudimentary form of organization. They were groups of persons 
who lived in continence, distributed their goods for the benefit 
of the Church and the poor, kept particular hours of prayer. 
They did not live in a community: they retained their private 
means and were not sharers in a common purse: they wore no 
special garb, though if they appeared in elegant or fashionable 
clothes they were criticized. By the beginning of the third 
century Tertullian was acclaiming their numbers. And all 
through that century the place of the ascetics in the con- 
gregation was becoming more important and more honourable. 
The ascetical idea of gospel holiness was sovereign in moral 
thought- At the end of the century the virtue of continence has 
rarely received such panegyric as in the Symposium of Methodius 
in praise of virginity. 



l6 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

To transform these primitive ascetics into monks two develop- 
ments were necessary: (i) withdrawal from the congregation, 
(2) common discipline and rule. Already in the third century 
the need for these developments was becoming urgent* 

In Tertullian the Christians are described as numerous, in 
Origen they are to be found everywhere. The Church was 
becoming popular. The ascetics slowly found that this popu- 
larity forced them to seek some kind of retirement. They were 
enabled to share the life of the primitive congregation without 
disrupting it, and without interrupting their own "rccollectcd- 
ness", because the primitive congregation was small, ardent, 
and puritan. As the congregations swelled, and the standards 
of morality and of worship were inevitably lowered, the con- 
trast between the ascetic groups and the normal congregation 
became more manifest and their relations more uncomfortable. 
Every difference in practice, every extra form of worship, 
widened the gap between the earnest and the rest. The ascetics 
often joined in prayer at times like the third, sixth and ninth 
hours, when the normal working man could not bo expected to 
join with them: and such customs, though still extra-liturgical, 
were accustoming the ascetics to the idea of worshipping apart 
from the worship of the congregation as a whole. Perhaps social 
conditions exacted a certain withdrawal for women. The con* 
temporary standards of modesty separated them further from 
the everyday life of the congregation. And since they could 
perform pastoral duties in the church less freely than men, they 
naturally devoted themselves more to such work as intercession 
for which withdrawal was helpful. We seem to find "com- 
munities" for virgins accepted as normal before communities 
for male ascetics had become normal. But already at the end 
of the third century and the beginning of the fourth, there is 
evidence (from Syria and Egypt) of male societies. 

These societies, with their growing sense of separation from 
the congregation and increasingly distinct customs of worship, 
were nevertheless engaged to some extent in the "church work" 
of the congregation. The group about which we know most was 
probably Syrian. They had adopted their manner of life in 
pursuit of holiness. They seem to have been withdrawn from 
any particular congregation. But they worked zealously for the 
congregations around them. They interceded for the ministers, 
the sick, and other needs. They went round the villages preach* 
ing, praying, reading the Bible, visiting orphans and widows 
and sick, exorcising demons. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 17 

One of the motives for withdrawal was the need for discipline. 
Even at the beginning of the third century we find cases of in- 
discipline and error among the ascetics; and a hundred years 
later the need for organizing communities under some strict 
rule was more obvious. No satisfactory society could be achieved 
without a reasonable kind of discipline. It was soon to be plain 
that a common discipline could only be achieved by sharing a 
common life and obeying a common rule. 

We do not know enough of this intermediate stage whereby 
groups of ascetics in or round a congregation were becoming 
societies of ascetics separate from any congregation. One 
corpus of writings, though late in time, does show how easily 
and naturally the change occurred the ascetical writings of St 
Basil of Caesarea in Cappadocia, probably composed at dif- 
ferent periods between 357 and 378. By this time Egypt had 
begotten those new ascetical ideas which were to influence so 
momentously the course of the movement. St Basil had once 
paid a short visit to Egypt. It is possible that he had been in- 
fluenced a little by the new ideal of community life advocated 
in Egypt by St Pachomius. But the ruling notion of most 
Egyptians the superiority of the hermit life to community 
life ho rejected. His work is best understood not as an off- 
shoot of Egyptian monasticism but as a continuation and exten- 
sion of the idea of the primitive ascetic society. (His main 
teacher was no Egyptian but Eustathius of Sebaste, who was 
organizing ascetic groups in Asia Minor.) Basil never used the 
technical terms of the new monasticism. He thought of his 
societies as "brotherhoods." He demanded from them a com- 
mon life in retirement from worldly life, a retirement marked 
by a distinctive dress, a stringent rule of obedience, and com- 
mon rules for eating, fasting and mortification. But though 
his groups were withdrawn from the normal congregation, their 
quest for holiness issued in pastoral work for the congregation. 
The society of ascetic brothers in Caesarea ran his new hospital 
and leper settlement, visited the sick, educated children, dis- 
tributed relief. There is an easy step from the ascetic groups of 
Tertullian's day to the brothers of St Basil They were groups 
existing essentially for the same purpose, but in the later period 
brought together in a common life so that their pursuit of per- 
fection, should be unhindered by worldly distraction, and placed 
under a stern rule of obedience to ensure the discipline and the 
training in holiness which a rightly administered rule provided. 

We gain some clues to the transition period from the lives of 



l8 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

the pious ladies in the city of Rome under the direction of St 
Jerome towards the end of the fourth century. These ladies, so 
long as they remained retired in Rome for prayer and good 
works, were the imitators of the virgins of the third and second 
century. But the letters of St Jerome also show how the now 
ideas and vocabulary of monasticism were turning the ascetics 
to that extra step of retirement which would change them into 
monks and nuns. 



In Egypt men began to take this new step: not only with- 
drawal from the ordinary ways of life but complete separation 
from the local congregation. 

The example of a few individuals appears to have begun the 
movement into the desert. The most celebrated of these, St 
Antony > is known to us in the Life by St Athanasim, written 
(perhaps) soon after Antony's death. In this document it is 
possible to sec how a young man became an ascetic of the nor- 
mal kind and then passed further into the desert to inaugurate 
the new kind of life, the solitary or "monastic" life. 

Antony was the son of rich parents who died when he was 
only eighteen or twenty years old and bequeathed him the 
property. He heard in church the text: "If them wilt be per- 
fect, go sell all that thou hast, and give to the poor; and come, 
follow me and thou shalt have treasure in heaven.*' Moved to 
obey the precept, he placed his young sister in a society of 
virgins,, and began to live the ascetic life near his home. After 
a time he studied under a holy man who lived in the next village 
and then visited other ascetics to be edified by them in, particu- 
lar ascetic practices or virtues. 

So far, there was nothing new or original. Antony had be- 
come an ascetic in the same way as other men and women for 
more than a century. But after a time he felt the need to with- 
draw altogether from the neighbourhood of human, beings. He 
retreated to some tombs where he was locked m and remained 
inaccessible. It is difficult to be certain of the reason. Athauaaim 
describes a succession of temptations by the devil, the chief 
being the temptation to fornication. The Life describes his long 
battles with demons in the solitudes of the tombs of the deserts. 

The second of the Egyptian, originators, St Pachomius, came 
to frame his way of life through a similar series of progressive 
stages. When a conscript in the army he was imprisoned with 
his group, during a halt on a journey, in order to prevent 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION IQ 

desertion. The Christians brought help to the prisoners: and 
this experience seems to have converted Pachomius to the 
Christian life. On release he retired to the village of Schenesit, 
began to lead an ascetic life, helped the poor and sick of the 
village and the travellers who passed through. Finding that the 
crowd which resorted to him hindered his practice of holiness, 
he retired to a senior ascetic Palamon, who lived a little way 
outside the village, and put himself under his tutelage. After a 
time he retired further, to the abandoned village of Tabennisi. 
There he was joined by pupils and began to construct his system 
for the common life. This community itself became progres- 
sively withdrawn from the neighbouring villages. At first the 
monks, though they lived and worshipped together, earned 
their livelihood by working in groups for the local farmers. The 
splitting of the society for these labours encouraged indiscipline: 
and later Pachomius arranged that the work should be work for 
the society and not the work of casual employment. 

In the lives of Antony and Pachomius we see how the ascetics 
were gradually moving further away, mentally as well as geo- 
graphically, from the primitive ascetic in the congregation. 
Both began their ascetic life in a village: both moved outside 
the village to join a senior ascetic rather more withdrawn: and 
both then moved still further away in order to preserve their 
freedom in the pursuit of holiness. There are many other in- 
stances of such a progress. And this gradualness is, on the whole, 
characteristic of the Egyptian movement. Economically the in- 
habitants of the solitudes could only survive if they were within 
reasonable distance of a market for their produce and a place 
to buy food. The first stages were usually a society of monks 
gathered in a community outside a town or village but econ- 
omically associated with it. As the numbers of monks swelled 
rapidly, the movement was always outwards, away from towns 
and villages. Cells which earlier hermits inhabited with success, 
later became unusable on the ground that they were now too 
near to civilization. 

To explain the physical case with which the ascetic changed 
into a monk does not explain the religious ideas which the new 
way of life demanded. As always in Christian history there was 
interaction between doctrine and practice: and it is never 
possible to determine precisely how far doctrine created the new 
way of life and how far the new way of life exacted a certain 
development in doctrine to account for it. But it is possible to 
trace, tentatively, certain lines of doctrinal influence. 



5JO WESTERN ASCETICISM 

In what does sanctity, perfection, holiness consist? What 
fruits are expected of the holy man? In the fourth century the 
Christian reply to these questions was governed by the memory 
of the martyrs. 

The early Christians believed that they must imitate their 
Lord in charity and self-denial. Since the Lord had consum- 
mated his life on a Cross, the obedience even to death was an 
inevitable climax to the demand to take up the Cross. This 
obedience to death was no remote demand. The persecutions 
forced many Christians into the choice between death and 
apostasy. In conditions of persecution, the virtues to which the 
Christians looked as supreme, were the virtues demanded of the 
martyr faith; capacity to bear suffering for Christ's sake; othcr- 
worldliness, and contempt for the goods of this world; longing 
for heaven. How near are these qualities to the qualities de- 
manded of the monk two hundred years later, may be scon from 
such a document as Tcrtullian's Exhortation to the Martyrs* 
Tertullian was trying to encourage an imprisoned group in, their 
expectation of death. And the prison cell in Tertulliari's eyes is 
extremely like the desert cell of the Egyptian monk two hundred 
years later. It is the place to which the martyr goes to trample 
the demons underfoot: it is the place where the martyr can sever 
himself from the clutching tics of the world, from his family and 
his friends: the world, rather than the cell, is the true prison: 
and out of it the martyr passes into the liberty of his confine-* 
ment. The cell takes him from, the stains of lust, the temptations 
of pagan holidays and circuses: 

"The prison does for the Christian what the desert did for the 
prophet. . . . Let us drop the name of prison, and call it a 
place of retirement. Though the body is shut in, all doors are 
open to the spirit.' 9 

And whatever is hard in their bodily circumstances is to be 
counted discipline, like the athlete's training, as the soul 
prepares itself for heaven. 

Long before the age of persecution was past, the word 
martyr is applied to anyone who lives a truly self-sacrificing life. J 
Tertullian could write of a martyrdom of will "perfect without 
suffering," Cyprian of the "martyrdom of virginity": and it was 
natural for the ascetical writers of the later fourth century to use 

i e.g. Clement of Alexandria, Stromateis 4, 4; Tertullian, Scorpiace 8; Cyprian, 
de habitu virginwn 21; and cf. E. E. Malone, The Monk and the Martyr^ in 
Antonius Magnus Eremita, ed, B. Steidle (Rome 1956), pp. 201 it 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 21 

the word "martyrdom" in these loose and general senses. It was 
equally natural, with this memory of persecution stamped upon 
the mind of the Church, that Christians looked to find the 
especial virtues of the martyr in the man who obeyed the com- 
mand to be perfect. 

Christian thinkers were beginning more and more to stress 
the personal and individual element in the idea of sanctity. 
Plainly sanctity can only exist in individuals, though inseparable 
from the individual's behaviour to his fellows and perhaps from 
their behaviour to him. The primitive congregations were little 
groups of "the saints": and sanctity was a sharing in the gift of 
the Spirit which dwelt in the Body of Christ and in each member 
of it. During the third and early fourth centuries the idea of 
sanctity was becoming less corporate and more individualistic. 
This issued largely from the growth of the Church. From 313 
the Church was becoming ever more "established" and all- 
embracing. An established Church, which normally expects to 
contain the majority of the population, is less conscious of its 
distinctivcncss, its separation from the world. It was easier for 
Christians to feel their common Christianity when anti- 
Christians were powerful. And when congregations included 
men and women whose conduct was lax, it was less natural to 
think of the inspiration of the Spirit among all the members of 
the Body than to think of the inspiration of certain individuals. 
Already, before the monastic ideal was widely known, the 
ascctical writers were beginning to be more individualistic in 
their emphasis. Here is a hymn sung by virgins about A.D. 300: 

"Virgins, a trump has sounded from heaven that wakes the 
dead, bidding us all to meet the Bridegroom in white robes, and 
with torches towards the east. Arise, before the King enters 
within the gates. 

I keep myself pure for thee, O Bridegroom, and holding a 
lighted torch I go to meet thee. 

Fleeing from the sorrowful happiness of mortals, and des- 
pising the luxuriant delights of life and its love, I desire to be 
protected under thy life-giving arms, and to behold thy beauty 
for ever, O blessed one. 

I keep myself pure for thce, O Bridegroom, and holding a 
lighted torch I go to meet thee. . * . 

I forget my own country, O Lord, through desire of thy 
grace. I forget also the company of virgins, my fellows, the desire 
even of mother and kindred, for thou, O Christ, art all things 
to me- 



22 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

I keep myself pure for thee, O Bridegroom, and holding a 
lighted torch I go to meet thee " 2 

All this is fully compatible with the Christian doctrine of the 
Church. Yet there is a running stream of feeling that the soul 
is so seeking its perfection face to face with God that everything 
except God and the soul sink into a secondary place. The 
Church was there to contain: the ascetic group was there to 
encourage. But in the last resort the soul must work out its own 
salvation with fear and trembling. 

What was the hermit to do in his hermitage? The answer for 
most was simple pray, endure, wait for the end. So a hermit 
answered the enquiry of Melania "From dawn to three o'clock 

1 pray, and at the same time spin flax. During the remaining 
hours I think upon the holy patriarchs, prophets, apostles and 
martyrs. Then after supper I spend my time patiently waiting 
for the end in cheerfulness and hope." For many, this was all 
that was necessary. But others needed to provide more intel- 
lectual analysis of the raison d'etre of their life. We must beware 
of reading into the whole movement ideas which were mainly 
the food of an intelligent Greek minority. Many sources besides 
the Life of Antony show the primary work of the hermit to be the 
fight with demons, the cultivation of virtues, the practice of 
fasting and mortification, praying and reading the Bible. But 
among the educated groups of Greek monks some thinkers 
began to construct a theological theory which would account 
satisfactorily for the nature and purpose and ascetical methods 
of the hermit life. 

The Greek monks adapted an already existing theology to 
serve the purposes of desert spirituality. In the third century* 
the school of Alexandria, led by Clement and then Origcu, hud 
couched their moral and ascctical thought in terms partially 
borrowed from the vocabulary of Greek philosophy. The end 
of life was the vision of God. The training of the body, the con- 
quest of sin, the fight with the demons, the practice of virtue, 
were all destined to the one great end contemplation of God 
by pure mind. This language, utilized as it was by two pro- 
found thinkers both of whom were deeply Christian, suited the 
needs of those monks who theorized upon, the purpose of the 
solitary life: and with certain adaptations educated monks iix 
Egypt used this vocabulary and these ideas to explain their own 
practice* They supplied the most sensitive, discerning and sober 

2 Methodius, Symposium XI, 2, tr. Ante-Nicene Library. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 23 

instruction to be found in the Egyptian movement: and their 
influence is to be seen everywhere, even among those ascetics 
who came in time to resent it. The spiritual ideal thus proffered 
may be seen at its wisest and noblest in the work of John 
Cassian, seven of whose Conferences are translated in this volume. 
It influenced many of the narrative sources like the Lausiac 
History of Palladius, an illuminating account of the movement 
during its springtime of freshness and promise. 

The object of the solitary's life was contemplation, the un- 
ceasing concentration upon God in prayer: and the text "Pray 
without ceasing" was given a new interpretation. Human 
society was distracting, visitors diverted the mind. Hence 
physical solitude was a necessary condition for contemplation* 
The kinds of work selected were those which enabled a monk 
to sit continuously in his cell and were mechanical and un- 
distracting. Only the virtuous man who had conquered tempta- 
tions could contemplate in purity of heart. Therefore they 
undertook the quest for virtue as a preparatory stage in the 
path to pure contemplation. 

It will be observed that this theory was giving a new nuance 
to the Christian doctrines of worship and perfection. In the less 
intcllectualizcd tradition virtue was perfection, and faithful 
prayer was part of the content of the virtuous life. Now the 
virtuous life is coming to be the preliminary for the highest 
form of prayer. Worship is becoming an act of the mind. It is 
not always thought to be worship, in the highest sense, to live 
a good life in imitation of Christ, a life whose offering is 
focused in prayer and sacraments. The living of the good life 
is now the necessary preparation for the highest form of worship. 

By 375 the monks had already peopled the deserts round the 
Nile valley: monks living a common life in a community 
(coenobium) : monks living in isolated cells but joining together 
for worship, for buying and selling, for a rudimentary form of 
discipline: sightseers visiting the famous cells: enquirers travel- 
ling round the various societies, seeking instruction and edi- 
fication. The dominant ideal through the land was the hermit 
ideal of the followers of St Antony- Life in solitude needed more 
endurance, offered more chance of mortification, allowed the 
opportunity for ceaseless and undistracted contemplation. With 
all its faults faults patent to any reader of the sources a man 
could find sanctity in the desert communities. The ideal was 
appealing for utter renunciation of the self: the appeal was 
answered. In Syria and Asia Minor ascetics had taken up the 



24 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

same ideals: in Rome and Italy the ascetics were becoming 
interested in the new practices and new theories. Soon a copy 
of the Life of Antony was being read as far away as Trfevcs in Gaul. 

There were also risks. 

If the ascetics of the third century had begun to need discip- 
line the solitaries of the desert incurred a still graver danger. 
Not everyone possessed the strength of Antony, The demons did 
not always lose their battle. The loneliness of the solitary's life 
increased the chance of abnormality, eccentricity, even mad- 
ness. The admiration of visitors could turn weaker heads. The 
man whose capital fault was pride or lust or gluttony did not 
find that he had cured himself by escaping from his friends and 
family. The ordinary aids of the Church the sacraments, 
corporate worship were less accessible. The solitary sometimes 
lacked wise guidance in ascesis and prayer. The call to self- 
denial could easily become the exaltation of suffering; asaesis 
could become an end instead of a means. The movement needed 
wise organization, wise discipline, wise instruction. 

The leaders met this need by grouping the solitaries in, loose 
organizations. They prayed their offices at common hours, they 
consulted each other on questions of ascesis and prayer, they 
joined in corporate worship at the church of their group OH 
Saturday and Sunday, they accepted (as a necessary step on the 
road to holiness) obedience to a senior monk or council of senior 
monks* And it became the standard teaching of the Autonian 
leaders that no one should be allowed to attempt the solitary 
life until he had served a long probation in a community. This 
ban was sometimes defied* It was difficult to restrain an ardent 
soul longing for what everyone told him was the higher ideal* 
But on the whole the teaching was accepted, A remmciaut might 
remain twenty years or more in a community before venturing 
to join a hermit grouj) in the endeavour to learn the first steps 
in conquering self-will by obeying a superior; to train his 
patience and his charity by accepting the necessary frictions of 
common life; to become disciplined in regular worship, regular 
prayer, regular reading or memorization of the Bible; and to 
have his spiritual development watched and guided by experi- 
enced men. 

The quest for discipline and sane guidance led some t Junkers 
to reject the ideals of the solitaries altogether. In Upper Egypt 
Pachomius organized a row of monasteries on the principle of 
the common life: and, though there was a certain coming and 
goings these communities were not regarded as preparatory 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 25 

schools for hermits but as houses where the individual might 
best fulfil the life of sanctity. Basil of Cappadocia on the other 
hand knew the hermit spirituality and rejected its claim that 
the solitary life was the loftiest form of ascetic practice. 

* * * * 

Athanasius, during his western exiles, had introduced the 
news of the Egyptian movement to the ascetics and religious 
leaders of Rome and the west. At least two Latin translations 
of the Life of Antony were circulating by 379. The groups of 
ascetics and virgins in Rome were soon hankering after ways of 
life more akin to the eastern pattern: and from 386 a little group 
of Latins, under the leadership of St Jerome, was living in 
Palestine and proclaiming the new form of the call to the ascetic 
life. In spite of the contempt and the hostility which puritans 
usually have to face, the movement quickly captured the minds 
of Latin Christian leaders. The influence of Augustine in Africa 
and Ambrose in Milan was perhaps more akin to the old 
asceticism than the new monasticism. In Gaul, St Martin of 
Tours, who died in 397, set forth a life obviously adapted from 
Egyptian models. By 430, when Augustine died, the monastic 
ideals were sweeping all before them in every country of the 
west but Spain, where the ascetic leader, Priscillian, became 
tinged with dualistic heresy in his language and brought a 
disaster and disrepute which temporarily slowed the rate of 
advance. 

The capital of western monasticism in its first period of 
flourishing, the fifth century, was the coast of Provence, Here 
the islands attracted numerous solitaries, and communities 
wore founded like that of St Honoratus (who died in 429) on the 
island of Lerins. The main channel of Egyptian influence upon 
these societies was John Cassian. Cassian had spent a few years 
in a community at Bethlehem, and then ten years or more 
studying under the solitaries of Egypt. The accidents of exile 
brought him to Marseilles, where he founded a community of 
monks and another of nuns. His writings the Institutes and the 
Conferences gave the west a sane and balanced view of the aims 
and ideals of the Antonian movement and the Greek theories of 
ascetical spirituality. 

# * # * 

St Benedict, of Nursia in central Italy, published his Rule at 
some uncertain date between 510 and 580, The monastic ideal 
still commanded the allegiance of the most generous and 



26 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

self-denying Christians it was to command it for another five 
centuries or more. But in Benedict's time its practice was suffer- 
ing: and suffering from the old defect, absence of discipline. 
One reason was the rapid break-up of western society and the 
inauguration of the barbarian kingdoms* The stability of society 
as a whole usually assists the stability of monasteries, and 
society was often anarchic. The west had received the Antouiun 
ideal as the highest ideal for the perfect. It was true that St 
Jerome had published a Latin tianslation of the Rule of St 
Pachomius (a translation which now seems to be the extant 
version nearest to the original) , It was true that Rufinus had pub- 
lished a Latin translation (with free alterations) of the Longer 
and Shorter Rules of St Basil. Nevertheless Latin monasteries 
looked to Cassian and his tradition to supply them with rules as 
well as with spiritual advice. 

Benedict did not intend his communities to "serve" secular 
society. The communities were retired from the world to work 
out their salvation in prayer and holy living. Any mcideiital 
effects that might accrue (like the copying of manuscripts) 
were as much outside Benedict's purpose as they were outside 
that of the Egyptians. But the two weaknesses of the older 
monasticism sprang in part from this belief in the superiority 
of the hermit life. For, first, this belief made discipline difficult 
to administer. The expectation that a monk ought (if he 
progressed favourably) to move from community to hermitage 
made stability accidental rather than essential: and without 
stability it was hard to organize a community effectively. A 
second weakness arose as the obverse of the greatest strength 
of the Egyptian tradition. The Antonians held before* the eyes 
of the aspiring monk the supreme ideal of utter self-denial. 
And because they were exhorting to personal sacrifice, they 
often talked as though they expected success. This goal can 
be reached, this renunciation achieved. The reader of this 
volume will notice the moralism of The tiqyings of the FaUwrs 
and of Cassian's Conferences; will sec how naturally the monastic 
leaders exhorted their disciples to a human effort and how 
naturally they encouraged them by representing the goal as 
within reach. The early ascetics did not deny that the grace 
of God must assist every stage in the Christian life: and one of 
the sanest of them, Cassian, though an opponent of the Augus- 
tinian theories of grace, had himself been, influenced in his 
theology by St Augustine, But the practical eflect was moral 
exhortation after moral exhortation. 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 27 

The sensitive reader of the Benedictine Rule will perceive 
behind the impersonal regulations a quality in the author which 
penetrates his book the spirit of humility* It is, he feels, not at 
all an advanced kind of rule: it is a minimum, a little rule for 
beginners in the spiritual life. He knows that monks are called 
to a lofty ideal: yet he also knows human nature, its weaknesses 
as well as its potentialities. Benedict thought disobedience very 
wrong: but he knew that monks are men and was not surprised 
that they arc sometimes disobedient. He was prepared to face 
the possibility that the whole community shall have fallen into 
wrong. Putting the contrast in an exaggerated form in face of 
the Lord's cry "Be ye perfect/' the Egyptian replied: "You can 
do it and if you try God will give you the necessary help"; and 
Benedict replied: "God help my weakness." He put himself on 
a level with his own monks. When he preached to his monks he 
was preaching to himself among them. 

This humility and concern for the weakest of his brothers led 
him to put no emphasis upon the sterner varieties of ascesis or 
mortification. He confessed that the Rule did not intend to 
inflict anything "rough or burdensome" upon the monks. The 
life was a hard life: but it was no harder than the lot of the 
normal man who lived simply in that age. For the person in 
need, the sick, the old and the young, the abbot had full powers 
to relax the ordinary rules of moderate diet. The ascesis which 
he recommended was spiritual the ascesis of obedience, 
humility, patience* 

In the same spirit he expected monks to remain within com- 
munities. He recommended to his monks the reading of Cassian 
and the lives of the desert fathers, with all their stress on solitude, 
as well as the Rules of St Basil with their condemnation of soli- 
tude. There is no word in the Rule to condemn the solitary life. 
He did not claim that the community life was the only satis- 
factory form of the life of renunciation. But the assumptions of 
the rule about stability and discipline make it plain that he 
expected his monks to continue in community until death. And 
these assumptions about stability combined with the wise 
legislation and the ideals of abbatial government which he set 
forth, to give the monastic organization a new strength and 
permanence. 

The Rule is remarkable for the strange kind of originality 
which it possesses. Benedict frankly took and adapted phrases 
of other writers, chief of whom was Cassian, Most of the Rule is 
reminiscent of some of his monastic predecessors. It now seems 



28 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

possible (the debate among scholars is still proceeding) that he 
took not merely phrases but many paragraphs from a rule 
existing before his time, the Regula MagistrL But whether this 
is true or not, nothing can affect the status of the Rule as one 
of the classical documents of Christian history. 

In view of the later developments of Benedictinism it is im- 
portant to have some kind of picture of the community as he 
designed it. Its members were drawn from all classes of society; 
they were nearly all laymen, apart from the occasional priest 
who joined the community or the occasional monk ordained 
from the community in order to provide the sacraments. They 
were governed by an abbot with an authority limited only by 
the portrait of the ideal and fatherly abbot contained in the 
Rule and by the necessity for consulting the brethren before 
taking any decision. Each community was independent of every 
other community. Their daily life was thus organized (there 
were variations between summer and winter, and there is still 
some dispute about the exact meaning of certain details of the 
Rule): they rose very early, usually about 2 a.m., having had a 
reasonable period of eight hours' sleep, and celebrated the night 
office in Church. After an interval for the reading of Scripture 
or for prayer, they celebrated Lauds at dawn and Prime at 
sunrise. Between Prime and dinner (hold at noon or at 3 p.m., 
according to the time of year) they worked, mainly in the fields, 
or read books, and went to church for the offices of Tercc, Sext 
and None at the proper hours. In the afternoon they worked 
and read again until Vespers. In summer they then had a light 
supper, and just before dark attended church again for Comp- 
line, after which they retired to bed. It is probable that the 
division of the day, allowing for differences in seasons, amounted 
to three hours and a half for the office; four hours and a half lor 
reading or meditation; an hour for food; eight hours and a half 
for sleep; and six hours and a half for work in the fields. The 
books to be read were cither the Bible or books of spiritual 
reading. There is no provision in the Rule for works oflearniug, 
for the reading of non-Christian authors, for the copying of 
manuscripts. 

The Rule did not quickly win acceptance* Monks under the 
influence of traditional Egyptian thought probably believed it 
to be lukewarm because it demanded so little physical morti- 
fication. The political troubles of Italy prevented steady growth. 
Benedict had first practised the monastic life during a period of 
comparative stability, the rule of the Ostrogoths in Italy. But 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 2Q 

in the second quarter of the sixth century the wars in Italy were 
endemic: and the new Lombard invasions, beginning in 568, 
ravaged and impoverished Italy. Benedict's common life at 
Monte Cassino ended in flames some time before 590, when 
Lombard raiders sacked the monastery. The monks took refuge 
in Rome and were installed in a house by the Lateran Church. 
It is not certain when the discretion and moderation of the Rule 
began to attract the common sense of the religious leaders in 
Rome. Gregory the Great, who became Pope in 590, had earlier 
founded a monastery in his house on the Coelian Hill and him- 
self retired to it: and it is possible that he utilized the Rule of 
St Benedict, 

Meanwhile there were rivals. Many rules used in this period 
arc still extant, and there must have existed many more. Some 
houses in France and Italy used variations or combinations of 
the rules recommended by Basil or Cassian. On the whole the 
modified Egyptian tradition was perpetuating itself: and it 
received a new impetus from 590 with the landing of Colum- 
banus of Ireland in France. The sources do not allow more than 
an obscure knowledge of the way in which the monastic ideal 
passed into Ireland. It must have passed from Gaul in the late 
fourth or early fifth century: and it is possible (the evidence is 
doubtful) that St Patrick was himself trained at L&ins off the 
coast of Provence and took with him to Ireland the ideas of 
Honoratus and Cassian. The reputation of Martin of Tours 
appears to have increased rapidly in Ireland: and in these ways 
the Egyptian tradition was established there. Isolated from the 
continent, the Irish monks put their ideas in a way which can- 
not be otherwise paralleled, in the sphere of organization and 
discipline* Above all they accepted a stern standard of physical 
mortification. When Columbanus and his fellows landed in 
France, they appeared men of iron to the Franks and won from 
them that reverence which was so often given to physical self- 
sacrifice. For a time it looked as though the Rule of Columbanus 
would conquer Frankish monasticism. And when Columbanus 
retired from France to found the house of Bobbio in northern 
Italy, he began to exercise a powerful influence upon the Italian 
ideas of ascetism. 

During the seventh century the Benedictine Rule began to be 
adopted by some few monasteries in France* Monasteries had 
often drawn customs from various sources, and at first they 
adopted the Rule of Benedict without excluding other customs. 
Some houses adopted a strange combination, the Rule of 



30 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Columbanus and the Rule of Benedict; and though this joining 
of severe to gentle might seem a prodigy, it was often the houses 
already under Celtic influence who looked towards St Benedict 
for the reason that the Celts were interested in the Roman 
see, and the Rule of St Benedict was coming to be the Rule 
peculiarly associated with the Roman see. Gregory the Great 
had in his Dialogues a book of Italian miracle stories, which 
soon achieved an immense popularity aspired to show the 
world the person of St Benedict and devoted to him and his 
miracles the whole of the second book. As a result of the 
Dialogues, the Rule, which was already winning its way on its 
own merits, was supported by the reputation of its author for 
sanctity. Meanwhile Gregory and his successors had sot out to 
win the Anglo-Saxons to the Christian faith. With the mission- 
aries went the knowledge of Benedict inism: and during the 
seventh century English monasteries received the Rule as part 
of the whole movement whereby England adopted Christianity 
according to its Roman methods of organization. A century 
later Anglo-Saxon missionaries were returning into Fmncc and 
Germany to reform and evangelize: and it was this which finally 
secured the triumph of the Rule in France. From 817 the ob- 
servance of the Rule of St Benedict was obligatory in every 
monastery of the Frankish Empire. 



In a volume devoted to early western monasticism it may 
appear surprising that so great a bulk of translation is given to 
documents describing the teaching of the Egyptian fathers. 
Many other documents might with reason have been suggested 
as classical in the monastic history of the early west. If wo ask 
which were the chief documents to which the author of the Rule 
looked back, there were many: the Rule of Puchomius, the 
Rules of St Basil, perhaps the Rule of Cacsarius, perhaps some 
of the letters of St Jerome, perhaps the little hagiogniphies 
written by St Jerome, the Life of St Antony by Athanasius in 
one of its Latin versions. But certainly one of the most important 
documents was The Sayings of the Fathers of the Egyptian desert, 
which were probably put into their earliest Latin dress in the 
middle of the sixth century, (The Greek is lost, though there 
are numerous parallels in Greek.) It is possible that St Benedict 
did not know this collection, and some scholars hold that the 
Rule is earlier than this great Latin collection of The Hayings 
of the Fathers. I think it more probable that the author of 



GENERAL INTRODUCTION 3! 

the Rule knew this Latin collection: but whether he did or 
not, he knew something of this kind: and this Latin docu- 
ment, translated in the sixth century, effectively and authen- 
tically represents the Egyptian tradition in its influence upon 
Latin monasticism, its enchantment for Latin monks and their 
moral ideals. With whatever reserves this collection of the old 
Greek Apophthegmata must be used as a source for the history 
of Egyptian monasticism in the fourth or early fifth centuries 
(and in spite of these reserves the Apophthegmata must remain 
one of the most significant and rewarding of all the sources, 
since it contains so much of the "raw material" of history), 
there can be no doubt of its power in the history of western 
spirituality. 

Secondly, Benedict used Cassian more, probably, than any 
other author. The Conferences of Cassian represent a tradition of 
spirituality,, of ascctical and moral thought, for which Benedict's 
Rule was intended to provide a suitable and (in Benedict's eyes) 
an elementary framework. 



An endemic trial to all translators of early monastic docu- 
ments is the problem of deciding how to translate "abba." I 
have translated it as abba in The Sayings of the Fathers and as 
abbot in The Rule ofSt Benedict; and in Cassian, as befits an inter- 
mediary, I have translated it as abba when I thought its primary 
sense was a title of honour for an individual elder, and as abbot 
when I thought its primary sense was the head of a monastic 
community. 

The numbers of the Psalms in the text are the numbers as 
those authors knew them, the numbers of the Vulgate Version. 
The numbers of the Psalms in the footnotes are the numbers of 
the Authorized Version. 



The Sayings of the Fathers 

INTRODUCTION 

FROM THE MIDDLE OF THE FIFTH CENTURY, AND 
probably from the late fourth century, 1 collections of 
sayings from the hermits of the Egyptian desert began to 
be circulated. Smaller collections were gradually assembled 
into larger, some of which were arranged in alphabetical order 
of the supposed speakers: other collections appeared where the 
sayings were arranged, more usefully and intelligently., accord- 
ing to the subject. The known collections have different sayings 
(apophthegmata) as well as a different arrangement, but often 
overlap, sometimes with an obvious literary connexion, some- 
times dependent on two versions of an oral tradition. Sometimes 
a conscious extract, from a translation or precis of a written 
source, can be shown to have been inserted into the collection. 
Latin collections, for example, contain Latin translations of a 
Greek precis or translation of the known Latin text of Cassian. 
The historical character and authenticity of the substance of 
these collections is undoubted. In so great and haphazard a 
collection, it was easy for a saying, originating no one knew 
where, to be put into the mouth of a famous speaker: it was 
easy for later material for sermons or conferences, which had 
grown a little out of the desire to edify, to be incorporated. But 
no one who knows the other sources for Egyptian monastic 
history can doubt that these sayings are in the main the authen- 
tic representatives of Egyptian monastic spirituality in the 
fourth and fifth centuries. This is the raw material of history: 
here we find ourselves close to the men who founded the mon- 
astic movement, for we are not seeing the desert through the 

i Cf . Socrates, Hist. Eccles., IV, 33: and Cuthbert Butler, The Lausiac 
History ofPalladius, i, p. 3x1. 

33 



34 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

spectacles of an individual (like Cassian or Jerome or Palladius 
or Sulpicius Severus) with a particular and unifying interest. 

Within the collection of apophthegmata, different varieties of 
saying have been distinguished. 2 

The saying, in its "naked" form, is a delivery of the spirit- 
filled man, of the man endowed with particular gifts of wisdom 
and discernment from on high. The young man goes Lo the 
aged father and asks him, "Speak to me a word, that I may 
live." The sentences are not only collections of moral and pro- 
verbial sayings, easy to memorize and therefore handed down 
as part of the lore of the desert tradition. There was believed to 
be a prophetic quality about what was being said, a quality 
dependent in part on moral experience and endeavour, but 
not to be gained by human enquiry or the wisdom of the world. 
It is the desert form of spiritual direction, the "tradition" of the 
fathers which Cassian was so anxious to set forth as the guide to 
the moral heights and the curb upon indiscretion, individualism 
and eccentricity. The hermit received his "saying": he medi- 
tated upon it in his cell until he could put it into practice: he 
took it to church at the end of the week, exchanged such sayings 
with his brother hermits there and so the wisdom was handed 
on, often taken out of its personal and particular context and 
transformed into a pronouncement of general truth and validity. 

But other kinds of saying were interwoven with these moral 
pronouncements. There are mere requests for help in making 
a decision where to build, or how to spend a legacy: puzzles 
about the interpretation of different texts of Scripture, or how to 
understand a virtue or a vice. There are sayings which are not 
authentic mots of the desert, but simply quotations from ai\ 
ascetic treatise, or extracts from a sermon, or summaries of 
edifying incidents in the life of a holy man, anecdotes of the 
miraculous or of supernatural apparitions. 

The material is often moralistic, sententious, platitudinous, 
sometimes tiresome and sometimes trivial. But it always pos- 
sesses the purity of the best kind of simplicity, the clear vision 
of an unimpeded moral integrity, that earnest or smiling dis- 
cernment which they cultivated as among the supremo virtues. 

Soon translations into other languages were circulating, 
particularly into Syriac, Coptic and Latin. Our versions for 
these three collections date from an earlier period than any 
of the extant Greek collections. The most complete of these 

2 Of. J. C. Guy, "Remarqucs sur Ic texte des ApQfihte#mata Pttirum" in 
Recherches de Science religieu$e> 43 (1955), 252-8. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 35 

Latin collections is that of which a large part is here given, in 
translation. This collection was translated, from a lost Greek 
source, as early as the middle of the sixth century, probably by 
two Roman clerics, the deacon Pelagius and the sub-deacon 
John, who may possibly (as "tradition" suggested) have been 
those who later became Popes Pelagius and John. This collec- 
tion was known (almost certainly) to St Benedict when he wrote 
his Rule (for he appears to quote it), and was the most influential 
of all the collections upon the history of monasticism in the 
west. For western monasticism lost neither its memory of the 
origins of the newcomers in Egypt, nor its consciousness of the 
flowering of desert spirituality. Whether you read of Peter 
Damian and the Italian revival of the eleventh century, or of 
the origins of the great medieval orders like the Cistercians or 
the Carthusians, the memory of Egypt will be found to be 
among the sources of the ideas which were there proclaimed. 

The standard and celebrated edition of this collection is that 
printed by the Jesuit Heribert Rosweyde at Antwerp in 1615 
(and at Lyons in 1617; revised edition of 1628), Rosweyde, 
keeping to the pattern of early monastic collections which he had 
inherited from the later Middle Ages, printed the collection as 
Books V and VI of Vitae Patrum, and this was reprinted by 
Migne in Patrologia Latina, vol. 73, col. 855-1022, Though the 
work is thus divided into two books, according to the probable 
Latin translators, and although there are manuscripts of the 
twelfth century (Troyes 716: Bodleian Douce 351, etc.) already 
with this division, the collection is a single book, and the divi- 
sion is fortuitous. 

I have therefore translated Parts I-XVII of Rosweyde's 
edition of The Sayings of the Fathers (the proper title, found in 
most early manuscripts, is Adhortationes Patrum: but Verba 
Seniorum has become traditional and is appropriate). I have 
translated this version, partly because it seems to have been the 
earliest of the western collections: partly because it forms a 
coherent group, in the early history of western monasticism, 
with Cassian and Benedict, whose writings are also translated 
in this volume: and partly because it was probably the most 
influential of the collections in western monastic history. 

The translation of The Sayings of the Fathers has this difficulty. 
Rosweyde appears to have known only two manuscripts of 
first-class importance, and he was very cautious in his use of 
them. I have therefore gone to the pre-Carolingian manu- 
scripts to secure that the translation shall represent, so far as is 



36 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

possible in the present state of knowledge, the authentic text. 
I have not attempted to provide a full apparatus: but in the 
Appendix will be found sufficient readings to offer some justi- 
fication for the many passages where the translation is found to 
diverge significantly from Rosweyde's text. 3 The appendix is 
intended for use with Rosweyde's text. 

Of translations, much parallel material from the Syriac was 
translated by E. A. Wallis Budge, The Paradise of the Fathers 
(1904), a version the text of which is not negligible for the text 
history of the Latin version. Charles Kingsley tried his romantic 
hand in The Hermits. In The Desert Fathers (1936) Miss Helen 
Waddell, one of the most remarkable translators of our time, 
gave an enchanting and incomparable English rendering of a 
select number of the sayings. There is also an English incuna- 
bulum which translated (from the French) many of these say- 
ings a fine 1495 edition attributed to "St Jerome/* translated 
by William Caxton, who finished the translation on the last day 
of his life, and printed at Westminster by Wynkyn de Worde 
with charming woodcuts. 

3 The Greek original is lost. The Patriarch Photius of Constantinople, in 
the ninth century, possessed it, or something very like it, as we know From 
his summary. In the Bibliotheque Nationale is a manuscript (MS. grec 
1598) written at the monastery of St Sabas in 993, which otters a text 
related to the original of the Latin collection. One of the Greek alpha- 
betical collections was printed by Cotelier in the first volume of his 
Ecdesiae graecae Monumenta (pp* 338-713) of 1677, an< * reprinted by 
Mignc in Patrologia Graeca, vol. 65, 71-440. 

A small number of other Greek collections have been printed or 
analysed (List in J. G. Guy, art, cit. 9 p. 252). A still bigger alphabetical 
collection is in the British Museum, Burney MS. 50 (Addit MSB. 214508). 
The history of the text is best studied in A. Wilmart, Raw Bindictiw 9 34 
(1922), pp. 185-98, and A. Siegmund, Die Uberlicfermg der griech. ChristL 
Literaturin derLat. Kirche (Munich 1949), pp. 136~8. Much remains to be 
done. I owe thanks to the learned Bollandist Fr F. Halkin, for advice 
upon this question. 



The Sayings of the Fathers 



THE TEXT 

PART! 

Of the progress of the fathers in perfection 

1. Someone asked Abba Antony: "What rules shall I keep to 
please God?" The old man replied: "Keep my instructions, and 
they are these: Wherever you go, recollect God in your mind's 
eye. Whatever you do, do it after the example of Holy Scripture. 
And wherever you stay, be in no hurry to move. If you keep 
these three rules, you will be safe." 

2. Abba Pambo asked Abba Antony: "What shall I do?" 
The old man replied: "Trust not in your own righteousness. Be 
not penitent for a deed that is past and gone. And keep your 
tongue and your belly under control." 

3. St Gregory said: "God demands three things from a man 
who is baptized. To hold the true faith with all his soul and 
strength: to restrain his tongue: to be chaste in body." 

4. Abba Evagrius said: "Some of the fathers used to say that 
a dry and regular diet, combined with charity, will quickly 
bring the monk to the harbour where the storms of passion do 
not enter." 

5. The same said: "A certain monk was told that his father 
had died. He said to the messenger 'Stop blaspheming. My 
father cannot die.' " 

6. Abba Macarius said to Abba Zacharias: "Tell me, what 
makes a monk?" He said: "Is it not wrong that you should be 
asking me?" And Abba Macarius said to him: "I am sure I 
ought to ask of you, my son, Zacharias. I have one who urges 
me on to ask you." Zacharias said to him: "As far as I can tell, 
Father, I think that whoever controls and forces himself to be 
content with necessities and nothing more, that man is a monk." 

7. They used to say about Abba Theodore (surnamed of 

37 



38 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Pherme) that he kept these three rules beyond many others 
poverty, abstinence, and running from the company of men* 

8. Abba John the Short said: "I would make up a man out 
of all the virtues. Rise at dawn every morning, take the begin- 
ning of each virtue, and keep God's commandment in great 
patience; fear; long-suffering; in the love of God; with a firm 
purpose of soul and body; in deep humility; in patience; in 
trouble of heart and earnestness of practice; in long prayer, with 
sorrow of heart; in purity of tongue, and guard of the eyes; in 
suffering injury without anger; peaceful, and not rendering evil 
for evil; not looking out for the faults of others, nor puffing up 
the self; meekly subject to every creature; renouncing material 
property and the things of the flesh; in crucifixion, struggle, 
lowliness of spirit, in good will and spiritual abstinence; in 
fasting, in penitence, in weeping, in the fight against evil; wise 
and discreet in the judgement; chaste in mind; receiving good 
with tranquillity; in working with your own hands; in watching 
in the night; in hunger and thirst, in cold and nakedness, in 
labours; burying yourself in a tomb as though you were already 
dead, and every day feeling that death is upon you." 

9. Abba Joseph of Thebes said: "Three things are honoured 
in the sight of God. First, when a man is weak, and then 
temptations come upon him, and yet he accepts them thank- 
fully. The second is when a man's every action is pure before 
God, mixed with no human motive. The third is when a man 
remains obedient to a spiritual father, and renounces all his 
self-will/' 

10. Abba Cassian related this story of one Abba John, who 
ruled over a community because he was great ixi his way of life. 
When, he was dying, cheerfully, and with his mind set upon the 
Lord, his brothers stood around him and asked for a sentence 
which would sum the way to salvation, and which he could 
bestow on them as a legacy by which they might mount to the 
perfection which is in Christ. With a sigh he said: "I never 
obeyed my own will, and I never taught anyone to do anything 
which I did not first do myself." * 

11. A brother asked an old man: "What thing is so good 
that I may do it and live by it?" And the old man said: a God 
alone knows what is good. Yet I have heard that one of the 
fathers asked the great Abba Nesteros, who was a friend of 
Abba Antony, and said to him, 'What good work shall I do?' 
And Antony replied, 'Cannot all works please God equally? 

1 Cassian, Institutes, V, 28. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 39 

Scripture says, Abraham was hospitable and God was with him. 
And Elijah loved quiet, and God was with him. And David was 
humble and God was with him. So whatever you find your soul 
wills in following God's will, do it, and keep your heart/ " 

12. Abba Poemen said: "To keep guard to meditate on 
itself to judge with discernment these are the three functions 
of the soul." 

13. A brother asked him: "How ought we to live?" The old 
man replied: "We have seen the example of Daniel. They made 
no charge against him, except that he rendered service to his 
God." 

14. The same old man said: "Poverty, tribulation and wise 
discernment these are the three parts of the hermit's life. It is 
written that there were these three, Noah, Job and Daniel. 
Noah is the type of those who own nothing, Job of those in 
tribulation, Daniel of those who judge wisely. If a man has these 
three qualities, God dwells in him." 

15. Abba Poemen said: "If a monk will hate two things, he 
can be free of this world." And a brother said: "What are they?" 
And the old man said: "Bodily comfort and vain-glory." 

1 6. They used to tell of Abba Pambo that in the hour of his 
death he said to the holy men standing round: "From the time 
that I came into this lonely place, and built my cell and lived 
in it, I do not remember having eaten anything which my hands 
had not worked for, nor repenting of a word spoken until now. 
And so I go to the Lord, as one who has ixot yet made a 
beginning of serving God." 

17. Said Abba Sisois: "Be despised: put your self-will behind 
your back: be free of secular worries and you shall have rest." 

1 8. When Abba Chamc was dying, he said to his sons; "Do 
not live with heretics. Do not take notice of judges. And let not 
your hands be open to acquire, let them be stretched out to give." 

19. Said a brother to an old man: "How does the fear of God 
come into the soul?" And the old man said: "If a man has 
humility and poverty, and will not judge another, then the fear 
of God comes into him/' 

20. An old man said: "Let fear, and humility, and want of 
food, and lamentation, abide in you," 

21. Some of the old men used to say: "Whatever you hate, 
do it not to another. If you hate being evil spoken to, do not 
speak evil to another. If you hate beiixg slandered, do not 
slander another. If you hate him who tries to make you des- 
pised, or wrongs you, or takes away what is yours, or any such 



40 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

thing, do not do any such thing to him. If a man can keep this 
saying, it is enough for his salvation." 

22. An old man said: "This is the life of a monk: work, 
obedience, meditation, not to judge others, not to speak evil, 
not to murmur. For it is written 'You who love God, hate evil.' 2 

This is the life of the monk: not to go in with the unrighteous, 
not to see evil, not to be inquisitive, not to be curious, not to 
hear gossip: not to use the hands for taking, but for giving: not 
to be proud in heart or wicked in thought: not to fill the belly: 
in everything to judge wisely. 

That is where you find a monk." 

23. An old man said: "Ask God to give you heartfelt grief 
and humility. Look ever on your sins, and judge not another's. 
Be subject to all. Be not friends with a woman, or a boy, or a 
heretic. Be not confident. Control your tongue and belly, and 
drink no wine. If anyone speaks to you on a matter of con- 
troversy, do not argue with him. If he speaks well, say 'Yes.' If 
he speaks ill, say e l am ignorant in the matter,' But argue not 
with what he has said, and then your mind will be at peace." 

PART II 
Of quiet 

1. Abba Antony said: "Fish die if they are long out of water. 
So monks who dally long outside their cell or with men of the 
world, lose their will to solitude. As a fish can only live in the 
sea, so we must run back to our cells. Perhaps, if we dallied 
outside, we might lose our inner guard." 3 

2. He also said: "The man who abides in solitude and is 
quiet, is delivered from fighting three battles those of hearing, 
speech and sight, Then he will have but one battle to fight the 
battle of the heart." 

3, When Abba Arsenius was still at the palace, he prayed the 
Lord saying: "Lord, show me the way to salvation." And a 
voice came to him: "Arsenius, run from men and you shall be 
saved." He went to become a monk, and again prayed in the 
same words. And he heard a voice saying: "Arsenius, be soli- 
tary: be silent: be at rest. These are the roots of a life without 
sin." 

4, Once Theophilus the archbishop of blessed memory came 
to Abba Arsenius with a judge. And the archbishop, wishing to 

2 Ps. 97:10. 

3 Gf. Vita Antonii, 85. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 41 

hear him talk, asked questions. For a short time the old man 
was silent. Then he replied: "If I tell you anything., will you 
obey it?" They promised they would obey it. And the old man 
said to them: "Wheresoever you hear of Arsenius, do not come 
nigh him." 

Another time, the archbishop wanted to see him, but first 
sent to see if he would open to him. And Arsenius sent a message 
to him, saying: "If you come, I will open to you. But if I open 
to you, I open to everyone: and then I shall not abide here any 
more." When the archbishop heard this, he said: "If I go to 
persecute the holy man, I shall go to him no more," 

5. Once Abba Arsenius came to a place where was a bed of 
reeds, and the reeds were shaken with the wind. And the old 
man said to the brothers: "What is this rustling?" And they said: 
"It is the wind in the reeds." The old man said to them: "Truly, 
if a man sits in silence and hears the cry of a bird, he will no 
longer have the same quiet in his heart. How much less can we 
attain quiet while we listen to the rustle of these reeds?" 

6. They used to say about him that his cell was thirty-two 
miles away, and that he seldom left it, and his needs were served 
by others. When all the monks were driven from the place 
called Scete, he went out weeping, and saying: "The world has 
lost Rome, and the monks have lost Scete," 

7. Once when Abba Arsenius was staying at Canopus, there 
came a virgin lady from Rome to see him, very rich and God- 
fearing. Theophilus, the archbishop, received her. She asked 
him to arrange with the old man for her to see him. Theophilus 
went to Arsenius and asked, saying: "A lady has come from 
Rome, and wants to see you." The old man would not allow her 
to come to him. When the lady heard of the refusal, she 
ordered her beasts to be saddled, and said: "I believe through 
God's help I shall sec him. In my city of Rome there are many 
inhabitants: but I have come here to see prophets." And when 
she reached the old man's cell, by God's providence he was 
found outside it. When the lady saw him, she fell at his feet. He 
helped her up indignantly, and looking at her said: "If you 
want to see my face, look close: here it is." But for shame she 
did not dare to lift her eyes to his face. And the old man said to 
her: "Have you not heard what I do? A man's actions are what 
you should try to look at. Why have you dared to come all this 
way across the sea? Do you not know that you are a woman, and 
ought not to go out at all? Or have you done it to go back to 
Rome and say to the other women; 'I have seen Arsenius*? 



42 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

then you will turn the sea into a highroad for women coming 
to see me?" 

She said: "If God will that I return to Rome, I will not let 
any other woman come here. But pray for me, and ever 
remember me." 

He replied: CC I pray God that he will blot the memory of you 
from my heart." 

When she heard that, she went away troubled. And when 
she came to Alexandria, she began in her sorrow to be ill of a 
fever. And the archbishop was told that she was ill, and came 
to comfort her. And he asked her what was the. matter. She 
said: "I would I had never come here. I said to the old man, 
remember me: and he said: fi l pray God that your memory may 
be blotted from my heart' and now I am dying of sorrow." 
And the archbishop said to her: "Do you not realize that you 
are a woman, and the enemy uses women to attack holy men? 
That is why the old man said what he said. He prays for your 
soul all the time." 

And so her mind was healed, and she went away happily to 
her home. 

8. Abba Evagrius said: "Cut out of your heart the desire for 
many things, and so prevent the mind being disturbed, and the 
quiet wasted." 

9. In Scete a brother went to Abba Moses to ask a word* 
And the old man said to him: "Go and sit in your cell, and your 
cell will teach you everything." 

10. Said Abba Moses: "A man who avoids men is like a ripe 
grape. A man who companies with men is like a sour grape*" 

11. Said Abba Nilus: "The arrows of the enemy cannot 
touch him who loves quiet. But he who moves in a crowd will 
be often wounded." 

12. Abba Poemen said: "The beginning of evil is to spread 
the mind." 

He said also: "It is good to fly from the things of the body- 
When a man is engaged in conflict over the body, ho is like a 
man standing on the very edge of a deep pool, into which his 
enemy can knock him the moment he sees him* But when he 
has put aside bodily things, he is like a man standing a, long way 
from^ the pool, where, if the enemy drags him along to throw 
him in, God will help him while he is being dragged." 

13. Once Abraham, the disciple of Abba Sisois, said to him: 
"Father, you have grown old. Let us go into the world for a 
short time." Abba Sisois said to him: "Yes, provided that we 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 43 

go where there are no women." The disciple said: "But where 
is there a place without women, except in the desert?" The old 
man said: "Then take me to the desert." 

14. Said the abbess Matrona: "Many people living secluded 
lives on the mountain have perished by living like people in the 
world. It is better to live in a crowd and want to live a solitary 
life than to live a solitary life but all the time be longing for 
company." 

15. Said an old man: "A monk ought to buy himself quie^ 
and so be able to despise any bodily expense which may 
happen." 

1 6* This story was told- 

There were three friends, earnest men, who became monks. 
One of them chose to make peace between men engaged in 
controversy, as it is written: "Blessed are the peace-makers." 
The second chose to visit the sick. The third chose to be quiet 
in solitude. 

Then the first, struggling with quarrelling opponents, found 
that he could not heal everyone. And worn out, he came to the 
second who was ministering to the sick, and found him flagging 
in spirit* and unable to fulfil his purpose. And the two agreed, 
and went away to see the third who had become a hermit, and 
told him their troubles. And they asked him to tell them what 
progress he had made. And he was silent for a little, and poured 
water into a cup. And he said: "Look at the water." And it was 
cloudy. And alter a little he said again: "Now look, see how 
clear the water has become." And when they leant over the 
water, they saw their faces as in a glass. And then he said to 
them: "So it is with the man who lives among men. He does not 
see his own sins because of the turmoil. But when he is at restj 
especially in the desert, then he sees his sins." 

PART III 

Of compunction 

1 . It was said of Abba Arsenius that all his life, whenever he 
worked with his hands, he kept a handkerchief in his breast 
because tears fell so often from his eyes. 

2, A brother asked Abba Ammon, saying: "Speak to me a 
word." The old man said to him: "Go, and meditate like the 
criminals in prison. For they keep asking, where is the judge, 
and when will he come? And because they await him they 
lament their punishment. The monk ought always to be awaiting 



44 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

his trial, and to chide his soul, saying: c Woe is me, how shall 
I stand before the judgement seat of Christ? How shall I give 
an account of my actions?' If you always meditate like this, you 
will be saved." 

3. Abba Evagrius said: "While you sit in your cell, draw in 
your mind, and remember the day of your death. And then you 
will see your body mortifying. Think on the loss, feel the pain. 
Shrink from the vanity of the world outside. Be retiring, and 
careful to keep your vow of quiet, and you will not weaken. 
Remember the souls in hell. Meditate within on their condition, 
the bitter silence and the moaning, the fear and the strife, the 
waiting and the pain without relief, the tears that cannot cease 
to flow. 

Remember too the day of resurrection, imagine God's 
terrible and awful judgement. Bring into your sight the con- 
fusion of sinners before God and his Christ, before angels and 
archangels and powers, and all the human race: punishment, 
everlasting fire, the worm that never dies, the darkness of 
Tartarus and above them all the sound of the gnashing of 
teeth, fearfulness and torments. 

Bring before your eyes the good laid up for the righteous, 
their confidence before God the Father and Christ his Son, 
before angels and archangels and the powers, and all the people: 
the kingdom of heaven and its gifts, joy and rest. 

All this remember. Weep and lament for the, judgement of 
sinners, bring to life the grief they suffer; be afraid that you are 
hurrying towards the same condemnation. Rejoice and exult 
at the good laid up for the righteous. Aim at enjoying the one, 
and being far from the other. Do not forgot it, whether you arc 
in your cell or abroad. Keep these memories in your mind and 
so cast out of it the sordid thoughts which harm you," 

4. Said Abba Elias: "I fear three things: the first, the time just 
before my soul goes out from my body: the second, the time 
just before I meet God face to face: the third, the time just 
before he pronounces his sentence upon me," 

5* When archbishop Theophilus of holy memory was dying, 
he said: "Abba Arsenius, you are a man blessed of God, be* 
cause you have always kept this moment before your eyes,'* 

6. There was a story that once when some brothers were 
eating together at a love-feast, one of the brothers at the table 
laughed. When Abba John saw it, he wept, and said: "What 
do you think that brother has in his heart, that he laughed, 
when he ought rather to weep because he is eating up charity?** 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 45 

7. Abba Jacob said: "Like a lantern lighting a dark little 
room, the fear of God comes into a man's heart and lightens it, 
and teaches him all goodness and the commandments of God." 

8. Some of the fathers asked Abba Macarius of Egypt: "Why 
is your body dry, whether you eat or fast?" And the old man 
said to them: "A wooden poker in a man's hand which turns 
over and over the brushwood on the fire, is itself being slowly 
burnt away. So if a man cleanses his mind in the fear of God, 
the fear of God also consumes his bones." 

9. Once some old men of Mount Nitria sent to Scete, to ask 
Abba Macarius the Great to come to them. They sent a message 
that if he would not come to them, the whole crowd of them 
would go to him, since they wanted to see him before he passed 
on to the Lord. When Macarius came to Nitria, the whole 
congregation assembled in his presence. The elders asked him 
to speak a word to the brothers. But he shed tears and said: 
"Let us pray and weep, my brothers, before we go hence to the 
place where our tears consume our bodies." And they all wept, 
and fell on their faces, saying: "Father, pray for us." 

i o. In Egypt once Abba Poemen passed by and saw a woman 
sitting on a grave and weeping bitterly. And he said: "If all 
the delights of this world should come, they would not bring 
her soul out of sorrow. Even so the monk should ever be 
sorrowful within his heart." 

1 1 . Another time, he went with Abba Anub to the country 
of Diolcos. Coming among the tombs they saw a woman striking 
herself much and weeping bitterly. They stopped and went to 
her. And when they walked a little further, they met a man 
and Abba Poemen asked him: "What is the matter with the 
woman yonder, that she weeps so bitterly?" He said: "Her 
husband is dead, and her son, and her brother." And Abba 
Poemen said to Abba Anub: "I tell you that unless a man 
mortifies all his self-will and possesses this grief, he cannot be a 
monk. The whole life and mind of that woman is wrapt up in 
grief." 

12. Abba Poemen said also: "Grief is twofold: it works good, 
and it keeps out evil," 

13. A brother asked him: "What shall I do?" And he said: 
"When Abraham entered the land of promise, he built for him- 
self a grave, and bought the land as a burying-place for his 
posterity." And the brother said to him: "What burying-place 
is meant?" And the old man said: "A place of weeping and 
sorrowing." 



46 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

14. Athanasius of holy memory asked Abba Pambo to come 
down from the desert to Alexandria. When he arrived, he saw 
a woman that was an actress, and wept. And the bystanders 
asked him why he wept. And he said: "Two things grieved me. 
The first was her damnation: the second, that I take less 
trouble about pleasing God than she takes about pleasing the 
dregs of mankind." 

15. Abba Silvanus was sitting one day among the brethren, 
and was seized into a rapture of mind, and fell upon his face. 
And after a while he rose up and lamented. And the brothers 
asked him: "What is the matter, Father?" But he was silent 
and wept. When they pressed him for an answer, he said to 
them: "I was taken before the judgement seat, and I saw many 
of our cloth going down to torment, and many of the world 
going into the kingdom." And the old man grieved and would 
not thereafter leave his cell: and if he was forced to go out, he 
covered his face with his shawl and said: "Why should I have 
to see the light of this world, wherein nothing is profitable?" 

1 6. Syncletice of holy memory said: "Men endure sore 
travail and conflict when they are first converted to the Lord, 
but later they have joy unspeakable. They arc like men trying 
to light a fire, the smoke gets into their eyes, their eyes begin to 
drop tears but they succeed in what they want. It is written: 
'Our God is a consuming fire' 4 : and so we must kindle the fire 
of God with tears and trouble." 

17. Said Abba Hyperichius: "The wakeful monk toils night 
and day to pray continually: but if he pierces his heart, and lets 
tears drop, that calls God down from heaven to have mercy." 

1 8. The brothers went to Abba Felix, who had with himj 
some men othe world, and, asked him to give them a word. 
But the old man said nothing. When they went on asking, he 
said to them: "Do you want to hear a word?" They replied; 
"Yes, Father," So the old man said: "I have no word for you 
now. When an elder is asked to speak, and the brothers do 
what he tells them, God gives the elder something to say. But 
now there are brothers who ask for a word, but do not obey the 
word they hear: and then God takes away bis grace from the 
elder, and he has nothing to say: for he who gives it is not 
there." When the brothers heard this, they sighed, and said: 
"Pray for us, Father." 

19. It was said of Abba Hor and Abba Theodore, that they 
were once putting a goatskin over a cell: and then they said to 

* Hcb. 12:29. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 47 

each other: "If God visits us now, what shall we do?" And sadly 
they left the place in a hurry and went away to their own cells. 

20. An old man told this story. A brother wanted to become 
a monk, and his mother forbade him. But he did not rest from 
his purpose, and said: "I want my soul to be saved." She 
opposed him for a long time. But when she found that she 
could not stop him, she at last let him go. He went away and 
became a monk but spent his life carelessly. 

It happened that his mother died: and a short time after he 
fell sick of a grievous illness. And in an ecstasy of mind, he found 
himself taken before the judgement seat, and there he found his 
mother among the people being judged. When she saw him she 
was aghast, and said: "How is this, my son? Are you condemned 
like me to this place? What about the words you used to say: 
*I want my soul to be saved'?" 

He was confused at her words and made stupid by his 
sorrow, and stood without being able to say a word to her in 
reply. But after this vision, he was recovered by God's mercy 
from his dangerous illness and restored to health* He meditated 
on God's purpose in visiting him. He retired into himself, cut 
himself off from all company, considered his own salvation, and 
lamented his earlier neglect in penitence. His purpose was so 
fixed that many people asked him to spare himself a little, for 
he might hurt himself by these immoderate lamentations. But 
he would not be consoled and said: "If I was ashamed by my 
mother's taunts, what sort of shame shall I have when Christ 
and his holy angels look upon me in the day of judgement to 
condemn me?" 

21. An old man said: "If the souls of men could die of fear 
at the coming of God after the resurrection, all the world would 
perish of terror. What shall it be to see the heavens opened, and 
God revealed in wrath and fury, and the innumerable com- 
panies of angels, gazing upon the whole human race gathered 
together? Therefore we ought to live our lives as men who must 
render an account of each action to God." 

22. A brother asked an old man: "Why is my heart hard, and 
I do not fear God?" The old man said to him: "I think that if a 
man has reproach in his heart, he will possess fear." The 
brother said to him: "What is reproach?" The old man said: 
"To reprove your soul in all things, saying to it 'Remember 
that you have to meet God.' Say also to your soul, 'What do I 
want with man?' I think that if anyone abides in these, the fear 



48 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

23. An old man saw a man laughing, and said to him: "We 
have to render an account of our whole life before heaven and 
earth and you laugh?" 

24. An old man said: "As the shadow goes everywhere with 
the body, so we ought to carry penitence and lamentation with 
us wherever we go." 

25. A brother asked an old man: "Abba, speak to me a 
word." The old man said to him: "When God struck Egypt, 
there was not a house that did not mourn." 

26. A brother asked another old man: "What must I do?" 
The old man said to him: "We ought ever to lament." 

Once one of the elders died, and after several hours recovered 
consciousness. We asked him: "What did you sec there, Abba?" 
And he told us with sorrow: "I heard there a voice of sadness 
saying over and over again, c Woe is me, woe is me.' That is 
what we should ever be saying." 

27. A brother asked an old man: "I hear the old men weep- 
ing, and my soul longs for tears: but they do not come, and my 
soul is troubled." And the elder said: "The children of Israel 
entered the promised land after forty years in the wilderness. 
Tears are like the promised land. If you have reached them 
already you will no longer be afraid of the conflict. For thus 
God wills that the soul be afflicted, that it may ever long to enter 
that country." 

PART IV 
Of self -control 

1 . Some brothers from Scete wanted to visit Abba Antony, 
and embarked in a ship to go there. In the ship they found 
an old man who also wanted to go to Antony, but they did not 
know him. During the voyage they talked about the sayings 
of the Fathers, and the Scriptures, and then the work of their 
hands. But the old man was silent through it all. When they 
came to the landing-place, they saw that the old man also was 
preparing to go up to Abba Antony. When they arrived, Abba 
Antony said to them: "You found good company on your 
journey in this old man," And he said to the old man: "You 
found good companions in these brothers." The old man said: 
"Yes, they are good, but their house has no door, Whoever 
wants, goes into the stable and steals the donkey." He said this 
because they uttered the first thing that came into their heads, 

2. Abba Daniel said of Abba Arsenius that he used to spend 
all night watching. He would stay awake all night, and about 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 49 

dawn when nature seemed to force him into sleep, he would say 
to sleep: "Come, you wicked servant/' and he would snatch a 
little sleep still sitting: and at once rose up. 

3. Abba Arsenius said: "An hour's sleep is enough for a 
monk: that is, if he is a fighter." 

4. Abba Daniel said of him: "All the years he stayed with 
us, we gave him a little enough measure of food for the year. 
And every time we came to visit him, he shared it with us." 

5. He said also, that he only changed the water for the palm- 
leaves once a year; otherwise he added to it. He would make 
a plait of the palm-leaves, 5 and weave it till noon. So the elders 
asked him why he would not change the water for the palm- 
leaves, which was stinking. And he said to them: "When I was 
in the world I used incense and sweet-smelling ointments, so 
now I must profit from this stink." 

6. He also said this. When he heard that all the apples were 
ripe, he said: "Bring them to me." And he took one little 
mouthful of each kind, giving thanks to God. 

7. They said of Abba Agatho that for three years he kept a 
pebble in his mouth, to teach himself silence. 

8. Once Abba Agatho was going a journey with his disciples. 
And one of them found a tiny bag of green peas on the road, 
and said to the old man: "Father, if you command, I will take 
it." The old man gazed at him in astonishment, and said: "Did 
you put it there?" The brother replied: "No." And the old man 
said: "How is it that you want to take something which you 
did not put there?" 

9. Once an old man came to Abba Achillas, and saw blood 
dripping from his mouth: and he asked him: "What is the 
matter, Father?" And the old man said: "A brother came and 
spoke a word which grieved me, yet I have been trying with all 
my might to nurse that grievance. And I prayed God that he 
would take it away, and the word turned into blood in my 
mouth. Look, I have spat it out, and am now at rest, and have 
forgotten my grievance." 

10. Once Abba Achillas came to the cell of Abba Isaiah in 
Scete, and found him eating. He had put salt and water in his 
vessel. Seeing that he hid the vessel behind the plaits of palm- 
leaves, Abba Achillas said: "Tell me what you were eating." 
And he answered: "Forgive me, Abba; but I was cutting palms 
and began to be on fire with thirst. And so I dipped a piece 
of bread in the salt, and put it in my mouth. But my mouth was 

5 Of. Gassian, Conferences, XVIII, 15. 



50 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

parched, and I could not swallow the bread, so I was forced to 
pour a little water on the salt and then I could swallow it. But 
forgive me." And Abba Achillas used to say: "Come and see 
Isaiah eating broth in Scete. If you want to eat broth, go to 
Egypt." 

1 1 . They said of Abba Ammoi that though he was on a bed of 
sickness for several years, he never relaxed his discipline; and 
never went into the store-cupboard at the back of his cell to 
see what he had. Many people brought him presents because 
he was sick. But even when his disciple, John, went in and out, 
he shut his eyes so as not to see what he was doing. He knew 
what it means to be a faithful monk. 

12. Abba Benjamin, who was presbyter in Gcllia, said that 
some brothers went to an old man in Scete and wanted to give 
him a measure of oil. But the old man said: "Look, there is the 
little vessel of oil which you brought three years ago. It has 
stayed there, where you put it*" And Abba Benjamin said: 
"When we heard it, we marvelled at the old man's devotion." 

13. They told a story of Abba Dioscorus of Namisias,* that 
his bread was made of barley, and his gruel of lentils. And every 
year he made one particular resolution: not to meet anyone for 
a year, or not to speak, or not to taste cooked food, or not to 
eat any fruit, or not to eat vegetables. This was his system in 
everything. He made himself master of one thing, and then 
started on another, and so on each year. 

14- Abba Evagrius said that an old man said: "I cut away my 
fleshly pleasures, to remove the opportunities of anger. For I 
know that it is because of pleasure that I have to struggle with 
anger, and trouble my mind, and throw away my under- 
standing." 

15. Once Epiphanius the bishop from Cyprus sent a message 
to Abba Hilarion, and asked him: "Come, that I may sec you 
before I die." And when they had met and greeted each other, 
part of a fowl was set before them. The bishop took it and gave 
it to Abba Hilarion, And the old man said to him: "Forgive 
me, Father. From the time I took my habit, I have eaten 
nothing that has been killed," And Epiphanius said to him: 
"From the time I took my habit, I have let none go to sleep who 
still had something against me, and I have never gone to sleep 
with an enemy in the world." And the old man said to him: 
"Forgive me. Your devotion is greater than mine." 

1 6. They said of Abba Helladius that he lived twenty years 
$ Wallis Budge, Paradise, ii, no. 76, p. 18. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 51 

in, Cellia, and did not once lift his eyes upward to see the roof 
of the church. 7 

1 7. Once Abba Zeno was walking in Palestine; and when he 
had finished his work, he sat down to eat near a cucumber 
plant. And his soul tried to persuade him, saying: "Pick one 
of those cucumbers for yourself, and eat it. What does it matter?" 
And he replied to his temptation: "Thieves go down to tor- 
ment. Test yourself then to see whether you can bear torment." 
So he rose and stood in the sun for five days, without drinking, 
and dried himself in the heat. And his soul (so to say) spoke to 
him: "I cannot bear torment." So he said to his soul: "If you 
cannot bear torment, do not steal to get a meal." 

18. Abba Theodore said: "The monk's body grows weak with 
eating little bread." But another elder said: "It grows weaker 
with watching in the night." 

19. Abba John the Short said: "If a king wants to take a 
city whose citizens are hostile, he first captures the food and 
water of the inhabitants of the city, and when they are starving 
subdues them. So it is with gluttony. If a man is earnest in 
fasting and hunger, the enemies which trouble his soul will 
grow weak." 

20. He also said: "As I was climbing up the road which 
leads to Scete, carrying plaits of palms, I saw a camel-driver 
who talked to me and annoyed me. And I dropped what I was 
carrying, and ran away." 

21. Said Abba Isaac the presbyter of Cellia: "I know a 
brother who was harvesting and wanted to eat an ear of wheat. 
And he said to the owner of the field: 'Will you let me eat one 
ear?' And when he heard it, he wondered, and said: 'The whole 
field is yours, Father, why do you ask me? 9 So scrupulous was 
that brother." 

22. One of the brothers asked Abba Isidore the priest of 
Scete: "Why are the demons so violently afraid of you?" And 
the old man said: "Ever since I became a monk, I have been 
trying not to let anger rise as far as my mouth." 

23. He said also that though he felt in his mind impulses 
towards the sins of concupiscence or anger, he had not con- 
sented to them for forty years. 

24. Abba Gassian 8 told a story of an Abba John who went to 

7 Cf, Wallis Budge, Paradise, ii, no. 254, p. 58, which attributes it to Hor: 

and cf. Paradise vol. ii, no. 355, p. 224. 
s Institutes, V, 27, The apophthegmatist or his copyist has variations 

of detail. So has Sulpicius Severus, Dialogues, i, 12. It looks probable 



52 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

see Abba Paesius who had lived for forty years in the deep 
desert. And because he had much charity towards him, he 
asked him with the confidence born of charity: "You have been 
isolated so long, and cannot easily suffer any trouble from 
man tell me, what progress have you made?" And he said: 
"From the time I began to be a solitary, the sun has never seen 
me eating." And Abba John said to him: "Nor me angry," 

25. He said also: 9 "Abba Moses told us what Abba Serapion 
said to him: * While I was still a lad, I was staying with Abba 
Theonas; and after each meal I was moved by some demon and 
stole one of the rolls of bread, and secretly ate it, Theonas 
knowing nothing of the matter. For some time I went on with 
this, until the sin began to dominate my mind, and I could not 
stop myself. Only my conscience judged me, for I was ashamed 
to say anything to the old man. But by God's mercy it happened 
that some visitors came to the old man in search of profit to 
their soul, and they asked him about their own thoughts. The 
old man replied: "Nothing harms the monk so much, and gives 
such happiness to the demons, as when he conceals his thoughts 
from his fathers in the spirit." And he also talked to them about 
self-control. And while he was speaking, I thought to myself 
that God had revealed to him what I had done. Stricken in my 
heart, I began to weep: then I pulled the roll of bread out of 
my dress, threw myself on the floor, and begged forgiveness for 
what I had done, and for prayer that I might be helped not to 
do it again. 

Then the old man said: "My son, you are freed from your 
captivity though I have said nothing. You are freed by your 
own confession. The demon which by your silence you let dwell 
in your heart, has been killed because you confessed your siix. 
You let him rule you because you never said him nay, never 
rebuked him. Henceforth he shall never make a home in you, 
because you have thrown him out of doors into the open air." 
The old man had not finished speaking, when his words were 
visibly fulfilled something like a flame shot out of my breast 
and so filled the house with its stench, that the people present 

that Cassian's version is nearest to the primitive story. The detailed dif- 
ferences between the texts of Cassian and Verba Seniorum are remarkable, 
and may be accounted for only on the supposition that Pelagius knew no 
text of Cassian, but was translating the unknown Greek text taken by the 
apophthegmatist from a Greek translation of Cassian; or (more probably) 
a Greek epitome. 
9 Conferences, II, it* 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 53 

thought it was burning sulphur. And the old man said: "My 
son, see the sign, whereby the Lord has proved that I have 
spoken truly and you are free." ' " 

26. They said of Abba Macarius that if he was called among 
the brothers, he made a rule for himself thus: if wine could be 
had, he used to drink it for the brothers' sake: and then, for one 
cup of wine he would go without water for a whole day. And 
the brothers, wanting to refresh him, used to give him wine. 
And the old man took it with joy, so as later to crucify himself. 
But his disciple, knowing the reason, said to the brothers: "For 
God's sake, I beg you, do not give it him. In the cell afterwards 
he tames himself with torments." When the brothers knew it, 
they gave him no more wine. 

27. Abba Macarius the Great said to the brothers in Scete 
after service in church: "Flee, my brothers." And one of the 
brothers said to him: "Father, where have we to flee beyond 
this desert?" And he put his finger upon his lips and said: "I tell 
you, this you must flee." And so he entered his cell, and shut 
the door, and dwelt alone. 

28. Abba Macarius said also: "If when you want to reprove 
someone you are stirred to anger, you are pandering to your 
own passion. Lose not yourself to save another." 

29. Said Abba Poemen: "Unless Nebuzaradan the captain 
of the guard had come, the temple of the Lord would not have 
been burnt. 10 And unless greed brought idleness into the soul, 
the mind would not fail in its fight against the enemy." 

30. They said of Abba Poemen that when he was invited to 
eat and did not want to go, he went weeping, and praying that 
he might obey his brothers and not sadden them. 

31. They told Abba Poemen that a certain monk did not 
drink wine. And he said to them: "Wine is not for monks at all." 

3 1 A. Abbe Poemen also said: "All rest of the body is an 
abomination to the Lord." 

3 IB, Abba Poemen also said: "The only way to humble the 
soul is by eating less bread," 

310. He also said that if a man remembered the word of 
Scripture "out of thy mouth thou shalt be justified and out of 
thy mouth shalt thou be condemned" 11 he would more and 
more choose not to speak. 

3 ID. He also said that a monk asked Abba Pambo if it is 

10 II Kings 25: 8-9. 

11 Matt, is '.37: the logion is attributed to Alonius in Budge, Paradfo qfihe 
fathers, vol. ii, no* 44* 



54 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

good to praise your neighbour. And he answered: "It is a greater 
good to hold your peace." 

3 IE. A monk asked Abba Poemen: "How should I behave 
in my common life among the brothers?" The old man said to 
him: "He who lives among the brothers ought to regard them 
as though they were but one person, and to keep guard over his 
mouth and eyes; and so he will be able to win peace of mind." 

32. Abba Poemen also said: "They smoke out bees to steal 
away their honey. And so idleness drives the fear of God from 
the soul, and steals away good works." 

33. One of the old men told this story of Abba Poemen and 
his brothers, who lived in Egypt. Their mother wanted to see 
them, and could not. So she looked out for her chance, and pre- 
sented herself in front of them as they were going to church. 
The moment they saw her, they turned, went to their cell, and 
shut the door in her face. But she stood at the door and screamed 
and besought them in her misery. Abba Anub, hearing her, 
went to Abba Poemen and said: "What shall we do about the 
little old woman who is crying outside the door?" Abba Poemen 
rose up, and went to the door, and stood just inside and heard 
her beseeching them miserably. And he said: "What are you 
screaming for, old woman?" When she heard his voice, she 
cried out the more and implored them: "I want to see you, my 
sons. Why should I not see you? Am I not your mother? Have I 
not given you milk at the breast, and now every hair of my head 
is grey? When I hear your voice, I am in distress." The old man 
said to her: "Do you want to see us in this world or the next?" 
She said to him: "If I do not see you in this world, shall I sec 
you in the next, my sons?" He said: "If you can suffer, with a 
calm spirit, not to see us here, you shall sec us there.' 1 And so 
the woman went away happy, and saying: "If I shall truly sec 
you there, I do not want to see you here." 

34. They said of Abba Pior that he ate while walking about. 
And when someone asked him why he ate in this manner* he 
replied that he did it casually, as if there were no need of it 
But when someone else asked the same question, he replied: 
"So that my soul does not receive bodily pleasure from eating-" 

35. They said of Abba Peter, named Pyonius, who was in 
CelUa, that he did not drink wine. And when he grew old, they 
a&ked him to take a little wine. When he refused, they warmed 
some water, and offered it to him. And he said: "Believe me, 
my sons, I drink it as though it was spiced wine." And he 
declared that he was content with warm water. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 55 

36. Once they celebrated a great service orvthe mountain of 
Abba Antony, and a little wine was found there. One of the 
elders took a small cup, and carried it to Abba Sisois, and gave 
it him. And he drank it. And a second time Abba Sisois received 
it, and drank it. And the elder offered it a third time. But he 
did not receive it, and said: "Stay, brother, do you not know 
that Satan still exists?" 

37. A brother asked Abba Sisois: "What am I to do? When I 
go to church, out of charity the brothers often make me stay 
to the meal afterwards." The old man said to him: "That is 
burdensome." 

So Abraham his disciple said to him: "If in the meeting at 
church on Saturday and Sunday, a brother drinks three cups, is 
it much?" And the old man said: "If there were no Satan, it 
would not be much." 

38. Often the disciple used to say to Abba Sisois: "Rise, 
Abba, let us cat." And he would say: "Have we not eaten 
already, my son?" And the disciple would reply: "No, Father." 
The old man used to say: "If we have not eaten yet, bring the 
food, let us eat." 

39. Abba Sisois once said with confidence: "Believe me, for 
thirty years I have not been in the habit of praying to God 
about sin. But when I pray, I say this: 'Lord Jesus Christ, 
protect me from my tongue. 9 And even now, it causes me to fall 
every day." 

40. Once Abba Silvanus and his disciple Zacharias came to a 
monastery. And the monks made them sup a little before they 
went on their way. And when they departed, the disciple found 
a pool by the wayside and wanted to drink. Abba Silvanus said: 
"Zacharias, today is a fast." And Zacharias said: "Have we 
not already eaten today, Father?" The old man said to him: 
"To cat that meal was charity: but as for us, let us keep our 
fast, my son*" 

41. The holy Syncletice said: "We who have chosen this holy 
way ought above all to keep chastity. Even among men of the 
world chastity is regarded. But in the world they arc also stupid 
about it, and sin with their other senses. For they peep in- 
decently, and laugh immoderately." 

42. She said also: "Animal's poison is cured by still stronger 
antidotes. So fasting and prayer drive sordid temptation from 
the soul" 

43. She also said: "The pleasures of the wealthy world must 
not seduce you, as if those pleasures were useful. Because of this 



56 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

pleasure they honour the art of cooking. But by rigorous fasting, 
you should trample on those pleasures. Never be sated with 
bread, nor want wine." 

44. Abba Sisois said: "Our form of pilgrimage is keeping the 
mouth shut." 

45. Said Abba Hyperichius: "Donkeys are terrified of lions. 
So temptations to concupiscence are terrified of a proved 
monk." 

46. He also said: "Fasting is the monk's rein over sin. The 
man who stops fasting is like a stallion who lusts the moment 
he sees a mare," 

47. He also said: "When the monk's body is dried up with 
fasting, it lifts his soul from the depths* Fasting dries up the 
channels down which worldly pleasures flow." 

48. He also said: "The chaste monk shall be honoured on 
earth, and in heaven shall be crowned in the presence of the 
Most Highest." 

49. He also said: "The monk who cannot control his tongue 
when he is angry, will not control his passions at other times." 

50. He also said: "Let not thy mouth speak an evil word: the 
vine does not bear thorns." 

51. He also said: "It is better to eat flesh and drink wine 
than to eat the flesh of the brothers by disparaging them." 

52. He also said: "The serpent murmured to Eve and cast 
her out of paradise. The man who rails against his neighbour is 
like the serpent. He loses the soul of him that listens to him, and 
he does not save his own." 

53. Once there was a feast in Scete, and they gave a cup of 
wine to an old man. He threw it down, saying: "Take that death 
away from me." When the others who were eating with him 
saw this, they also did not drink. 

54* Aiiother time a vessel of wine was brought there from 
the first fruits of the vintage, so that a cup of it could be given 
to each of the brothers. And a brother came in and saw that 
they were drinking wine, and fled up on a roof, and the roof 
fell in. And when they heard the noise, they ran and found the 
brother lying half-dead. And they began to abuse him, saying: 
"It has served you right, for you were guilty of vainglory/' 
But an abba embraced him, and said: "Leave my son alone, 
he has done a good work. By the living Lord, this roof shall not 
be rebuilt in my time, as a reminder to the world that a roof 
fell in Scete because of a cup of wine*" 

55. Once a priest from Scete went up to see the bishop of 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 57 

Alexandria. And when he came back to Scete the brothers asked 
him: "How goes the city?" But he said to them: "Believe me, 
brethren, I saw no man's face but the bishop alone." And when 
they heard this, they wondered, and said: "What do you think 
has happened to all the population?" They hesitated to believe 
him. But he cheered them by saying: "I have wrestled with my 
soul, not to look upon the face of a man." And so the brothers 
were edified, and kept themselves from lifting up their eyes. 

56. Once an old man came to another old man. And the 
second said to his disciple: "Make us a little lentil broth, my 
son." And he made it. "Dip the bread in it for us." And he 
dipped it. And they went on with their godly discourse till noon 
next day. Then the old man said to his disciple: "Make us a 
little lentil broth, my son." He replied: "I made it yesterday." 
And so they rose and ate their food. 

57. An old man came to a father, who cooked a few lentils 
and said: "Let us, worship God and eat afterwards." One of 
them recited the whole psalter. The other read and meditated 
upon two of the greater prophets. And in the morning the old 
man went away, and they forgot to eat their food. 

58. A brother felt hungry at dawn, and struggled with his 
soul not to eat till 9 o'clock. And when 9 o'clock came, he 
extracted from himself a resolution to wait till noon. At noon 
he dipped his bread and sat down to eat but then rose up 
again, saying: "I will wait till three." And at 3 o'clock he 
prayed, and saw the devil's work going out of him like smoke; 
and his hunger ceased, 

59. One of the old men was ill, and for many days could not 
eat. His disciple asked him to take something and restore his 
strength. So the disciple went away and made some lentil cake* 
A jar was hanging in the cell containing a little honey: and 
there was another jar with evil-smelling linseed oil only used 
for the lamp. The brother took the wrong jar in error and put 
grease instead of honey into the mixture. The old man tasted it, 
and said nothing, but quietly ate the mouthful. The disciple 
forced him to take a second mouthful. The old man tortured 
himself and ate it. Yet a third time the disciple pressed it upon 
him. But he did not want to eat, and said: "Truly, my son, I 
cannot-" But his disciple encouraged him, and said: "It is good, 
Abba; look, I keep you company." When the disciple tasted it 
and saw what he had done, he fell flat on his face, and said : 
"Alas, Father! I have killed you, and you have laid this sin upon 
me because you did not speak." And the old man said to him. 



58 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

"Be not sad, my son. If God had willed that I should eat honey 
you would have been given the honey to mix in those buns-" 

60. They said of one old man that he sometimes longed to 
eat cucumber. So he took it and hung it in front of him where he 
could see it. And he was not conquered by his longing, and did 
not eat it, but tamed himself, and did penitence that he wanted 
it at all. 

61. Once a brother went to visit his sister who was ill in a 
nunnery. She was a person full of faith. She herself did not 
consent to see a man: nor did she want to give her brother 
occasion to come into the midst of women. So she commanded 
him thus: "Go, my brother, pray for me. For by Christ's grace I 
shall see you in the kingdom of heaven." 

62. On a journey a monk met some nuns and when he saw 
them he turned aside off the road. The abbess said to him: "If 
you had been a perfect monk, you would not have looked so 
closely as to see that we were women." 

63. Once some brothers went to Alexandria, invited by Arch- 
bishop Theophilus to be present when after prayer he destroyed 
a pagan temple. And while they were supping with the arch- 
bishop, they were served with veal, and ate it without realizing 
it. And the archbishop took a piece of meat, and gave it to the 
old man who was reclining next to him, and said: "Look, here 
is a good piece of meat. Eat it, Abba." But they answered him: 
"Till now, we thought we were eating vegetables. If this is 
meat, we do not eat it." And not one of them would take 
another mouthful. 

64* A brother brought some new bread to Gellia and invited 
his elders to taste. And when .they had each eaten two rolls of 
bread, they stopped. But the brother knew how austere was 
their abstinence, and humbly began to beg them: "For God's 
sake eat today until you are filled." And they ate another two 
rolls. See how these true and self-disciplined monks ate much 
more than they needed, for God's sake. 

65. Once one of the old men lay gravely illj and was losing 
a lot of blood from his bowels. And a brother brought him some 
dry fruit, and made gruel, and offered them to the old man, and 
asked him: "Eat; perhaps it is good for you." The old man 
looked at him for a long time, and said: "In truth, I tell you 
that I have wanted God to leave me in my sickness for thirty 
years more." And in his weakness he absolutely refused to take 
even a little food; so the brother took away what he had brought, 
and returned to his cell. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 59 

66. Another old man had lived in the desert for a long time. 
And it happened that a brother came to him and found him 
sickening. He washed his face, and made a meal for him out of 
what he had brought. And when the old man saw it, he said: 
"Truly, brother, I had forgotten that men found comfort in 
food," And he offered him a cup of wine as well. And when he 
saw it, he wept, saying: "I hoped I would never drink wine 
until I died." 

67. An old man made a resolution not to drink for forty days. 
And if ever he thirsted he washed a vessel and filled it with 
water and hung it in front of his eyes. And when the brothers 
asked him why he was doing this, he replied: "So that if I do 
not taste what I long for and can see, my devotion will be 
greater and I shall be granted a greater reward by the Lord." 

68. On a journey, one brother had with him his mother, who 
had now grown old. They came to a river, and the old woman 
could not get across. Her son took off his cloak, and wrapt it 
round his hands, so as not to touch his mother's body, and 
carried her across the river. His mother said to him: "Why 
did you wrap your hands like that, my son?" He said: "Because 
a woman's body is fire. Simply because I was touching you, the 
memory of other women came into my soul." 

69. One of the fathers said that he knew a brother who fasted 
in his cell the whole of Easter week. And when at last he came 
to mass on Saturday, he ran away as soon as he had communi- 
cated, to prevent the other brothers forcing him to join in the 
dinner in the church. In his own cell he only ate a few boiled 
beetroots, with salt but without bread. 

70. At a meeting of the brothers in Scete, they were eating 
dates. And one of them, who was ill from excessive fasting, 
brought up some phlegm in a fit of coughing, and unintention- 
ally it fell on another of the brothers. This brother was tempted 
by an evil thought and driven to say: "Be quiet, and do not spit 
on me." So to tame himself and restrain his own angry thought 
he picked up what had been spat and put it in his mouth and 
swallowed it. And then he began to say to himself: "If you say 
to your brother what will sadden him, you will have to eat 
what nauseates you." 

PARTY 

Of lust 

i. Abba Antony said: "I reckon that the body has a natural 
movement within itself, which obeys the behest of the soul, a 



Go WESTERN ASCETICISM 

kind of passionless movement of which the body's actions are 
but symptoms. And there is a second movement in the body, 
caused by eating and drinking, whereby the blood is heated and 
excited. That is why Paul said: 'Be not drunk with wine, where- 
in is excess,' and again the Lord commanded his disciples in the 
Gospel: 'See that your hearts be not overcharged with surfeiting 
and drunkenness.' 12 And there is another movement which 
comes from the craft and envy of demons upon men who are 
striving to live a good life. Thus it is a help to know that there 
are three bodily movements from nature, from plenty of food, 
and from demons." 

2. Abba Gerontius of Petra said: "Many people who are 
tempted by bodily delights, do not sin with the body but lust 
with the mind: they keep their bodily virginity but lust in the 
soul. It is good then, my beloved, to do what is written: 'Let 
everyone keep a close guard upon his heart/ " 13 

2 A. Abba John the Short said: "The man who eats his fill or 
talks with a child has already lusted in his mind." 

3. Abba Cassian said: 14 "Abba Moses told us: e lt is good not 
to hide the thoughts but to disclose them to discreet and devout 
old men; but not to men who are old merely in years, for many 
have found final despair instead of comfort by confessing to men 
whom they saw to be aged, but who in fact were inexperi- 
enced.' " 

4. There was once a brother exceeding careful about seeking 
goodness. 15 And being sore troubled by the demon of lust, he 
came to an old man and told him his thoughts. The old man 
was inexperienced: and when he heard, he was indignant, and 
said he was a wicked brother, unworthy of his monk's habit, 
because he conceived thoughts like that. When the brother 
heard this, he despaired of himself, and left his cell, and started 
on his way back to the world. But by God's providence, Abba 
Apollos met him. And seeing him disturbed and melancholy, 
he asked him: "Son, why arc you so sad?" The brother, much 
embarrassed, at first said not a word. But when the old man 
pressed him to say what was happening to him, he confessed, 
and said: "It is because lustful thoughts trouble me. I confessed 
them to that old man, and he says- 1 now have no hope of sal- 
vation. So I am desperate at myself, and am on my way back 

12 Eph. 5 : 18; Luke 21 134. 
is Prov. 4:23. 

14 Conferences, II, 10. 

15 Conferences, II, 13. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 6l 

to the world." When Father Apollos heard this, he went on 
asking questions like a wise doctor, and advised him thus: "Do 
not be cast down, son, nor despair of yourself. Even at my age 
and experience of the spiritual life, I am still sorely troubled by 
thoughts like yours. Do not fail at this point, because this 
trouble cannot be cured by our efforts, but only by God's mercy. 
Grant me what I ask, just today, and go back to your cell." 

The brother obeyed him. But Abba Apollos went away to 
the cell of the old man who had made him desperate. He stood 
outside the cell, and prayed the Lord with tears, and said: 
"Lord, who allowest men to be tempted for their good, transfer 
the war which that brother is suffering to this old man: let him 
learn by experience in his old age what many years have not 
taught him, and so let him find out how to sympathize with 
people undergoing this kind of temptation." And as soon as he 
ended his prayer, he saw a negro standing by the cell firing 
arrows at the old man. As though stricken, he began to totter 
and lurch like a drunken man. And when he could bear it no 
longer, he came out of his cell, and set out on the same road by 
which the young man started to return to the world. Abba 
Apollos understood what had happened, and met him. He 
approached him, and said: "Where are you going? And why 
are you so troubled within?" The old man, seeing that the holy 
Apollos understood what had happened, was ashamed and said 
nothing. But Abba Apollos said to him: "Return to your cell, 
and see your own weakness in another, and keep your own heart. 
For either you were ignorant of the devil in spite of your age, or 
you were contemptuous, and did not deserve to struggle for 
strength with the devil as all other men must. But struggle is not 
the right word, when you could not stand up to his attack for 
one day. This has happened to you because of the young man. 
He came to you because he was being attacked by the common 
enemy of us all. You ought to have given him words of con- 
solation to help him against the devil's attack. But instead you 
drove him to despair. You did not remember the wise man's 
saying, whereby we are ordered to deliver the men who are 
drawn towards death, and not forbear to redeem men ready to 
be killed. You did not remember our Saviour's parable: 'You 
should not break the bruised reed, nor quench the smoking 
flax/ Not a single person could endure the enemy's clever 
attack, nor quench, nor control the leaping fire natural to the 
body, unless God's grace preserved us in our weakness. In all 
our prayers we should pray for his grace to save us, so that he 



62 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

may turn aside the scourge aimed even at you. For he makes a 
man to grieve, and then lifts him up to salvation: he strikes, and 
his hand heals: he humbles and exalts, mortifies and enlivens: 
leads to hell and brings back from hell." 16 

So saying, Abba Apollos prayed again, and at once the old 
man was freed from his inner war. Abba Apollos urged him to 
ask God to give him the tongue of the learned, to know the 
time when it is best to speak. 

5. When Abba Cyrus of Alexandria was asked about the 
temptation of lust, he said: "If you are not tempted, you have 
no hope: if you are not tempted, it is because you are used to 
sinning. The man who does not fight sin at the stage of tempta- 
tion, sins in his body. And the man who sins in his body has 
no trouble from temptation/' 

6- An old man asked a brother: "Do you often talk with a 
woman?" And the brother said: "No." And he went on:, "My 
temptations come from painters old and new, memories of mine 
which trouble me with their pictures of women." But the old 
man said to him: "Fear not the dead, but flee the living flee 
from assenting to sin or committing sin, and take a longer time 
over your prayers." 

7. Abba Mathois used to say that a brother came and de- 
clared that the slanderer was worse than the fornicator. And he 
replied: "This is a hard saying." Then the brother said to him: 
"How do you want to reckon the matter?" And the old man 
said: "Slander is bad, but it is curable quickly; the slanderer 
can do penitence and say C I have spoken ill,* and it is over. But 
lust is essential death." 

8. Abba Poemen said: "As a bodyguard is always standing 
by to protect the Emperor, so the soul ought ever to be ready 
for the demon of lust." 

9. A brother once came to Abba Poemen, and said to him; 
"What am I to do, Father? I am wretched with lust. And I 
went to Abba Hybistion, and he told me : 'You ought not to let 
it dwell in you longer-' " Abba Poemen said to him: "Abba 
Hybistion lives like the angels above, and he knows not these 
things. But you and I are in lust. If the monk controls his 
stomach and his tongue, and stays in solitude, he can trust that 
he is not dying." 

to. They said of the Abbess Sarah that for thirteen years she 
was fiercely attacked by the demon of lust. And she never 

Prov. 24:11; Matt. 112:20; I Sam. a:6. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 63 

prayed that the battle should be stayed. But she used to say 
only this: "Lord, grant me strength." 

11. They also said of her that the same demon of lust was 
once attacking her menacingly, and tempting her with vain 
thought of the world. But she kept fearing God in her soul and 
maintained the rigour of her fasting. And once when she 
climbed up on the roof to pray, the spirit of lust appeared to 
her in a bodily form and said to her: "You have beaten me, 
Sarah." But she replied: "It is not I who have beaten you, but 
my Lord the Christ." 

12. A brother was goaded by lust and the lust was like a 
fire burning day and night in his heart. But he struggled on, 
not coming to meet his temptation nor consenting to it. And 
after a long time, the goad left him, annihilated by his per- 
severance. And at once light appeared in his heart. 

13. Another brother was goaded by lust. He rose up in the 
night and went to tell his temptations to an old man, and the 
old man consoled him. So he returned, comforted to his cell. 
But again the spirit of lust tempted him. And a second time 
he went to the old man. This happened several times. The old 
man did not reproach him, but spoke words to his profit: 
"Yield not to the devil, and guard your soul. Whenever the 
demon troubles you, come to me, and rebuke him, and so he 
will go away. Nothing troubles the demon of lust more than 
disclosure of his pricks. Nothing pleases him more than the 
concealment of the temptation." 

Eleven times the brother went to the old man, and blamed 
himself for his imaginings. And then the brother said to the old 
man: "Of thy charity, Abba, speak to me a word." The old 
man said to him: "Believe me, my son, if God allowed the 
imaginings which goad me to be passed to you, you would not 
bear them but would be utterly destroyed." And so by his words 
and deep humility, that brother found rest from the goad of 
lust. 

14. Another brother was goaded by lust. He began to struggle 
and prolong his fast, and for fourteen years he guarded himself 
against temptation and did not consent. Afterwards he came 
to church and disclosed to the whole congregation what he was 
suffering. And a decree was made, and for a week they all 
afflicted themselves on, his behalf, praying God continually; 
and so his goad was stayed. 

15. An old hermit said about the temptation to lust: "Sloth, 
do you want to be saved? Go, and discipline yourself, go, 'seek, 



64 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

and ye shall find'; watch, 'Knock and it shall be opened to you.' 
In the world there are boxers who are hard hit and yet stand 
firm and receive crowns. Sometimes one is set upon by two, and 
their blows lend him strength so that he overcomes them. Have 
you seen what strength exercise brings? Do you also stand, and 
be strong: and the Lord defeats your enemy for you." 

1 6. On this same temptation, another old man said: "You 
should be like a man walking along the street past an inn, and 
sniffing the smell of meat frying or roasting. Anyone who likes 
goes in and eats. People who do not want it, pass by and only 
sniff the smell. So you ought to put the smell away from you; 
rise, and pray 'Lord, Son of God, help me.' Do this against 
other temptations. We cannot make temptations vanish, but 
we can struggle against them." 

17. Another old man said: "We suffer this through negli- 
gence. If we remember that God dwells in us, we shall never 
bring into ourselves a vessel that is not his. The Lord Christ 
abides in us and with us, and watches our life. And because we 
bear him with us and contemplate him, we ought not to be 
negligent but ought to make ourselves holy as he is holy. If we 
stand upon a rock, the wicked one will be broken* Do not be 
afraid, and he will do nothing against you. And pray with 
courage this psalm: They that trust in the Lord arc like 
Mount Sion; they that dwell in Jerusalem shall stand fast for 
ever.' " u 

1 8. A brother asked an old man: "If a monk falls to sin, he 
is punished like a person who has fallen from a higher state to 
a lower, and is in travail until ho rises again. But he who comes 
from the world, is like a beginner advancing to a higher state." 
And the old man replied: "A monk falling into temptation is 
like a collapsing house. If he is a serious and sober person, he 
rebuilds the ruined house. He finds the right materials for build- 
ing, lays foundations, and collects stone and sand, and all the 
other needful things, and so his building rapidly grows higher. 
But the builder who did not dig or lay foundations, and has 
none of the right materials, goes away hoping that some day the 
house will be built. So if the monk falls into temptation, and 
turns to the Lord, he has the best equipment meditation on 
the law of God, psalmody, work with his hands, prayer, and the 
others foundations of his building. The novice will find him- 
self low down on the ladder of religion until he learns all these*" 

125:1. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 65 

19. A brother, held in the grip of lust, went to a great old 
man and asked him: "Of your charity, pray for me: for I am 
troubled by lust." The old man prayed to the Lord. And he 
came a second time to the old man and said the same: and again 
the old man was careful to beseech the Lord on his behalf, and 
said: "Lord, show me why the devil is doing this work in that 
brother. I prayed to you, but he has not yet found rest." And 
the Lord revealed to him what was happening to that brother. 
And he saw the brother sitting down, and the spirit of lust near 
him and, so to speak, playing with him: and an angel was 
standing near to help him and was frowning upon that brother 
because he did not throw himself upon God, but took a pleasure 
in his thoughts, and turned his mind towards them. And the 
old man saw that the chief cause was in the brother himself. 
And he said to him: "You are dallying with your thought." 
And he taught him how to resist thoughts like this. And the 
brother's soul revived under the old man's teaching and 
prayer, and he found rest from his temptation. 

20. Once the disciple of a great old man was tempted by 
lust. When the old man saw him struggling, he said: "Do you 
want me to ask the Lord to release you from your trouble?" 
But he said: "Abba, I see that although it is a painful struggle, 
I am profiting from having to carry the burden. But ask God 
in your prayers, that he will give me long-suffering, to enable 
me to endure." Then his Abba said to him: "Now I know that 
you arc far advanced, my son, and beyond me." 

2 1 . They said of an old man that he went down to Scete 
taking his infant son with him. The boy, being brought up 
among the monks, did not know what women were. When he 
became a man, the demons showed him visions of women at 
night. And he told his father, and he wondered. And once they 
both went into Egypt and saw women. And the son said: "Abba, 
there are the people who came to me during the night in Scete." 
And his father said: "These are monks from the world, my son. 
They use one kind of dress, and hermits another." And the old 
man marvelled that the demons should show him visions of 
women in Scete, and they both went straight back to their cell. 

22. A brother was tested by temptation in Scete. And the 
enemy sent to his soul the memory of a fair woman, and 
troubled him sorely. And by God's providence it chanced that 
another brother came down from Egypt and arrived in Scete. 
And when they met to talk, he told him that his wife was dead 
(she was the woman about whom he was being disturbed). 



66 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

When he heard the news, he put on his cloak in the night and 
went to the place where he had heard she was buried. And he 
dug the place, and wiped the blood of her corpse on his cloak, 
and kept it in his cell when he returned. And when it smelt too 
much, he put it in front of him and hurriedly said to his 
temptation: "Look, this is what you desire. You have it now, fill 
yourself." And so he chastised himself with the smell until his 
passions died down. 

23. A man once came to Scete to become a monk. And he 
brought with him his infant son, who had been lately weaned. 
When the child grew to be a young man, the demons began to 
attack him and trouble him. And he said to his father: U I am 
going back to the world, because I cannot bear these bodily 
passions." His father comforted him: but the youth said: "I 
cannot endure any longer, father. Let me go back to the world." 
His father said to him: "Listen just this once to me, my son. 
Take forty loaves, and palm leaves for forty days, and go to the 
inner desert, and stay there forty days and God's will be 
done." He obeyed his father, and rose and went into the desert, 
and remained there, making plaits from the dry palm leaves 
and eating dry bread. And after he had been, there twenty days, 
he saw the demon coming against him. There stood before him 
a person like a negro woman, ill-smelling and ugly. He could 
not bear her smell and thrust her from him. And she said to 
him: "I am she who seems sweet in the hearts of men. But be- 
cause of your obedience and travail, God has not let me seduce 
you, but has shown you my ill-favour." He rose, and thanked 
God, and came to his father, and said: "Now 1 do not want to 
go to the world, father. I have seen the devil's work, and his 
foulness*" But his father also knew what had happened, and 
said: "If you had stayed there forty days, and kept my com- 
mand right to the end, you would have seen still greater things." 

24. An old man was once living far out in the desert. A 
woman of his kinsfolk wanted to see him after so many years, 
and enquired where he was living, and rose and came on the 
road to that desert. And finding camel-drivers, she joined them 
and came with them into the desert. For she was being drawn 
onward by the devil When she reached the old man's door, she 
began to knock and say who she was "I am your kin;" 
and she stayed with him. 

But another monk was living nearer to Egypt. He filled his 
vessel with water at his supper time. And suddenly the vessel 
was upset, and the water spilt. And by God's inspiration he 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 67 

said to himself: "I will go to the desert, and tell the elders what 
happened to this water." And he rose and went. And at evening 
he slept in a heathen temple by the roadside, and during 
the night he heard demons saying: "Tonight we have driven 
yonder monk to lust." And when he heard this, he was sad- 
dened. And he came to the old man, and found him sad, and 
said to him: "What am I to do, Abba? I filled my jug with water, 
and at supper-time it was spilt." And the old man said to him: 
"You have come to ask me why your vessel was upset. But what 
am I to do? for last night I fell to lusting." And he replied! 
"I knew it." And the old man said: "How did you know?" And 
he said: "I was sleeping in a temple, and I heard demons talking 
about you." And the old man said: "Look, I am going to the 
world." But he besought him, "Do not go, father, stay here in 
your cell. But send the woman away. This has happened be- 
cause the enemy attacked you." When the old man heard this, 
he endured and made his way of life more penitential and 
sorrowful, until he returned to his earlier state. 

25. An old man said: "Chastity is born of serenity, and 
silence, and secret meditation." 

26. A brother asked an old man: "If a man happens to fall 
into temptation, what becomes of those who are led to stumble 
by it?" And the old man told this story. "In a monastery in 
Egypt was a deacon. And an official, persecuted by a judge, 
came with all his family to that monastery* And by the devil's 
instigation, that deacon came in to his wife, and all the brothers 
were disturbed. But he went away to an old man, and told him 
what had happened. Now the old man had a secret inner room 
to his cell. When the deacon saw this, he said: 'Bury me alive 
here, and tell no one.' And he hid in that inner room, and there 
did true penitence. 

But a long time after, it happened that the Nile failed to 
flood. And when they were all making litanies, it was revealed 
to one of those holy men that unless the deacon who had 
hidden with such and such a monk, should return, the water 
would not rise. When they heard this, they marvelled, and they 
came and hurriedly brought him out of his hiding-place. And 
he prayed, and the water rose. And the men who had before 
been scandalized at him, were now edified by his penitence, 
and glorified God.*' 

27. Two brothers went to a town to sell what they had 
made. In the town they separated, and one of them fell into 
fornication* Afterwards the other brother said: "Let us go back 



68 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

to our cell, brother." But he replied: "I am not coming." And 
the other asked him: "Why, brother?" And he replied: "Be- 
cause when you left me, I met temptation, and was guilty of 
fornication." The other, wanting to help him, said: "It hap- 
pened also to me: after I left you, I also fell into fornication. 
Let us go together, and do penance with all our might, and God 
will pardon us sinners." When they returned to their cell, they 
told the elders what had happened to them, and were instructed 
what penance they should do. But the one did penance not for 
himself, but for the other, as though he himself had sinned. 
God, seeing his earnestness and his charity, disclosed to one of 
the elders, a few days later, that he had forgiven the fornicator 
because of the charity of the brother who had not sinned. 
Truly, this was to lay down his soul for his brother. 

28. Once a brother came to an old man and said: "My 
brother keeps leaving me, and goes travelling everywhere: and 
I am suffering for it." And the old man besought him: "Bear it 
calmly, brother. And God will see your earnestness and endur- 
ance, and will bring him back to you. It is not possible for a man 
to be recalled from his purpose by harshness and severity 
demon cannot drive out demon: you will bring him back to you 
better by kindness. That is how God acts for our good, and 
draws us to himself." 

And he told him this story: "In the Thebaid were two 
brothers. And when one of them began to lust, he said to the 
other: 1 am going back to the world.' The other wept and said: 
*I am not letting you go away, my brother, to lose your toil and 
your chastity.' But he refused and said: e l am not staying here: 
I am going. Either come with me, and I will return with you, 
or let me go, and let me remain in the world.' The brothers 
came and told this to a great old man. And the old man said 
to hiitt: 'Go with him, and because of your effort, God will not 
let him perish/ So he rose and went with him to the world. And 
when they came to a village, God looked on the efforts of him 
who followed his brother out of charity and need, and took 
away that brother's passion. And he said to his brother: 'Let us 
go back to the desert, my brother. Look, I imagine that I have 
already sinned with a woman. And what gain have I from that?' 
And they returned to their cell unharmed," 

29. A brother, being tempted by a demon, went to an old 
man and said: "Those two monks over there who live together, 
live wickedly*" But the old man knew that a demon was play- 
ing with him, and he sent and called them to him* And at 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 69 

evening he put a mat for them, and covered them with a single 
blanket, and said: "They are sons of God, and holy persons." 
But he said to his disciple: "Shut this slandering brother up in 
a cell by himself: he is suffering from the passions of which he 
accuses them." 

30. A brother said to an old man: "What am I to do, for 
these foul thoughts are killing me?" The old man said to him: 
"When a mother wants to wean her baby, she smears something 
bitter on her breasts: and when the infant comes as usual to 
suckle, he tastes the bitterness and is repelled. So you ought to 
put a bitterness into your thought." The brother said to him: 
"What bitterness is this?" The old man said to him: "The 
thought of death and torment, which is prepared in the next 
world for sinners." 

31. A brother asked an old man about thoughts of this kind. 
And the old man said: "I have never been goaded by it." And 
the brother was scandalized at him, and went to a second old 
man and said: "Look, that old man said this to me and has 
scandalized me, because it is unnatural." The old man said to 
him: "The meaning of the words of that man of God is not 
upon the surface. Rise up, go and be penitent to him, and he 
will disclose to you the power in his words." So the brother 
rose and came to the old man, and was penitent to him. And 
he said: "Forgive me, father, that I was a fool, and did not bid 
you goodbye when I left. But I beg you, explain to me how it is 
that you are untroubled by lust." The old man said to him: "It 
is because, ever since I became a monk, I have never taken my 
fill of bread, or water, or sleep; and because I am tormented 
by desire for food, I cannot feel the pricks of lust." And the 
brother went away, taking profit from the words of the old 
man. 

32. A brother asked an old man: "What am I to do? My 
mind is ever thinking about fornication; arid lets me not rest 
even for an hour, and my soul is suffering." But the old man 
said to him: "When the demons sow thoughts in your heart, 
and you feel this, do not hold converse with your soul, for that is 
the demons' suggestion. Though the demons are careful to send 
in thoughts, they do not force you. It is yours to receive or 
reject. Do you know what the Midianites did? They adorned 
their daughters, and set them where the Israelites could see 
them: yet they did not force them to intermingle, but as each 
one wished. But others were wrathful and uttered threats, and 
avenged the act of whoredom with the death of those who had 



7O WESTERN ASCETICISM 

dared it. This is what should be done with the lust that rises in 
the mind." But the brother replied: "And what am I to do, in 
that I am frail, and this passion masters me?" And the old man 
said: "Be earnest in this way. When they start to speak in your 
heart, do not answer them. But rise up, pray, do penance, and 
say 'Son of God, have mercy upon me.' " But the brother said 
to him: "Look, Abba, I meditate, and there is no penitence in 
my heart, for I do not know the meaning of the words on which 
I meditate." And the old man said: "Yet, go on meditating, I 
have heard that Abba Poemen and other fathers said this: 'The 
snake-charmer knows not the meaning of his words: but the 
snake hears them, and knows their meaning, and obeys the 
charmer, and lies down. So though we know not the meaning of 
what we say, the demons hear, and are fearful, and flee.' " 

33. An old man used to say: "A lustful thought is brittle like 
papyrus. If it is thrust into us, and we do not accept it but cast 
it from us, it is broken easily. If it casts its sweetness over us and 
we dally with it, it is as difficult to break as iron. So we need a 
discrimination of mind, to know that men who consent lose their 
hopes of salvation: and for men who do not consent, a crown is 
laid up." 

34. Two brothers, who were attacked by lust, went away and 
married wives. Afterwards they said to each other: "What have 
we gained that we have ceased to live like angels, and have 
come to impurity, and later will come to fire and torment? Let 
us go back to the desert, and do penance for our fault." And 
they came to the desert, and asked the fathers to accept them 
as penitents, and confessed what they had done. And the elders 
shut them up for a whole year, and gave them each an equal 
measure of bread and water. Now they were alike in appear- 
ance. And at the end of the year's penance, they came out. 
And the fathers saw that one looked pale and melancholy, the 
other looked strong and bright. And they were astonished, for 
each had had the same quantity of food and drink. And they 
asked the man who was sad and troubled: "What were you 
doing with your thoughts in that cell?" And he said: "I was 
turning over in my mind the punishment I shall incur for the 
evil I have done, and I was so afraid that my bones cleaved to 
my flesh." And they asked the other: "What were you thinking 
about in your cell?" And he said: "I was thanking God that he 
had delivered me from the pollution of this world and the 
punishment of the next, and has called me back to live here like 
the angels: and as I thought continually upon my God, I was 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 71 

glad." And the old men said: "The penitence of both men is 
equal before God." 

35. In Scete there was an old man who became gravely ill, 
and was nursed by the brothers. When the old man saw how 
much they did for him, he said: "I am going to Egypt, and then 
I shall not be a trouble to these brothers." And Abba Moses 
said to him: "Don't go: you will run into lust." But the old 
man was vexed, and said: "My body is dead. How can you say 
that to me?" So he rose and went to Egypt. 

When the surrounding inhabitants in Egypt heard that he 
had arrived, they brought him many gifts. And a devout maiden 
came to him, wishing to minister to him because he was sick. 
And after a short time he recovered somewhat from the illness 
which had gripped him, and he came to her, and she con- 
ceived. And when her neighbours asked her, who was the 
father, she said: "This old man." But they did not believe hen 
Then the old man said: "It is I who am the father. Keep for 
me the baby when it is born." And when the baby had been 
weaned, the old man carried it on his shoulders, and arrived 
at Scete on a feast day, and went into church in front of the 
whole congregation. When they saw him, they wept. And he 
said to the brothers: "Do you see this baby? He is the child of 
disobedience. Beware, my brothers, remember what I have 
done though I am old, and pray for me." And going to his cell, 
he returned to his earlier way of life. 

36. A brother was grievously tempted by the demons of 
fornication. Four demons appeared before him like beautiful 
women, and attacked him continuously for forty days. But he 
fought like a man, and was unconquered- And God, seeing his 
good struggle, granted that he should no more suffer the sting 
of bodily passion. 

37. In lower Egypt there was a very famous hermit, who 
lived alone in his cell. And it happened that by Satan's wiles a 
harlot heard of him, and said to the young men: "What will 
you give me, if I ruin that hermit?" They agreed to give her a 
present. At evening she went out and came to his cell like a 
person who had lost her way. When she knocked at his door, he 
came out. And seeing her, he was troubled, and said: "How 
have you come here?" She pretended to weep, and said: "I lost 
my way." He felt truly sorry for her, and led her into the little 
courtyard of his cell, and himself went to the inner room of his 
cell and shut the door. And she cried aloud in woe: "Abba, the 
beasts will eat me here." Again he was troubled, and afraid of 



72 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

the judgement of God; and he said: "Why has God's wrath 
come upon me thus?" And he opened the door and brought her 
inside. 

Then the devil began to goad his heart to want her. He knew 
that it was the devil's goading, and said silently: "The ways of 
the enemy are darkness: but the Son of God is light." He rose, 
and lit the lamp. And when he began to burn with desire, he 
said: "People who do things like this go into torment. Test 
yourself, and see whether you can bear a fire which is ever- 
lasting." And he put his finger in the flame of the lamp. And 
he burnt it: but he did not feel the pain because of the fire of 
passion within him. And so, until the dawn came he burnt his 
fingers one after the other. 

The wretched woman saw what he was doing, and in her fear 
lay still as a stone. And at dawn the young men came to the 
monk and said: "Did a woman come here yesterday evening?" 
He said: "Yes, she is asleep over there." And they went in, and 
found her dead. And they said: "Abba, she is dead." Then he 
turned back the cloak which he was wearing, and showed them 
his hands, and said: "Look what that child of the devil has done 
to me. She has cost me every finger I possess." And he told 
what had happened, and said: "It is written, Render not evil 
for evil." And he prayed, and raised her up. She was converted, 
and lived chastely for the rest of her days. 

38. A brother was assailed by lust. By chance he came to a 
village in Egypt, and saw the daughter of the heathen priest 
there, and greatly loved her. And he said to her father: "Give 
her to be my wife." He answered: "I cannot give her to you 
until I have besought my god." And he went to the demon 
whom he served and said: "Here is a monk wanting to marry 
my daughter. Do I give her to him?" The demon answered: 
"Ask him if he denies his God, and his baptism, and his mon- 
astic vow." And the priest came and said to the monk: "If you 
deny your God, and your baptism, and your monastic vow, I 
will give you my daughter," The monk agreed. And at once he 
saw something like a dove fly out of his mouth and up into the 
sky. Then the priest went to the demon and said: "He has 
promised to do the three things you said," Then the devil 
answered: "Do not give your daughter to be his wife, for his 
God has not left him, but will yet help him." And the priest 
went back and said to the monk: "I cannot give her to you, 
because your God is still helping you, and has not left you." 

When the monk heard this, he said in himself: "If God has 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 73 

shown me such kindness, though like a wretch I have denied 
him, and my baptism and my monastic vow, if God is so good 
that he still helps me though I am wicked, why am I running 
away from him?" And he was restored to his right and sober 
mind, and came into the desert to a great old man, and told 
him what had happened. And the old man replied: "Stay with 
me in this cave, and fast for three weeks, and I will pray God 
for you." And the old man travailed on behalf of the brother, 
and prayed God thus: "I beseech thee, O Lord, grant me this 
soul, and accept its penitence." 

And God heard his prayer. At the end of the first week, the 
old man came to the brother and asked: "Have you seen any 
thing?" And the brother replied: "Yes, I saw a dove above in 
the sky over my head." And the old man answered: "Look to 
your heart, and pray God earnestly." After the second week the 
old man came again to the brother, and asked him: "Have you 
seen anything?" And he replied: "I have seen a dove coming 
down by my head." and the old man charged him: "Pray, and 
pray seriously." And at the end of the third week, the old man 
came again and asked him: "Have you seen anything else?" 
And he answered: "I saw a dove and it came and sat on my 
head, and I stretched out my hand to catch it, and it entered 
my mouth." 

And the older man thanked God, and said to the brother: 
"Look, God has accepted your penitence. In future be careful, 
and on your guard." And the brother answered: "See, I will 
stay with you now, until I die." 

39. One of the old men in the Thebaid used to say that he 
was the son of a heathen priest, and that as a little boy he had 
often seen, his father go into the temple and sacrifice to the idol. 
And once, when he had crept in secretly, he had seen Satan on 
his throne, and his host standing around: and one of his chief- 
tains came and adored him. And the devil said: "Where have 
you come from?" And he answered: "I was in such and such a 
province, and there I stirred wars and riots, and much blood 
was spilt, and I have come to tell you." And the devil asked 
him: "How long did it take you?" And he answered: "A 
month." Then the devil said: "Did you take so long over it?" 
and ordered him to be beaten. 

Then a second came to adore him. And the devil said to him: 
"Where have you been?" And the demon replied: "I was in the 
sea, and I raised storms, and sunk ships, and drowned many, 
and have come to tell you." And the devil said: "How long did 



74 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

it take you?" And he answered: "Twenty days." And the devil 
said: "Why did you take so long over this one task?" and 
ordered him also to be flogged. 

Then a third came and adored him. And the devil said to 
him: "Where have you been?" And he answered: "I was in such 
and such a city: and during a wedding I stirred up quarrelling 
until the parties came to bloody blows, and in the end even the 
husband was killed, and I have come to tell you." And the devil 
said: "How long did it take you?" And he answered: "Ten 
days." The devil commanded him also to be flogged because 
he had been idle. 

Another came to adore him, and he said: "Where have you 
been?" And he answered: "I was in the desert: and for forty 
years I have been attacking one monk. And at last in the night, 
I prevailed, to make him lust." When the devil heard this, he 
rose, and kissed him. And taking off his own crown, he put it on 
his head, and made him sit with him on a throne, and said: 
"You have been brave, and done a great deed." 

"When I heard and saw this, I said within myself: 'Great 
indeed is the discipline of the monks'. And so it pleased God to 
grant me salvation: and I went out, and became a holy monk." 

40. They said this of a father, that he had been a man who 
lived in the world, and had turned to God, but was still goaded 
by desire for his wife; and he told this to the fathers. When 
they saw him to be a true labourer, one who did more than his 
duty, they laid on him a course of discipline which so weakened 
his body that he could not stand up* By God's providence a 
father came to visit Scctc. And when he came to this man's cell, 
he saw it open, and he passed on, surprised that no one came to 
meet him. But then he thought that perhaps the brother inside 
was ill, and returned, and knocked on the door. And after 
knocking, he went in, and found the monk gravely ill. And he 
said: "What's the matter, father?" And he told him: "I was 
living in the world, and the enemy still troubles me because of 
my wife. And I told the fathers, and they laid upon me various 
burdens to discipline my life. And in trying to carry them out 
obediently, I have fallen ill and yet the goad is worse." When 
the old man heard this, he was vexed, and said: "The fathers 
are powerful men, and did well in laying these burdens upon 
you. But if you will listen to me who am but a child in these 
matters, stop all this discipline, take a little food at the proper 
times, recover your strength, join in the worship of God for a 
little, and turn your mind to the Lord for this is a thing you 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 75 

cannot conquer by your own efforts. The human body is like a 
coat. If you treat it carefully, it will last a long time. If you 
neglect it, it will fall into tatters," 

The sick man did as he was told, and in a few days the 
incitement to lust vanished. 

41* A very old hermit, of saintly life, lived on a mountain 
near Antinoe, and helped many people towards sanctity by his 
teaching and example so I have been told by well-known 
monks. And because he was saintly, the devil was stirred to envy 
him, as he envies all men of true goodness. And the devil sent 
into his heart the thought that if he was really the man he 
wanted to be, he ought not to let others minister to his needs, 
but himself ought to be ministering to them: or at least, if he 
could not minister to the needs of others, he ought to minister to 
his own needs. So he said: "Go to the town and sell the baskets 
you are making, and buy what you need, and come back to 
your cell, and so be a burden to no one." But the devil suggested 
this because he envied his quietness and his opportunity of 
leisure to hear God, and the good which he did to so many 
people. All round him the enemy was scurrying, hurling at him, 
trying to capture him. 

He assented to what he believed a good thought, and came 
down from his hermitage. And everyone admired him and 
recognized him when they saw him, but did not know that he 
was entangled in the devil's net. And after a long time he saw a 
woman. And because he was being careless, he was overthrown, 
and came to her. And he went into a desert place, with the 
devil at his heels, and fell down by a river. And he thought that 
the enemy rejoiced at his ruin, and wanted to despair, because 
he had sorely grieved the Spirit of God, and the holy angels, 
and the venerable fathers, many of whom had overcome the 
devil though they lived in towns. And because he could not 
become like them, he was utterly downcast; and he forgot that 
God is a God who gives strength to them who devoutly turn to 
him. Blinded, and not seeing how to cure his sin, he wanted to 
throw himself in the river, and fill the enemy's cup to over- 
flowing. In the agony of his soul, his body began to sicken. And 
unless God in his mercy had helped him, he would have died 
impenitent, to the perfect satisfaction of the enemy. 

But at the last moment he found his right mind again. He 
resolved to inflict a severe penance upon himself, and pray to 
God in sorrow and grief: and in this mind he went back to his 
cell. He marked the door of his cell in the usual way to show 



76 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

that the man inside was dead, and so he wept and prayed to 
God. He fasted, and watched, and became thin with his aus- 
terity; and still he did not think he had made fit penance or 
satisfaction. When the brothers came to him to be taught, and 
knocked at the door, he said that he could not open it "I am 
bound by an oath to do penance for a whole year devoutly. 
Pray for me." When they heard this, they were scandalized, 
because they believed him to be truly honourable and great: 
but he found no means of explaining himself to them. 

For a whole year he fasted rigidly, and did penance. On 
Easter Eve, he took a new lamp and put it on a new pot, and 
covered it with a lid. At evening he stood up to pray, and said: 
"Merciful, pitying Lord, who wiliest that barbarians be saved 
and come to the knowledge of the truth: I flee to thcc, the 
Saviour of the faithful. Have mercy upon me that I moved thee 
to anger, that I made the enemy happy: here am I, dead, but 
obedient to thee. Thou, Lord, who pitiest even the wicked, even 
the pitiless, thou who commanded us to show mercy to our 
neighbours, have mercy upon me humbled before thee. With 
thee nothing is impossible: for in the mouth of hell my soul was 
scattered like dust. Have pity on thy creation, because thou art 
kind and merciful, thou who wilt on the day of the resurrection 
raise up even bodies that are not. Hear me, O Lord, for my 
spirit has failed, and my soul is wretched, I have polluted my 
body, and now I cannot live, because I did not believe. Look at 
my penitence and forgive my sin, a sin that was double because 
I despaired. Send life into me, for I am contrite: and light this 
lamp with thy fire. So I may be enabled to receive confidence 
in thy mercy and pardon, to keep thy commandments, to re- 
main in thy fear, to serve thee more faithfully than before, for 
the rest of the span of life which thou hast allotted to me." 

On the night of Easter Eve he prayed thus and wept. And he 
rose to see if the lamp were lit. When he took off the lid, he 
saw that it was unlit. And again he fell on his face and besought 
God: "I know, O God, that when I struggled for my crown, I 
did not stand on my feet, but rather chose the pleasures of the 
body and so the punishment of the wicked. Spare me then, 
Lord. Here am I: again I confess my disgrace to thee, who art 
goodness, and in the presence of thy angels, and of all just men, 
I would confess it to all mankind, if I should not cause them 
thereby to stumble. Lord, have mercy upon me, and I will teach 
others: Lord, send life into me," 

When he had prayed three times, God heard his prayer. He 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 77 

rose up and found the lamp burning brightly. And his heart 
leapt with hope, and happiness, and he worshipped God's 
grace who had thus forgiven his sins, and answered his soul's 
prayer. And he said: "I thank thee, O Lord, that thou hast 
pitied me who am unworthy to live in this world, and hast given 
me confidence by this great new sign of thy power; thou art 
merciful to spare the souls which thou Greatest." 

He was still praying thus when the dawn came. And forget- 
ting his need for food, he rejoiced in the Lord. All his life he 
kept that lamp alight, pouring in oil from the top to prevent it 
going out. And so, once again, God's Spirit dwelt within him, 
and he was famous among all the monks, and showed humility 
and joy in his praise and thanksgiving to God. A few days 
before his death it was revealed to him how he should pass to 
another life. 

PART VI 

That a monk should possess nothing 

1. A brother was renouncing the world, and in giving his 
goods to the poor, he kept a little for his own support. And he 
came to Abba Antony. When the old man knew what he had 
done, he said: "If you would be a monk, go to the village 
yonder and buy some meat, and hang it about your naked body, 
and come back here/' And when the brother did so, dogs and 
birds tore at his body. He came back to the old man, who asked 
him if he had done what he was told. He showed St Antony his 
torn body. Then said St Antony: "People who renounce the 
world but want to keep their money, are attacked like that by 
demons and torn in pieces." 

2. Abba Daniel told this story about Abba Arsenius. An 
official once came bringing the will of a kinsman, who was a 
senator, and had left Arsenius a very great bequest. Arsenius 
took the will into his hands and wanted to tear it up. But the 
official fell at his feet, and said: "Please do not tear it; the 
blame will be on my head." And Abba Arsenius said to him: 
"I died before he did. Now that he is dead, how can he make me 
his heir?" And he gave back the will, and would accept nothing. 

3. Once Abba Arsenius fell ill in Scete, and in his plight 
needed just one penny. And he could not find one, so he 
accepted it as alms from someone, and said: "I thank thee, O 
God, that for thy name's sake thou hast made me worthy to 
come to this, that I should have to ask for alms." 



78 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

4. They told this story of Abba Agatho. He and his disciples 
spent a long time in building his cell. After they had finished it, 
he began to live there; and in the first week he saw a vision 
harmful to himself. And he said to his disciples what the Lord 
said to his apostles: "Rise, let us go hence." 18 But the disciples 
were exceedingly vexed, and said: "If you meant the whole 
time to move from here, why did we have to work so hard and 
spend so long in building you a cell? People will begin to be 
scandalized at us, and say: 'Look, they are moving again, they 
are restless and never settle.' " But when he saw that they were 
afraid of what people would say, he said: "Although some may 
be scandalized, there are others who will be edified and say: 
'Blessed are they, for they have moved their abode for God's 
sake, and despised all their property*' Yet I say to you, whoever 
wants to come, let him come, because I at any rate am going," 
They threw themselves on the ground before him, and begged 
to be allowed to go with him. 

5. Abba Evagrius ^ said that there was a brother who had 
no possessions but a Gospel, and sold it to feed the poor. And 
he said a word which is worth remembering: "I have even sold 
the word which commands me to sell all and give to the poor." 

6. Abba Theodore, surnamed Pherme, had three good books. 
And going to Abba Macarius, he said to him: "I have three 
good books, and I am helped by reading them. But other monks 
also want to read them, and they are helped by them. Tell me, 
what am I to do?" And the old man said: "Reading books is 
good, but possessing nothing is more than all." When ho heard 
this, he went away and sold the books, and gave the money to 
the poor. 

7. One of the fathers told a story of John the Persian, how 
from manifold virtue he attained to a deep simplicity and 
innocence. He dwelt in the part of Arabia that lies near to 
Egypt. And once he borrowed from a monk a shilling and 
bought linen with which to make things. And a brother came 
and asked him: "Abba, give me a little linen, and I will make 
myself a vest to wear." John gave it gladly. Then another came 
and asked him for a little linen, so that he could make himself 
a coat. And he gave it. When many others came he gave it 
simply and with pleasure. Later the owner of the borrowed 
shilling arrived and asked for his money back. And the old 
man said to him: "I will fetch it for you." And when he could 

is John 14:31. 

19 Cf. Socrates, H.E.> iv, 23, for the Greek from Evagrius Practice. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 79 

not find the wherewithal to pay, he went to Abba Jacob the 
steward, and asked him for a shilling. On the way he found a 
shilling lying on the ground. He did not touch it, but said a 
prayer, and went back to his cell. And again came the owner of 
the shilling and began to speak harshly to him for his money. 
And John said: "I will give it back to you." And again the old 
man went away, and found the shilling lying as before on the 
ground, and said a prayer, and went back to his cell. Then the 
owner began again to be troublesome: and the old man said: 
"Wait for me just once more, and I will bring you your shil- 
ling." And he rose, and came to that place where he found the 
shilling on the ground. He said a prayer, and fetched it up, and 
came to Abba Jacob and said: "Abba, on my way here I found 
this shilling on the ground. Of your charity make proclamation 
among the neighbours, to see if anyone has lost it." And the 
Abba summoned them and announced the find, but they could 
discover none who had lost it. Then John said to the Abba 
Jacob: "If no one has lost it, give it to that monk there, because 
I owe him a shilling." And Abba Jacob was surprised that John, 
being pressed to pay his debt, had not at once picked the shil- 
ling up when he found it, and used it to pay. 

There was another remarkable thing about Abba John. If 
anyone came to borrow something from him, he did not take it 
in his own hands and lend it, but said: "Come in, take what 
you need." And when a borrower brought anything back, John 
used to say: "Put it back where you found it." But if a man 
borrowed something and did not bring it back, the old man 
said nothing about it to him. 

8. Some of the fathers said that a monk once came to the 
congregation at Cellia, and appeared before Abba Isaac in a 
small hood* And the old man rebuked him, and said: "This is 
where monks live. You are a man of the world, and cannot 
stay here/' 

9. Abba Isaac said to the brothers: "Abba Pambo and our 
fathers used to wear ancient and much-patched clothes. You 
wear expensive clothes. Go away, you have abandoned this 
place." When they were starting out for the harvest, he said: 
"Now I shall give you no more orders, for you never obey me." 

10. Abba Cassian said 20 that one Syncleticus renounced the 
world, and divided his property among the poor. But he kept 
some for his own use, and was unwilling to accept either the 
poverty of those who renounced everything or the normal rule 
20 Institutes, VII, 19. 



8o WESTERN ASCETICISM 

of monasteries. Basil of blessed memory said to him: "You have 
stopped being a senator, but you have not become a monk." 

n. A brother said to Abba Pistamon: "What am I to do? 
I find it painful to sell what I make." Abba Pistamon replied: 
"Abba Sisois and others used to sell what they made. There is 
no harm in this. When you sell anything, say straight out the 
price of the goods. If you want to lower the price a little, you 
may and so you will find rest." The brother said: "I have 
enough for my needs from other sources, do you think I need 
worry about making things to sell?" The old man answered: 
"However much you have, do not stop making things, do as 
much as you can provided that the soul is undisturbed." 

12. A brother asked Abba Serapion: "Speak to me a word." 
The old man said: "What can I say to you? You have taken 
what belongs to widows and orphans and put it on your 
window-ledge." He saw that the window-ledge was full of 
books. 

13. Syncletice of blessed memory was asked:" Is absolute 
poverty perfect goodness?" And she said: "It is a great good 
for those who can. Even those who cannot bear it find rest to 
their souls though they suffer bodily anxiety. As sturdy clothes 
are laundered pure white by being turned and trodden under- 
foot in water, a sturdy soul is strengthened by freely accepting 
poverty." 

14. Abba Hyperichius said: "Freely to accept poverty is the 
monk's treasury. Therefore, my brother, lay up treasure in 
heaven, where there will be endless time for rest." 

15. One of the holy men named Philagrius lived in Jerusalem 
and laboured to earn himself enough to eat. And when he was 
standing in the market-square trying to sell what he had made, 
by chance a bag fell on the ground near him, containing a 
great many shillings. The old man found it, and stood there 
thinking, "The loser must soon come here." And soon the man 
who had lost it came lamenting. So Philagrius took him apart 
and gave him back his bag. The owner asked him to accept 
some of the shillings, but the old man would have nothing. 
Then the owner began to shout and call: "Come and see what 
the man of God has done." But the old man fled away un- 
perceived, and went out of the town, so that they should not 
know what he had done, nor pay him honour. 

1 6. A brother asked an old man: "What must I do to be 
saved?" He took off his clothes, and put a girdle about his loins, 
and stretched out his hands and said: "Thus ought the monk to 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 8l 

be naked of everything worldly, and crucify himself against 
temptation and the world's struggles." 

17. Someone asked an old man to accept money for his future 
needs. But he refused, because the produce of his labour was 
enough for him. But when the man persisted, and begged him 
to take it for the needs of the poor, the old man replied: "My 
disgrace is twofold. I do not need, yet I accept: and I give to 
others, and so will suffer from vanity." 

1 8. Some Greeks once came to give alms in the city of 
Ostracine: and they sought out the stewards of the church to 
show them who was most in need. The stewards led them to a 
leper to whom they gave money. But he did not want it, and 
said: "Look, I have a few palm leaves to work, and I make 
plaits of them, and so get enough to eat." Then the stewards 
led them to the house of a widow who lived with her daughters. 
When they knocked on the door, one of the daughters ran to 
open it though she was naked. Her mother had gone out to 
work as a laundress. They gave the daughter clothing and 
money. But she refused to accept it, and said that her mother 
had told her: "Trust in God's will. Today I have found work 
to supply us with a livelihood." And when the mother came 
back, they asked her to accept it. But she refused, saying: "I 
have my God to care for me. Do you want to take him away 
from me today?" They perceived her faith, and glorified God. 

19. A great man came from far to Scete carrying gold, and 
he asked the presbyter of the desert to distribute it among the 
brothers. But the presbyter said to him: "The brothers do not 
need it." And he was very pressing, and would not give way, 
and put a basket of money in the church porch. And the 
presbyter said: "Whoever is in need may take money from it." 
No one touched it, some did not even look at it. And the old 
man said: "God has accepted your offering to him. Go away, 
and give it to the poor." And he went away much edified. 

20. Someone brought an old man money and said: "Take 
this to spend, for you are old and ill": he was a leper. But the 
old man replied: "Are you coming to take me away from him 
who has fed me for sixty years? I have been infirm the whole of 
that time, and have needed nothing because God has fed me 
and given me what I need." And he refused to accept it. 

21. The old men told of a working gardener who gave away 
all his profit in alms, and kept for himself only enough to live 
on. But later Satan enticed his heart and said: "Store up a little 
money, as a provision to spend when you are old and infirm." 



82 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

And he made a store of coins in a big pot. It happened that he 
fell ill, and his foot became gangrenous; and he spent all his 
coins on doctors, but grew no better. And an experienced 
doctor told him: "Unless you amputate your foot, the gangrene 
will spread through your whole body." And they decided to 
amputate. But the night before the operation, he recovered his 
right mind, and did penance for what he had done, and groaned 
and wept saying: "Lord, remember my earlier good works, 
when I worked in the garden and ministered to the poor* 9 * And 
when he said this, an angel of the Lord stood before him and 
said: " Where is your store of coins? Where is your hope in them 
gone? 55 Then he understood, and said: "I have sinned, Lord. 
Forgive me, I will not do it again." Then the angel touched his 
foot, and it was healed at once. 

And he rose at dawn, and went to the field to work. And at 
the appointed time the surgeon came with his instruments to 
amputate the foot. And people told him: "He went out at dawn 
to work in the fields. 5 ' Then the doctor, astonished, went out to 
the field where he was working. And he saw him digging, and 
glorified God that he had restored his health. 

22. A brother asked an old man: "Would you have me save 
two shillings for myself, in case I fall ill?" The old man, seeing 
into his heart that he wanted to save them, said: "Yes. 5 * And 
the brother went into his cell, and was worn down by his 
thoughts, saying to himself; "Do you think the old man spoke 
the truth to me or not?" He got up and went back to the old 
man, did penance, and asked: "For the Lord's sake speak the 
truth to me, for I am troubled in my thoughts about those two 
shillings." The old man said to him: "I told you to save them 
because I saw you intended to save them. But it is not good to 
save more than the body needs. If you keep two shillings, you 
will put your hope in them. And if by chance they are des- 
stroyed, God is then no longer thinking of our needs. Let us 
cast our thought upon the Lord: it is for him to care for us/ 1 

PART VII 

Of patience, or fortitude 

i . Once when the holy Abba Antony was living in the desert, 
his soul was troubled by boredom and irritation. And he said 
to God; "Lord, I want to be made whole and my thoughts do 
not let me. What am I to do in this trouble, how shall I be made 
whole?" And rising up after a little while, he began to go 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 83 

outside. And he saw someone like himself sitting down and at 
work; then standing up to pray; then sitting down again to 
make a plait of palm leaves, and again standing up to pray. It 
was an angel of the Lord sent to correct Antony and make him 
careful. And he heard the voice of the angel saying: "Do this 
and you will be made whole." When he heard it he was very 
glad and recovered his confidence. And he did what the angel 
had done, and found the salvation which he was seeking. 

2. A brother asked Abba Agatho: "I have been instructed to 
go somewhere, and I have a grievous struggle in the place where 
I have been told to go. I want to obey the order, yet I am 
frightened of the inner struggle which will ensue." The old man 
said: "Agatho was like that. He obeyed orders, and so won the 
battle." 

3- Abba Ammonas said that for fourteen years he had prayed 
God in Scete night and day to give him power to control his 
temper. 

4. Abba Bessarion said that for forty nights he had stood up 
among the thorns, and had not slept. 

5. A hermit who was troubled in mind went to Abba Theo- 
dore of Pherme and told him so. The old man said to him: "Go, 
make your mind humble, put yourself in subjection, and go to 
live with others." So he went to a mountain, and there lived 
with a community. Later he returned to the old man and said: 
"Not even when I lived with other men did I find rest." And 
the old man said to him: "If you are not at rest when a hermit, 
nor when in community, why did you want to be a monk? 
Was it not that you might suffer? Tell me, how many years have 
you been a monk?" And he said: "Eight." And the old man 
said: "Believe me, I have been a monk for seventy years, and I 
have not been able to get a single day's peace. And do you want 
to have peace after eight years?" 

6. A brother asked Abba Theodore: "If you suddenly hear the 
sound of falling masonry, are you frightened, Abba?" And the 
old man said: "If the heaven fell down on the earth, Theodore 
would not be afraid." For he had prayed to God that fear might 
be taken from him, and that was why the brother asked him. 

7. They said of Abba Theodore and Abba Lucius from the 
region of Alexandria, that they lived fifty years enticing their 
souls onwards thus. They said: "When this winter is past, we 
will move from here." And in the summer time they said: "At 
the end of the summer let us move from here." And so those 
memorable fathers lived their whole lives in devotion. 



84 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

8. Abba Poemen said of Abba John the Short that he prayed 
the Lord to take away his passions. And so he was made 
tranquil in heart, and came to an old man and said: "I find that 
I am at rest, with no war of flesh and spirit." And the old man 
said to him: "Go, ask the Lord to stir a new war in you. Fight- 
ing is good for the soul." And when the war revived in him, he 
no longer prayed for it to be taken away, but said: "Lord, grant 
me long-suffering to endure this war." 

9. Abba Macarius the Great came to Abba Antony on the 
mountain. And when he knocked at the door, Antony went out 
to him and said: "Who are you?" And he said: "I am Mac- 
arius." And Antony went in and shut the door, and left 
Macarius outside. And afterwards, when he saw how patiently 
he waited, he opened the door to him. And he welcomed him, 
saying: "I have heard of you, and for a long time I have wanted 
to see you." And he was hospitable to him and refreshed him; 
for Macarius was tired with his endeavours. In the evening 
Abba Antony put out a few palm leaves for himself. And Abba 
Macarius said to him: "Give me some, so that I can work at 
them." Antony said: "I have no more." So he made a pile of 
what he had, and they sat late, talking to the profit of their 
souls, and made a plaited rope, and the rope hung out of the 
window in the cave. And at dawn Antony went in and saw the 
plaits which Abba Macarius had made, and he wondered at 
them and kissed his hand, saying: "There is much virtue in 
those plaits." 

10. This Macarius once went down from Scete to a place 
named Terenuthis, and he climbed into an old pagan cemetery 
to sleep. And he put one of the bodies under his head as a 
pillow. The demons hated him when they saw his assurance, 
and tried to frighten him by calling out "Lady, come with us 
to bathe." And another demon answered, from underneath 
Macarius, as though he were the dead woman: "I have a pil- 
grim on top of me, and cannot move." The old man was not 
frightened, but confidently thumped the body, saying: "Get up, 
go if you can." When the demons heard it, they cried with a loud 
voice and said: "You have beaten us." And they fled in con- 
fusion. 

n. Abba Mathois said: "I want to find some easy but con- 
tinual work, rather than a heavy work that is quickly finished." 

12. They said of Abba Milidus, that while he was living on 
the frontiers of Persia with two disciples, two sons of the 
emperor came on their usual hunting expedition, and put nets 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 85 

over an area of forty miles, and speared whatever they trapped. 
And they found the old man and his disciples within the area. 
And when they saw his hairy and forbidding face, they were 
surprised and said: "Are you a man or a Spirit?" And he said: 
"I am a sinful man, and I have come out here to lament my 
sins; and I worship Jesus Christ the Son of the living God." 
They said to him: "There is no God but the sun, and the fire 
and the water. Worship them and sacrifice to them." And he 
replied: "You are wrong: these are but creatures. I beseech 
you, be converted recognize the true God who made these and 
all things else." But they mocked him and said: "Are you 
saying that the true God is a condemned and crucified man?" 
"Yes," said Milidus, "I say that the true God is he who 
crucified sin and killed death." 

So they tortured him and his two monks to force them to 
sacrifice. And after much torture they beheaded the two monks, 
but they went on torturing the old man day after day. But 
afterwards they fastened him in one place and fired arrows 
into him, one in front and one behind, so that he looked like 
a signpost. The old man said to them: "Since you have con- 
spired to shed innocent blood, tomorrow, at this very moment of 
the day, your mother shall be bereaved of her children and your 
affection for her,, and you will spill each other's blood by your 
own arrows/' They thought his words were silly: and next day 
went out again to hunt. It happened that a stag escaped from 
their net, and they jumped on their horses and chased him. 
And each fired an arrow which hit the heart of the other: and 
so they died as the old man had foretold. 

13. Abba Poemen said: "The mark of the true monk only 
appears under temptation." 

14. Another saying of his was this. Isidore the presbyter in 
Scete once addressed a congregation of monks and said: "My 
brothers, is not work the reason why we are here? And now I 
see that there is no work here. So I am taking my cloak and 
going where there is work, and there I shall find rest." 

15. Saint Syncletice said: "If you live in a monastic com- 
munity, do not wander from place to place: if you do, it will 
harm you. If a hen stops sitting on the eggs she will hatch no 
chickens: and the monk or nun who moves from place to place 
grows cold and dead in faith." 

1 6. She also said: "When the devil does not use the goads of 
poverty to tempt, he uses wealth for the purpose. When he 
cannot win by scorn and mockery, he tries praise and flattery. 



86 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

If he cannot win by providing health, he tries illness: if he can- 
not win by comfort, he tries to ruin the soul by vexations which 
lead a person to act against the monastic vow. He inflicts severe 
sicknesses on people whom he wants to tempt, and so makes them 
weak, and thereby shakes the charity which they feel towards 
God. But although the body is shattered and running high 
temperatures and thirsting unbearably yet you who endure all 
this are a sinner, and remember the punishments of the next 
world, and the everlasting fire, and the torments of the judge* 
ment. So you will not fail in the sufferings of this present time; 
indeed you should rejoice because God has visited you. Keep 
saying the famous text: The Lord hath chastened and corrected 
me: but he hath not given me over unto death.' 21 Iron is 
cleaned of rust by fire. If you are righteous and suffer, you grow 
to a yet higher sanctity. Gold is tested by fire. A messenger from 
Satan is given to you to be a thorn in your flesh. Lift up your 
heart, for you see that you have received a gift like that of St 
Paul If you suffer from fever and cold, remember the text of 
Scripture, 'We went through fire and water,' and then 'thou 
broughtest us out into a place of rest.' If you have won the 
suffering, you may expect the place of rest, provided you are 
following what is good. Cry aloud the prophet's words, 'I am 
poor and destitute and in misery' for threefold suffering like 
this shall make you perfect. He said also, 'Thou hast set me at 
liberty when I was in trouble.' 22 

Thus, let us test our souls by this kind of self-discipline, for 
we have our enemy before our eyes." 

17. Saint Syncletice also said: "If you are troubled by illness, 
do not be melancholy, even if you are so ill that you cannot 
stand to pray or use your voice to say psalms. We need these 
tribulations to destroy the desires of our body in this they serve 
the same purpose as fasting and austerity. If your senses are 
dulled by illness, you do not need to fast. In the same way that 
a powerful medicine cures an illness, so illness itself is a medi- 
cine to cure passion. And there is much profit of soul in bearing 
illness quietly and giving thanks to God. If we go blind, let us 
not be disturbed. We have lost a means to excellence, yet we 
can contemplate the glory of God with the inward eyes of the 
soul. If we go deaf, let us remember that we shall no longer 
hear a lot of silly talk. If suffering has weakened the strength of 

21 Ps. u8:i8, 

22 Ps. 66: is; Ps, 4:1. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 87 

your hands, you still have an inner strength against the enemy's 
attacks. If the whole body is afflicted by disease, the health of 
the inner man is still increasing." 

18. She also said: "People in the world who commit crime 
are thrown into prison against their will. For our sins, let us 
put ourselves under guard, and by willingly accepting it now 
we shall avoid punishment in the future. If you fast, you should 
avoid saying that by weakening your frame you have fallen ill, 
for people who do not fast, fall ill in the same way. If you have 
begun some good work, you should not be turned from it by the 
enemy's attempts to hinder you, indeed your endurance will 
conquer the enemy. Seamen beginning a voyage set the sails 
and look for a favourable wind and later they meet a contrary 
wind. Just because the wind has turned, they do not throw the 
cargo overboard or abandon ship: they wait a little and battle 
against the storm until they can again set a direct course. And 
when we run into headwinds, let us put up the cross for our 
sail, and we shall voyage through the world in safety." 

19. They said of Abbess Sarah of blessed memory, that for 
sixty years she lived on the bank of a river, and never looked 
down to see the water. 

20. Abba Hyperichius said: "Keep praising God with 
hymnody, and meditate continually, and so lift the burden of 
the temptations that come upon you. A traveller carrying a 
heavy burden stops from time to time to take deep breaths, and 
so makes the journey easier and the burden lighter." 

21. He also said: "Temptations come to us in all kinds of 
ways. We ought to be armed at all points, and then we shall 
appear to them to be tried warriors when they come against 



us." 



22. An old man said: "If a man is tempted, sufferings 
crowd round him on all sides, and he becomes timid and begins 
to grumble." And the old man told this story. A temptation 
came to a brother who lived at Cellia. And if anyone saw him, 
they did not wish him well, nor did they welcome him into their 
cells. If he was short of bread, no one lent him any. If he was 
on his way back from harvesting, no one followed the usual 
custom of inviting him in for refreshment. Once he had been 
reaping, and he became very thirsty, and had no bread in his 
cell. But in all these tribulations he kept thanking God. And 
God seeing his patience, took away his inner struggle and gave 
him rest. And immediately there was a knock on his door, and 
a man from Egypt was outside leading a camel laden with 



88 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

bread. When the brother saw it, he began to weep, and said: 
"Lord, I am not worthy of even a little suffering," And now 
that his trial was over, the brothers welcomed him in their cells 
and in the church, and refreshed him. 

23. An old man said: "We do not make progress because we 
do not know what we can do; we lose heart in the work we 
have begun; and we want to be good without trying to be 
good. 53 

24. 23 A brother asked an old man: "What am I to do? My 
thoughts will not let me sit alone in my cell even for an hour." 
The old man said: "My son, go back and stay in your cell, 
wash your hands, pray God continually, and cast your thoughts 
upon God: and let no one persuade you to go out of your cell." 
And he said: "A lad who was living in the world with his 
father, decided to become a monk. But though he begged his 
father to allow it, the father kept refusing: until in the end, at 
the request of some devout friends, he consented with an ill 
grace. And the lad left home and entered a monastery. As soon 
as he was a monk, he began to keep the monastic rule perfectly, 
and to fast every day. He even began to go without food for 
two days and to eat a proper meal only once a week. His Abba 
saw him and marvelled, and blessed God for his self-discipline. 

After a short time it happened that the monk began to beg 
his Abba: 'Please let me go into the desert.' The Abba said: 
c My son, do not think of it. You cannot endure austerity like 
that, or the skill and temptation of the devil. When you are 
tempted in the desert, there is no one to comfort you in the 
{roubles which the devil stirs up.' But the monk began the more 
to ask him to let him go. And his Abba, seeing that he could not 
hold him, said a prayer and let him go. Then he said to his 
Abba: Tlease give me guides to show me the right way.' And the 
Abba selected two monks from that monastery to go with him. 

For two days they walked through the desert, and then 
were exhausted with the heat. So they lay down and slept for a 
little. While they were asleep, an eagle swooped down and 
beat at them with its wings, and then flew off a little and 
alighted. They woke up and saw the eagle, and said: 'Here's 
your angel: rise and follow him.' The brother rose and bid the 
brothers good-bye, and followed the eagle, which flew a little 
and then alighted, and on his approach flew a little further; 
this went on for three hours. Then the eagle flew off to the right 
of the pursuing monk, and did not reappear. Nevertheless the 
23 Omitted from all the early manuscripts. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 89 

monk went that way, and saw three palm-trees, and a spring, 
and a little cave. He said: 'Here's the place that God has made 
ready for me.' 

He went into the cave and stayed there, eating dates and 
drinking the water from the spring; for six years he lived there 
alone and saw no man. But one day the devil came to him 
disguised as an elder, with a fierce expression on his face. The 
brother saw him and was frightened, and fell down to pray. 
And when he rose again, the devil said to him: 'Let us pray 
again, brother.' And when they rose again, the devil said: 'How 
long have you been here?' He answered: 'Six years.' And the 
devil said: 'This is remarkable. I have had you as my neigh- 
bour, and I did not find out until four days ago. I have a hermit- 
age not far from here, and this is the first day in eleven years 
that I have left it, because I discovered that you were living near 
me. And I considered the matter and said, Shall I go to this 
man of God, and consult him for the good of my soul? I tell 
you, brother, we do no good sitting like this in our cells. We 
cannot receive the body and blood of Christ, and I am afraid 
that he will cast us away if we separate ourselves from that 
sacrament. But I tell you, brother, three miles from here is a 
monastery with a presbyter. Let us go there every Sunday, or 
every other Sunday, and receive the body and blood of Christ, 
and return to our cells.' 

The brother was pleased and persuaded by the devil's sug- 
gestion. On Sunday the devil came and said: 'Come, it is time 
to go.' They went out and came to the monastery where the 
presbyter was, entered the church and fell to prayer. When the 
monk ended his prayer, he could not see his guide anywhere, 
and said: 'Where do you think he has gone? Has he had to go 
out?' He waited some time; but his guide did not return. He 
went out of the church and looked round for him, but could 
not find him. So he asked the monks of the place: 'Where is the 
Abba who came to church with me?' They said: 'We saw no 
one eke but you.' 

Then the brother knew he was a demon, and said: 'See the 
skill with which the devil has winkled me out of my cell. Yet 
he cannot touch me, because I have come here for a good 
reason. I shall receive the body and blood of Christ, and go back 
to my cell.' After mass in the church, the brother wanted to go 
back to his cell But the abbot of the monastery kept him, 
saying: 'Unless you dine with us, we shall not let you go back.' 
So he shared their dinner, and went back to his cell. 



90 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Then the devil came again, this time in the likeness of a 
young man of the world, and began to look him up and down 
from head to foot and say: 'Is this the man? It is not.' And he 
began to stare at him. The brother said to him: 'Why are you 
gazing at me?' And the devil said: 'I think you do not know 
who I am. How should you know after so long a time? I am the 
son of your father's neighbour. Is not your father's name this, 
and your mother's that, and your sister's that, and your name 
that? Are not your two serving girls called such and such? But 
your mother and sister died three years ago. Now your father 
has died, and left his property to you, saying: "My son, who in 
holiness left the world and followed God, is the only heir left 
to me, so I will leave him everything. If anyone is a prophet of 
the Lord and knows where he is, let him speak. Then my son, 
can come and take my wealth and give it away to the poor for 
the benefit of my soul and his soul." And many people went 
seeking you but could not find you. I was brought here acci- 
dentally by some work and recognized you. Do not delay, but 
come; sell it all and do what your father wanted.' 

The brother answered: 'I have no need to go back to the 
world. 5 The devil said: 'If you do not come and your wealth 
vanishes you will have to give an account of it before God. 
Surely I am saying nothing wicked in telling you to come and 
give money to the poor and needy like a good and generous 
man, and so prevent money left to the poor from being mis- 
appropriated by evil men and women? What is the trouble in 
coming to give alms as your father wanted for the good of your 
soul, and then returning to your cell?' 

So he persuaded the brother to return to the world. He went 
with him as far as the town and left him. The brother was 
making to enter his father's house, as the house of a dead man, 
when his father came out alive and well. He did not recognize 
his son, but said: 'Who are you?' The monk in his surprise could 
not say a word. His father began again to ask him who he was 
and whence he came. Then, in his confusion, he said: 'I am 
your son.' His father said: 'Why have you come back?' He was 
ashamed to say why he had come, so he said: 'My love made me 
return; I wanted to see you.' And he stayed at home. And soon 
he fell into lust, and was severely punished by his father, and 
was wretched and did no penance but remained in the world. 

So I tell you, my brothers, that a monk never ought to let 
himself be persuaded by anyone to leave his cell." 

25. In the desert some people came to a great old man and 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS gi 

said: "How is it you are happy here in this severe life?" And the 
old man said: "All the severity of my life here cannot compare 
with the day of torment prepared for sinners in the next world." 

26. An old man said: "The ancients were reluctant to move 
from place to place except perhaps for three reasons: first, 
if a man was vexed against them and no amount of satisfaction 
would propitiate him: secondly, if many people praised them: 
and thirdly, if they were tempted to lust." 

27. A brother said to Abba Arsenius: "What am I to do, 
Abba? My thought troubles me, telling me 'You cannot fast, 
nor work, nor visit the sick, because even these things are 
selfish.' " The old man saw that the devil had sown the thought 
and said: "Go, eat and drink and sleep, only do not leave your 
cell; remember that staying in the cell is what keeps a monk 
on his proper path." He did it for three days and then suffered 
from accidie. So he found a few palm leaves and split them; the 
next day he began to make a plait from them. When he grew 
hungry, he said to himself: "Here are a few more palm-leaves. 
I shall lay them out before I eat." And after he had finished, 
he said: "I shall read a little before I eat." And after he had 
finished, he said: "I shall say a few psalms, and then I shall eat 
with an untroubled mind." 

So step by step he made progress with God's help, until he 
came back to the right way. And when he had received con- 
fidence against evil thoughts, he overcame them. 

28. An old man was asked by a brother why, when he stayed 
in his cell, he suffered accidie. The old man answered: "You 
have not yet seen the resurrection for which we hope, nor the 
torment of fire. If you had seen these, then you would bear 
your cell without accidie even if it was filled with worms and 
you were standing in them up to your neck." 

29. The brothers asked an old man to rest from his great 
labour. He answered: "Believe me, my sons, if Abraham was 
penitent when he saw God's glorious gifts, should we not 
struggle the more in our labour?" 

30. A brother asked an old man and said: "My thoughts 
wander, and I am troubled." He answered: "Go on sitting in 
your cell, and your thoughts will come back from their wander- 
ings. If a she-ass is tethered, her foal skips and gambols all 
round her but always comes back to the mother. So will it be 
with the man who for God's sake sits patiently in his cell. 
Though his thoughts wander for a time, they will come again." 

31. An old man lived in the desert twelve miles from the 



92 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

nearest water. Once, on his way to draw water, he felt exhaus- 
ted. So he said: "What need to suffer this? I will come and live 
by the spring." As soon as he said this, he turned round and saw 
a man following him and counting his steps. He asked the man, 
"Who are you?" And he said: "I am an angel of the Lord, sent 
to count your steps and reward you." When the old man heard 
this, his mind was strengthened, and he moved his cell five 
miles further from the spring. 

32. The fathers used to say: "If you are tempted where you 
are, do not leave the place at a time of temptation. If you do 
leave it, you will find the temptation which you are fleeing 
wherever you next place your cell. Be patient till the temptation 
is past; then your departure will scandalize no one and bring 
no trouble to the other people who live there." 

33. A brother was restless in the community and often moved 
to anger. So he said: "I will go, and live somewhere by myself. 
And since I shall be able to talk or listen to no one, I shall 
be tranquil, and my passionate anger will cease." He went out 
and lived alone in a cave. But one day he filled his jug with 
water and put it on the ground. It happened suddenly to fall 
over. He filled it again, and again it fell. And this happened a 
third time. And in a rage he snatched up the jug and broke it. 
Returning to his right mind, he knew that the demon of anger 
had mocked him, and he said: "Here am I by myself, and he 
has beaten me. I will return to the community. Wherever you 
live, you need effort and patience and above all God's help." 
And he rose up, and went back. 

34. A brother asked an old man: "What am I to do, father? 
I do nothing like a monk. I eat, drink and sleep as I like, I am 
much troubled by vile thoughts, I shift from task to task, and 
my mind wanders everywhere." The old man answered: "Stay 
in your cell, and do what you can without trouble of mind. It is 
only a little that you do now, yet it is even as when Abba 
Antony did mighty things in the desert* I trust God that who- 
ever stays in his cell for God's sake, and guards his conscience, 
will be found where Antony is." 

35. An old mau was asked how a watchful monk should not 
be scandalized when he sees others returning to the world. And 
he replied: "A monk ought to look at hounds when they are 
hunting a hare. One of them glimpses the hare and gives 
chase: the others merely see a hound running, run some way 
with him, then they get tired and go back on their tracks. 
Only the leading hound keeps up the chase until he catches 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 93 

the hare. He is not deterred by the others who give up; he 
thinks nothing of cliffs or thickets or brambles; he is often 
pricked and scratched by thorns; yet he keeps on until he 
catches the hare. And so the man who searches for the Lord 
Jesus, aims unceasingly at the cross, and leaps through every 
obstacle in his way until he comes to the Crucified." 

36. An old man said: "A tree cannot bear fruit if it is often 
transplanted. So it is with the monk." 

37. When a brother was troubled by thoughts of leaving 
the monastery, he told this to his abbot. And he said: "Go 
and sit down, and entrust your body to your cell as a man 
puts a precious possession into a safe, and do not go out. Then 
let your thoughts go where they will. Let your mind think what 
it likes, so long as it does not drive your body out of the cell." 

38. An old man said: "The monk's cell is the furnace in 
Babylon in which the three children found the Son of God. 
It is the pillar of cloud out of which God spoke to Moses." 

39. For nine years a brother was assailed by temptations to 
leave his community. Every day he picked up his cloak to go, 
the cloak in which he wrapped himself at night. At evening 
he would say: "I will go away tomorrow." And at dawn he 
would think: "I ought to bear this torment and stay here just 
today for the Lord's sake." He did this every day for nine 
years, until the Lord took away temptation. 

40. A brother fell into temptation, and in his suffering he 
stopped keeping the monastic rule. When he later tried to 
start keeping the fundamentals of the rule, he was hampered 
by his suffering; and he said to himself: "When shall I be as I 
once was?" And in this gloomy state of soul he could not make 
himself begin the monastic office. So he went to an old man and 
told him what had been happening. When the old man heard 
of his sufferings, he told him this story by way of example. 

"A man had a plot of land. And through his carelessness 
brambles sprang up and it became a wilderness of thistles and 
thorns. Then he decided to cultivate it. So he said to his son: 
'Go and clear that ground.' So the son went to clear it, and saw 
that the thistles and thorns had multiplied. So his spirit 
weakened, and he said: 'How much time shall I need to clear 
and weed all this?' And he lay on the ground and went to sleep* 
He did this day after day. Later his father came to see what he 
had done, and found him doing nothing. And he said to him: 
'Why have you done nothing till now?' And the lad said to his 
father: 'I was just coming to work, father, when I saw this 



94 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

wilderness of thorn and thistle, and I was deterred from start- 
ing, and so I lay on the ground and went to sleep.' Then his 
father said to him: 'Son, if you had cleared each day the area 
on which you lay down, your work would have advanced 
slowly and you would not have lost heart.' So the lad did what 
his father said, and in a short time the plot was cultivated. 

So you, brother, do a little work and do not faint, and God 
will give you grace and bring you back to your proper way of 
life/* 

The brother went away and patiently did what the old man 
had told him. And he found peace of mind, and made progress 
with the help of the Lord Christ. 

41. There was an old man who was often ill. But one year 
he did not fall ill. And he was grievously troubled and wept, 
saying: "The Lord has left me, and has not visited me." 

42. An old man said that a brother was goaded by his 
thoughts for nine years to despair of his salvation. He judged 
himself and said: "I have ruined my soul. And because I have 
perished already, I will go to the world." On his journey he 
heard a voice saying: "Those temptations which you endured 
for nine years were your crowns. Go back to your cell, and I 
will take from you these evil thoughts." Thereupon he realized 
that it is not good to despair of oneself because of the temptations 
that come. If we use these thoughts well they will give us a 
crown. 

43. An old man was living in a cave in the Thebaid with one 
well-tested disciple. It was usual for the old man to teach the 
disciple during the evening and show him how the soul should 
progress: and after the address, he prayed and sent him away 
to sleep. 

Some devout laymen who knew the old man's ascetic life 
happened to visit him. He gave them consolation, and they went 
away. Then the old man sat down after the evening offices as 
usual to address and instruct the brother. But while he was 
talking, sleep overcame him. The brother waited for the old 
man to wake and end with the usual prayer. But the old man 
went on sleeping, and the brother went on sitting for a long time: 
and in the end the disciple, with greatly troubled mind, was 
forced to go away to sleep. But he tormented himself, and re- 
sisted the temptation, and went back to sit by the old man. A 
second time he was forced up by the longing for sleep, but sat 
down again. This happened seven times, and still he went on 
resisting his soul. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 95 

In the middle of the night the old man awoke, and found 
lim sitting nearby and said: "Are you not gone away yet?" 
^nd he said: "No, you did not dismiss me, father." The old 
nan said: "Why did you not wake me up?" He answered: "I 
lid not dare to nudge you for fear of disturbing you." 

They both stood up and began to say mattins. After mattins 
he old man dismissed his disciple. And while the old man was 
itting alone, he was rapt and was shown a vision of a glorious 
)lace, and a throne in it, and on the throne seven crowns. And 
le asked the angel who showed the vision: "Whose are those?" 
\nd he said: "They are the crowns of your disciple: God has 
jiven him this place and throne because of his goodness: 
onight he has been granted these seven crowns." 

The old man marvelled, and tremblingly called his disciple 
o him and said: "Tell me what you did last night." He 
mswered: "Forgive me, father, I did nothing." The old man 
udged that he was being humble and concealing something, 
ind said: "Believe me, I cannot rest until you tell me what you 
lid and thought last night." But the brother was not aware 
hat he had done anything and could not say a word. But he 
aid to the old man: "Forgive me, father, I did nothing except 
>nly this, that seven times I was driven by wandering thoughts 

go away and sleep; but you had not dismissed me as you 
isually do, so I did not go." 

Then the old man at once understood that every time he 
'esisted the temptation, God bestowed a crown on him. To the 
lisciple he said nothing, thinking it best for his soul: but he 
old other directors of souls, to teach us how God can bestow 
;rowns upon us even for resisting little temptations. It is good 
hat a man discipline his whole self for God's sake. As it is 
vritten: "The kingdom of heaven suffereth violence, and the 
violent take it by force." 24 

44. Once a hermit fell ill. Because he had no one to look after 
lim, he rose and ate whatever he found in his cell. Though this 
lappened for several days, no one came to visit him. Even after 

1 month no one had come. And the Lord sent his angel to 
ninister to him. After the angel had ministered to him for a 
veek, the fathers remembered him and said to each other: 
'Let us go and see whether the old man is ill." They went to 
xis cell: and the moment they knocked on the door, the angel 
leparted from him. The old man inside shouted: "Go away, 
ny brothers." But they lifted the door off its hinge and went in, 
* Matt. 11:12. 



96 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

and asked him why he shouted. And he said: "For a month I 
was ill and no one visited me. Now for a week an angel of the 
Lord has ministered to me, but he went away the moment you 
arrived." And with these words, he peacefully died. The 
brothers marvelled, and glorified God, saying: "The Lord does 
not leave them who trust in him." 

45. An old man said: "If you fall ill, do not be a weakling. If 
the Lord God has willed that your body be feeble, who are you to 
bear it with grief? Does he not look after you in all you need? 
Surely you do not live without him. Be patient in your illness, and 
ask him to give you what is right that is, that you may do his 
will, and abide in patience, and in charity eat what you have," 

46. One of the fathers said: "When I was in Oxyrhynchus, 
the poor came on Friday evening to eat the agape. And while 
they were asleep afterwards, there was one only with a mat. 
He put half the mat underneath him and the other half on top, 
but he was still very cold. And when he went to relieve himself, 
I heard him grumbling and moaning about the cold: and he 
consoled himself thus: C I thank thee, Lord. How many wealthy 
men are in prison, sitting on iron or with shackled feet, so that 
they cannot even go out and relieve themselves freely. But I am 
like an emperor I can stretch my legs and walk wherever I 
like. 9 I was standing there and heard what he said: and I went 
in and told the brothers, and they were much edified to hear it." 

47. A brother asked an old man: "If I were somewhere where 
there was no one whom I could consult in a suffering which 
afflicted me, no one to show me the passion of my soul, what 
should I do?" The old man said: "Believe in God, for he will 
send his grace, and will himself be your consolation, if you ask 
him in charity." And he added: "I have heard a story like this 
from Scete. There was a man enduring temptation, and he had 
no confidence in any of the confessors and so he got his bundle 
ready to go away. But during the night he saw a vision of God's 
grace in the form of a maiden, who asked him: c Do not go: 
stay here with me, for no ill will happen to you from what you 
have heard.' He believed her words, and stayed in his cell, and 
at once was healed in his heart." 

PART VIII 

That nothing should be done for show 

^ i . Abba Antony once heard this about a young monk and the 
piece of show he wrought on a journey. He saw some old men 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 97 

wearily walking along the road, and he ordered donkeys up to 
carry them until they reached home. When the old men told 
this to Abba Antony, he said: "I think that monk is like a ship 
laden with a rich cargo but not yet certain of reaching port in 
safety." And shortly afterwards, Abba Antony began to weep, 
and pull his hair, and groan. When his disciples saw it, they 
said: "Why are you weeping, Abba?' 3 And the old man 
answered: "A great pillar of the church has just fallen." He 
said this about the young monk, and added: "Come, walk over 
to him, and see what has happened." So his disciples went, and 
found the monk sitting on his mat and weeping for the sin which 
he had committed. When he saw Abba Antony's disciples, he 
said: "Tell the old man to pray God to give me an armistice for 
only ten days, and I hope to be able to satisfy him." Within 
five days he was dead. 

2. The monks praised a brother to Abba Antony. But 
Antony went to him and tested whether he could endure abuse. 
And when he perceived that he could not bear it, he said: "You 
are like a house with a highly decorated fagade, where burglars 
have stolen all the furniture out of the back door." 

3. They said of Abba Arsenius and Abba Theodore of 
Pherme that they hated reputation and praise above everything. 
Abba Arsenius avoided people likely to praise him. Abba Theo- 
dore did not avoid them, but their words were like daggers to 
him. 

4. Archbishop John had a disciple named Eulogius. Eulogius 
was a presbyter who fasted for two days at a time, and sometimes 
ate nothing but bread and salt for a whole week: wherefore he 
had a high reputation. He came to Abba Joseph at Panephysis 
because he believed he would find harder discipline under him. 
The old man welcomed him, and of his charity made ready what 
he had to cat. But the disciples of Eulogius said: "The presbyter 
only eats bread and salt." Abba Joseph silently began to eat. 
They spent three days in silence, hearing not even the sound of 
psalm or prayer (for they said the office secretly): and then 
Eulogius and his disciples went away, nothing edified. 

But by God's providence a mist came over the plain: and they 
wandered in a circle and came back in error to the old man 
Joseph's cell. Before they knocked on the door, they heard the 
singing of psalms within: and they waited a long while outside, 
listening. Then they knocked on the door, and the old man 
welcomed them again. Eulogius was thirsty: and his disciples 
picked up a jug of water and gave it to him to drink. But the 



98 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

jug had sea- water mixed with fresh, and he could not drink it. 

Eulogius considered this in his mind, and then began to ask 
the old man to show him his system, saying: "How is it, Abba, 
that first you did not sing any psalms, and then you began after 
we had gone away? And why was the water salt when I tried to 
drink it?" The old man said: "My disciple is away at work and 
I made a mistake and put sea-water in." But Eulogius went on 
asking the old man, wanting to know the truth. And the old 
man told him: "That little chalice is for wine which we use in 
charity to guests. This is for the water which the brethren drink 
every day." 

With these words he taught him to have mental discretion, 
and drove put of him the merely human motives: and he be- 
came like other people, and in future ate what was put be- 
fore him. And he learnt to be severe in secret, and said to the 
old man: "Truly, yours is a labour of love," 

5. Abba Zeno (the disciple of Abba Silvanus) said: "Never 
stay in a well-known place nor sit with a famous man, nor lay a 
foundation on which you might sometime build yourself a 
cell." 

6. Once a brother came to Abba Theodore of Phcrme, and 
spent three days asking him for a word. But the Abba did not 
answer, and he went away sadly. So Abba Theodore's disciple 
asked him: "Abba, why did you not speak to him? Look, he has 
gone away sad." And the old man said: "Believe me, I said 
nothing to him because his business is getting credit by retailing 
what others have said to him." 

7. Another brother asked Abba Theodore: "Would you like 
me to eat no bread for several days?" And the old man said: 
"You would do well. I have sometimes done that." And the 
brother said: "Should I take a few peas to the mill and make 
vegetable meal?" And Abba Theodore said: "If you go to the 
mill, make yourself bread. What need is there of this carrying 
to and fro?" 

8. Another brother asked the same old Abba Theodore, and 
he began to talk and enquire about matters of which he had no 
experience. And the old man said to him: "You have not yet 
found a ship to sail in, nor put your luggage aboard, nor put 
out to sea, and are you already in the city which you mean to 
reach? If you make some attempt at a thing you are discussing, 
you will discuss it as it truly is." 

9. Abba Cassian 25 said that a brother came to Abba Scra- 
ps Coherences, XVIII, 1 1 : Apophthegmatq, Serapion 4, Of. this translation p. a 7 1 . 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 99 

pioti. And the old man encouraged him in the usual way to 
offer prayer. But he said that he was a sinner, and unworthy of 
the monk's habit, and so refused. Serapion wanted to wash his 
feet, but he used the same words and would not allow it. 
Serapion gave him supper, and then began to exhort him in 
charity, saying: "Son, if you want to make progress, stay in your 
cell, keep a watch upon yourself and attend to the work of your 
hands. Nothing is more profitable to you than staying in your 
cell." But when the brother heard him, he was bitterly angry, 
and the old man could not help seeing the change in his face. 
So Abba Serapion said to him: "Just now you were saying C I am 
a sinner' and accusing yourself of living like an unworthy monk. 
Then why were you angry when I warned you charitably? If 
you truly would be humble, learn to carry like a man the 
burdens which others lay upon you, and do not shower terms of 
abuse over yourself." When the brother heard this, he did 
penance before the old man, and went away with much profit. 

10. Once a provincial judge heard of Abba Moses and went 
to Scete to see him. They told the old man that he was on his 
way, and he rose up to flee into a marsh. The judge and his 
train met him, and asked: "Tell me, old man, where is the cell 
of Abba Moses?" And the old man said: "Why do you want to 
see him? He is a fool and a heretic." 

The judge came to the church, and said to the clergy: "I 
heard of Abba Moses and came to see him- But an old man on 
his way to Egypt met me, and I asked him where was the cell 
of Abba Moses. And he said: 'Why are you looking for him? He 
is a fool and a heretic.* " And the clergy were distressed and 
said: "What sort of person was your old man who told you this 
about the holy man?" And they said: "He was an old man, tall 
and dark, wearing the oldest possible clothes.'* And the clergy 
said: "That was Abba Moses. And he told you this about him- 
self because he did not want you to see him." And the judge 
went away much edified. 

1 1. A brother asked Abba Mathois: "If I go to live in such- 
and-such a place, what would you have me do there?" The old 
man said: "If you live there, do not try to make a reputation 
for yourself on some pretext like saying: 'Either I will not 
join the congregation or I will not eat this and that.' This is the 
sort of thing that creates a bubble reputation, and afterwards 
you will suffer from crowds. When people hear that sort of thing 
they flock there." 

12* Abba Nesteros the Great was walking in the desert with 



IOO WESTERN ASCETICISM 

a brother when they saw a dragon and ran away. The brother 
said: "Are you afraid, father?" The old man answered: "I am 
not afraid, my son. But it was good to run away from the dragon, 
for otherwise I should have had to run away from vanity." 

13. A provincial judge once wanted to see Abba Poemen and 
the old man would not allow it. The judge arrested his sister's 
son as a criminal and imprisoned him, saying: "If the old man 
comes to ask for him, I will release him." And the lad's mother 
came to Abba Poemen her brother and began to weep outside 
the door of his cell. Stricken with grief, she began to reproach 
him, saying: "You may have a heart of cold steel, you may be 
pitiless, but at least have mercy on your kin and relent." But 
he told her: "Poemen is the father of no children." And she 
went away. When the judge heard this he sent a messenger to 
say: "You have only to order his release and I will release him." 
The old man sent back the messenger with this message: "Try 
his case legally. If he ought to die, let him die. If he is innocent, 
do as you say." 

14. Abba Poemen also said: "Teach your heart to keep what 
your tongue teaches others," 

He also said: "Men try to appear excellent in their preaching; 
they are less excellent in practising what they preach." 

15. Once Abba Adelphius, who was bishop of Nilopolis, 
came to Abba Sisois on the mountain of Abba Antony. When 
he was just leaving, he made him eat at dawn but it was a fast 
day. And when they brought the table, some brothers knocked 
at the door. The old man said to his disciple: "Give them a few 
buns, because they are weary." And Abba Adelphius said to 
him: "Dismiss them for a time, or they will say 'Abba Sisois ate 
at dawn.' " And Abba Sisois looked at him, and said to the 
brother: "Go, give them some*" 

So when they saw the cooked food they said: "Have you got 
visitors? Is even the old man eating with you?" And the 
brother said: "Yes." Then they began to be sad and say: "God 
forgive you, that you have let the old man eat at this hour. Do 
you not know that he has gone into a severe discipline for a great 
many days?" 

When the bishop heard this, he began to do penance before 
the old man and said: "Forgive me, Abba, my thought was 
human, you did what is of God." And Abba Sisois said to him: 
"Unless God glorifies man, man's glory cannot last." 

1 6. Abba Ammon (of the place called Raythu) brought this 
enquiry to Abba Sisois: "When I read the Scripture, I am 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS IOI 

tempted to make elaborate comments and so prepare myself to 
answer questions on it." The old man said: "There is no need. 
It is better to speak the word simply, with a good conscience 
and a pure mind." 

1 7. Once a provincial magistrate came to see Abba Simon. 
And Abba Simon took the leather belt which he wore and 
climbed a palm-tree to clean it with the palm leaves. When the 
judge's party came up, they said: "Where is the old hermit of 
this wilderness?" And he answered: "There is no hermit here- 
abouts." So the judge went away. 

1 8. Another time a magistrate came to see him. And the 
clergy who went in front said to him: "Abba, be ready: for the 
judge has heard of you and is coming to be blessed by you." 
And he covered himself with his sackcloth and took bread and 
cheese in his hand, and sat down in his doorway and began to 
eat it. The magistrate arrived with his retinue. And when they 
saw the old man, they were contemptuous of him and said: 
"Is this the hermit about whom we heard such great things?" 
And they turned round and went straight home. 

19. Saint Syncletice said: "An open treasury is quickly spent. 
And any virtue will be annihilated if it is published abroad and 
becomes famous. If you put wax in front of a fire it melts; and 
if you pour vain praises on the soul, it goes soft and weak in 
seeking goodness." 

QO. She also said: "The same thing cannot at once be seed 
and full grown bush. So men with a worldly reputation cannot 
bear heaven's fruit." 

21. Once at a feast day in Cellia, the brothers were eating 
their meal in church. But one of them said to the server: "I eat 
nothing cooked, but salt." And the serving monk called to 
another brother in front of the whole crowd: "This brother does 
not eat what is cooked, bring him the salt." But one of the old 
men stood up and told him: "Today it would have been better 
for you to eat meat in your cell than to have heard this said in 
front of so many brothers." 

22. A man was being abstinent and not eating bread, and 
he went to visit an old man. By chance some other pilgrims 
arrived there and the old man made them a little vegetable 
soup. When they sat down to eat, the fasting brother took a 
single pea which he dipped in the soup and chewed it. When 
they rose from the table, the old man took him to one side and 
said: "Brother, if you visit someone, do not display to him your 
manner of life. If you want to keep your own rules, stay in your 



102 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

cell and never go out." The brother accepted the advice, and 
thenceforth behaved like other people and ate what was put 
before him. 

23. An old man said: "If a man takes thought for the mor- 
row, it cuts away his fertility of spirit and leaves him dry." 

24. An old man said: "Make yourself in many things a fool 
in fleeing the company of men, or in mocking the world and the 
men of the world." 

PART IX 

That we should judge no man 

1. A brother in the community of Abba Elias was once 
tempted. And being expelled from the community, he went 
away to the mountain to Abba Antony. And when he had 
stayed there with him for some time, Antony sent him back to 
his old community. But when they saw him, they drove him out 
again. Again he went to Abba Antony and said: * ( Thcy will not 
have me, father." So the old man sent a message to them, 
saying: "A ship was wrecked in the ocean and lost its cargo, and 
with great difficulty the lightened ship was brought to land. 
Do you want to run a rescued ship aground and sink it?" They 
saw that Abba Antony had sent him back, and at once accepted 
him. 

2. A brother sinned, and the presbyter ordered him to go 
out of church. But Abba Bessarion rose up and went out with 
him, saying: "I too am a sinner." 

3. Abba Isaac of the Thebaid came to a community and saw 
one of the brothers to be blameworthy, and sentenced him. But 
when he had gone out to the desert, the angel of the Lord came 
and stood in front of the door of his cell, and said: "I will not 
let you go in." He asked: "Why not?" And the angel of the 
Lord answered: "God sent me to say this to you: 'Where do you 
command me to send that blameworthy brother whom you 
sentenced? 5 " And at once Abba Isaac did penance, saying: "I 
have sinned, forgive me." And the angel said: "Arise, God 
forgives you. But in future take care you judge no man before 
God has judged him." 

4. In Scete a brother was once found guilty. They assembled 
the elders, and sent a message to Abba Moses telling him to 
come. But he would not come. Then the presbyter sent, saying: 
"Come, for a meeting of monks is waiting for you." Moses 
rose up and went. He took with him an old basket which he 
filled with sand and carried on his back. The people who went 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 103 

to meet him said: "What is this, father?" The old man said to 
them: "My sins are chasing me, and I do not see them have I 
come today to judge the sins of someone else?" They listened to 
him, and said nothing to the erring brother, but pardoned him. 

5. Abba Joseph asked Abba Poemen: "Tell me how to be- 
come a monk." The old man said: "If you want to find rest in 
this life and the next, say at every turn c Who am I? 3 and judge 
no man." 

6. A brother asked Abba Poemen: "If I see my brother sin, 
is it good to tell no one about it?" The old man said: "When- 
ever we cover our brother's sin, God will cover our sin. When- 
ever we tell people about our brother's guilt, God will do the 
same with ours." 

7. Once a brother in a community stumbled. In the same 
region there lived a hermit who for a long time had not gone out 
of his cell. The abbot of the community went to the hermit and 
told him of the monk's offence. The hermit said: "Expel him." 

So the monk was expelled from the community, and flung 
himself in a ditch and wept. Some other monks happened to 
pass that way to see Abba Poemen, and they heard him groan- 
ing in the ditch. They climbed down and found him in des- 
perate grief: and they asked him to go to the old hermit. But he 
refused, saying: "I shall die here." The brothers went to Abba 
Poemen and told him about it. He asked them to go back to the 
monk and say: "Abba Poemen summons you." They did what 
he said, and the monk came to Abba Poemen. The old man 
saw how he was suffering, and rose up and kissed him, and 
hospitably invited him to take supper. 

But Abba Poemen sent one of his brothers to the hermit 
with this message: "I have heard of you, and for many years 
have wanted to meet you, but we were both too lazy to arrange 
a meeting. But now, by God's will and this opportunity, make 
the tiring journey so that we can meet." For Poemen was under 
a rule of not going out of his cell. When the hermit heard the 
message, he said: "He would not have sent to me unless God 
had inspired him to it*" And he rose up and went. 

They greeted each other with pleasure and sat down. Abba 
Poemen said to him: "There were two men in one place, and 
they were each mourning for a dead man. But one left his own 
dead, and went away to weep for the other's." And the old 
hermit was stricken at the saying, and remembered what he 
had done. And he said: "Poemen is up in heaven, I am down on 
earth." 



IO4 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

8. A brother asked Abba Poemen: "What am I to do, for I 
become a weakling just by sitting in my cell?" The old man said: 
"Despise no one: condemn no one: abuse no one: and God will 
give you quietness, and you will sit tranquil in your cell." 

9. Once there was a meeting of monks in Scete, and the 
fathers discussed the case of a guilty brother. But Abba Pior 
said nothing. Afterwards he rose up and went out; he took a 
sack, filled it with sand, and carried it on his shoulders. And he 
put a little more sand in a basket, and carried it in front of him. 
The fathers asked him: "What are you doing?" He answered: 
"The sack with a lot of sand is my sins: they are many, so I put 
them on my back and then I shall not weep for them. The 
basket with a little sand is the sins of our brother; and they are 
in front of me, and I see them and judge them. This is not right. 
I ought to have my own sins in front of me, and think about 
them, and ask God to forgive me." 

When the fathers heard this, they said: "Truly this is the 
way of salvation." 26 

10. An old man said: "Judge not the adulterer if you are 
chaste or you will break the law of God likewise. For he who 
said 'Do not commit adultery' also said 'Judge not/ " 

1 1 . The presbyter of a church came to a hermit to con- 
secrate the offering for him to communicate. But another man 
came to the hermit and made accusations against that presbyter. 
The next time that the presbyter came to consecrate as usual, 
the hermit was scandalized and would not let him in. The 
presbyter saw it and went away. And then the hermit heard a 
voice saying: "Men have taken my judgement into their own 
hands." And he was rapt, and saw a vision of a well of gold and 
a bucket of gold, and a rope of gold, and plenty of drinking 
water. And he saw a leper emptying and refilling the bucket: 
and he wanted to drink himself, but did not because the leper 
had emptied it. Then the voice came a second time to him and 
said: "Why do you not drink this water? What does it matter 
who fills it? For he only fills it, and pours it out again." 

Then the hermit came back to his normal mind, and under- 
stood what the vision had meant. He called the presbyter and 
made him consecrate the offering as before. 

12. Two brothers in a community lived a saintly life, and 
had made such progress that they could see the grace of God in 
each other. It happened that one of them went out of the 

2 Notice the doublet with section 4 of this part: cf. the version in Vitae 
Patrum, III, 136. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 105 

monastery on a Friday and saw a man eating, though it was 
morning. He said to him: "Are you eating at this hour on a 
Friday?" On the Saturday the usual celebration of mass was 
held. And his brother saw that the grace which had been given 
him had departed from him, and he was distressed. He went to 
the cell and said: "What have you done, brother? I did not see 
the grace of God in you as I used to do." And he said: "I am 
not aware of having sinned, either in deed or thought." His 
brother said: "Did you say an idle word to someone?" And he 
remembered, and said: "Yes. Yesterday I saw someone eating 
food in the morning, and I said to him: 'Are you eating at this 
hour on a Friday?' That is my sin. Be severe with me for a 
fortnight and we will beg God to forgive me." They did so. 
And after a fortnight the brother saw the grace of God again 
coming upon his brother. And they were comforted, and gave 
thanks to God who alone is good. 

I2A. A holy man wept bitterly when he saw someone sin- 
ning, and said: "He today: I tomorrow." However grave a 
sin is brought to your notice, you must not judge the culprit, 
but believe yourself to be a worse sinner than he. 



PARTX 

On discretion 

1. Abba Antony said: "Some wear down their bodies by 
fasting. But because they have no discretion, it puts them 
further from God." 

2. Some brothers came to Abba Antony to tell him their 
dreams and discover whether they were true or were the illu- 
sions of demons. They had with them a donkey, who died on the 
journey. When they arrived at the old man, he said (before they 
told him): "Why did your donkey die on the journey?" And 
they said: "How do you know, father?" And he said: "The 
demons showed me." They said to him: "Indeed we came to 
ask you on the subject. We have seen dreams which have often 
come true: and we did not want to go astray." The old man 
satisfied them, taking his example from the donkey, and showing 
them that these dreams are caused by demons. 

A hunter happened to come through the brush and saw Abba 
Antony talking gladly with the brothers, and was displeased. 
The old man wanted to show him how we should sometimes be 
less austere for the sake of the brethren, and said to him: "Put 



IO6 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

an arrow in your bow, and draw it." He did so. And he said: 
"Draw it further:" and he drew it. He said again: "Draw it yet 
further:" and he drew it. The hunter said to him: "If I draw 
it too far, the bow will snap." Abba Antony answered: "So it is 
with God's work. If we go to excess, the brothers quickly be- 
come exhausted. It is sometimes best not to be rigid." The 
hunter was penitent when he heard this, and profited much 
from it. And the brothers, thus strengthened, went home. 

3. A brother said to Abba Antony: "Pray for me." And the 
old man answered: "Neither I nor God will have mercy on you 
unless you take trouble about yourself and ask God's help." 

4. Abba Antony also said: "God does not let inner wars be 
stirred in this generation, because he knows that they are too 
weak to bear it." 

5. Abba Evagrius once said to Abba Arsenius: "How is it 
that we educated and learned men have no virtue, and Egyptian 
peasants have a great deal?" Abba Arsenius answered: "We 
have nothing because we go chasing worldly knowledge. These 
Egyptian peasants have acquired virtues by hard work." 

6. Abba Arsenius of blessed memory said: "A foreign monk 
not living in his native province will be half- hearted in nothing, 
and so will be at rest." 

7. Abba Mark asked Abba Arsenius: "Is it good not to have 
any comfort in one's cell? I saw a brother who had a few 
cabbages, and he was rooting them out." And Abba Arsenius 
said: "It is good. But each man should do what is right for his 
own discipline. If he has not strength to endure that, he will 
plant them again." 

8. Abba Peter, the disciple of Abba Lot, told this story. "I 
was once in the cell of Abba Agatho, when a brother came to 
him and said: I want to live with the monks; tell me how to 
live with them/ The old man said: Trom the first day you join 
them, remember you are a pilgrim all the days of your life, and 
do not be too confident/ Abba Macarius said to him: 'What 
does confidence do?' The old man said: 'It is like a fierce 
drought. When it is so dry, everyone flees the land because it 
destroys even the fruit on the trees/ Abba Macarius said: *Is 
bad confidence like that?' Abba Agatho said: 'No passion is 
worse than confidence it is the mother of all passion. It is best 
for the monk's progress that he should not be confident, even 
when he is alone in his cell.' " 

9. Abba Daniel said: "When Abba Arsenius was dying, he 
charged us thus: 'Do not make a love-offering for me, For if I 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS IOy 

have made any love-offering for myself during my life, I shall 
find it.' " 

10. They said of Abba Agatho that some people went to 
him because they heard he was a man of much discretion. And 
wanting to test whether he was irritable, they said to him: 
"Are you Agatho? We have heard of you that you are an adult- 
erer and an arrogant man." And he answered: "It is true." 
And they said to him: "Are you that Agatho who gossips and 
slanders?" And he answered: "I am." And they asked him: 
"Are you Agatho the heretic?" And he answered: "I am no 
heretic." 

And they asked him: "Tell us, why did you patiently endure 
us when we so abused you, but did not endure when we said 
you were a heretic?" And he answered: "I assented to the first 
charges against myself it is for the good of my soul. But I did 
not agree when you said I was a heretic because that is to be 
separated from God, and I do not want to be separated from 
God." They admired his discretion, and went away edified. 

11. Abba Agatho was asked: "Which is more difficult, bodily 
discipline, or the guard over the inner man?" The Abba said: 
"Man is like a tree. His bodily discipline is like the leaves of the 
tree, his guard over the inner man is like the fruit. Scripture 
says that 'every tree which bringeth not forth good fruit is hewn 
down and cast into the fire.' 27 So we ought to take every pre- 
caution about guarding the mind, because that is our fruit. Yet 
we need to be covered and beautiful with leaves, the bodily 
discipline." 

Abba Agatho was wise in understanding, earnest in discipline, 
armed at all points, careful about keeping up his manual work, 
sparing in food and clothing. 

12. In Scete there was a meeting to discuss a matter; and 
after the decision was taken, Abba Agatho came and said: "You 
have not made a good decision." They said to him: "Who are 
you, that say this?" And he answered: "The son of man* For it is 
written, 'If ye truly speak righteousness, judge ye the thing that 
is right, O ye sons of men. 3 " 28 

13. Abba Agatho said: "If an angry man raises the dead, 
God is still displeased with his anger/' 

14. Three old men came to Abba Achillas, and one of them 
had a bad reputation. The first old man said: "Abba, make me 
a fishing-net." And he said: "I will not." And the second said 

27 Malt, 3:10. 

28 Gf. PS. 58: 1. 



108 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

to him: "Will you give us a memento of yourself to keep in our 
community?" And he answered: "I have no time." Then the 
third, who had the bad reputation, said to him: "Make me a 
fishing-net, and so I shall have a blessing from your hands, 
Abba." And at once he answered: "I will do it." 

But the first two, whom he had refused, said privately to him: 
"Why did you refuse our requests and consent to his?" The old 
man answered: "I said to you that I would not do it because I 
had no time, and you were not vexed. But if I did not do it for 
this man, he would say 'the old man has heard my reputation 
and for that reason has refused to make me a net.' So immedi- 
ately I set to work with the string, to soothe his soul and prevent 
him being sad." 

15. They said of one old man that for fifty years he ate no 
bread and drank little water. And he said: "I have destroyed 
lust and greed and vanity." When Abba Abraham heard that 
he had said this, he came to him and said: "Was it you who 
said this?" And he answered: "Yes." And Abba Abraham said 
to him: "Supposing you go into your cell and find a woman on 
your mat, could you not think she was a woman?" And he said: 
"No: but I attack my thought, so as not to touch her." Abba 
Abraham said: "Then you have not killed lust, but the passion 
is still alive; you have imprisoned it. Suppose you were walking 
along a road and saw stones on one side and gold in jars on the 
other, could you think the gold and the stones of the same 
value?" And he answered: "No: but I resist my thought, so as 
not to pick it up." And Abba Abraham said to him: "Then the 
passion still lives but you have imprisoned it." And he went on: 
"If you heard that one brother loved you and spoke well of you, 
and another brother hated you and slandered you, and they 
both came to visit you, would you give them both the same 
welcome?" And he said "No : but I torture my soul, to treat 
him who hates me just as well as him who loves me." And Abba 
Abraham said to him: "Then passions are alive: only in some 
measure holy men have got them chained." 

1 6. One of the fathers said that an old man was working 
earnestly in his cell, wrapt in, his mat. He went to visit Abba 
Ammon, who saw him using his mat, and said to him: "This is 
not good for you." And the old man said: "Three thoughts 
trouble me. One tries to drive me to live somewhere else in the 
desert: the second that I should go out and find a foreign 
country where no one knows me: the third, that I should shut 
myself in my cell, see no one, and eat every other day." Abba 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS ICQ 

Ammon said to him: "None of these three would profit you. 
Stay in your cell, and eat a little every day, keeping always in 
your heart the words of the publican in the Gospel, 29 and you 
can be saved." 

17. Abba Daniel said: "If the body is strong, the soul 
withers. If the body withers, the soul is strong." 

He also said: "If the body is fat, the soul grows lean: if the 
body is lean, the soul grows fat." 

1 8. Abba Daniel also said that when Abba Arsenius was in 
Scete, there was a monk who stole the property of the old men. 
Abba Arsenius, wanting to do him good and free the old men 
from being troubled, took him to his cell and said: "If you will 
stop stealing, I will give you whatever you want." And he gave 
him gold, money and trinkets, and everything he found in his 
bag. 

But the monk stole again. The old man, seeing that he was 
always troubling them, expelled him, and said: "If you find a 
brother committing crime through bodily infirmity, you must 
bear with him. But if he does not stop after being warned, expel 
him. He hurts his own soul, and also disturbs everyone who lives 
there." 

19. Soon after Abba Evagrius had become a monk, he went 
to an old man and said: "Abba, speak to me a word by which I 
may be saved." He said: "If you would be saved, when you go 
to visit a man, do not speak until he asks you a question." 
Evagrius was stricken by this word, and did penance before 
the old man, and satisfied him, saying: "Believe me, I have 
read many books, and never found such learning." And he went 
away much profited. 

20. Abba Evagrius said: "A wandering mind is strengthened 
by reading, and prayer. Passion is dampened down by hunger 
and work and solitude. Anger is repressed by psalmody, and 
long-suffering, and mercy. But all these should be at the proper 
times and in due measure. If they are used at the wrong times 
and to excess, they are useful for a short time. But what is only 
useful for a short time, is harmful in the long run." 

21. Abba Ephraem was passing by when, a harlot (she was 
someone's agent) began to make every effort to attract him to 
unlawful intercourse: or, if she failed in this, at least to stir him 
to anger. For no one had ever seen him angry or brawling. He 
said to her: "Follow me." When they came to a crowded place, 
he said to her: "Come now, I will lie with you as you wanted." 
29 "God be merciful to me a sinner," Luke 18 : 13. 



110 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

She looked round at the crowd and said: "How can we do it 
here, with all these people standing round? We should be 
ashamed." He said: "If you blush before men, should you not 
blush the more before God, who discloses the hidden things of 
darkness?" And she went away without her pleasure, confused 
and nonplussed. 

22. Some brothers once came to Abba Zeno and asked him: 
"What is meant by the text in the book of Job 'Heaven is not 
pure in God's sight'?" 30 The old man answered: "These 
brothers have left their sins, and search the heavenly places. 
The meaning of that text is that since God alone is pure, it may 
be said that not even heaven is pure in his sight." 

23. Abba Theodore of Pherme said: "If a friend of yours is 
tempted by lust, give him a helping hand if you can and pull 
him back. But if he falls into heresy, and persists in spite of 
your efforts, go away quickly, cut off his friendship. For if you 
dally with him, you might be dragged with him into the 
deeps." 

24. Once Abba Theodore came to Abba John, who had been 
born a eunuch. While they were talking, Abba Theodore said: 
"When I was in Scete, I devoted myself to the soul's work, and 
treated the body's work, so to speak, as a side-issue. But now it 
is vice versa: I treat the soul's work as though it was the side- 
issue." 

25. Once one of the fathers came to Abba Theodore and said: 
"Look, that brother has gone back to the world," And Abba 
Theodore said to him: "Do not be surprised at that. Be sur- 
prised when you hear that a man has been able to escape the 
jaws of the enemy." 

26. Abba Theodore said: "Many choose the repose of this 
world before God gives them his rest." 

27. They said of Abba John the Short that he once said to 
his elder brother: "I wanted to be free of trouble as the angels 
are free, labouring not, and serving God unceasingly." He 
stripped himself of his clothes and went into the desert. After a 
week there, he went back to his brother. And when he knocked 
on the door, his brother answered without opening it, and said: 
"Who's there?" He said: "I am John." And his brother 
answered: "John has become an angel, and is no longer among 
men." But he went on knocking and saying: "It is L" And his 
brother did not open the door, but left him out till morning as a 
punishment. At last he opened the door and said: "If you are a 
30 job 15:15. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS III 

man, you need to work again in order to live. If you are an 
angel, why do you want to come into my cell? 33 And he did 
penance, and said: "Forgive me my sin, brother. 33 

28. Once some old men came to Scete, and Abba John the 
Short was with them. During supper, an eminent presbyter rose 
to give them each a little cup of water to drink. No one except 
John the Short accepted it. The others were surprised, and said: 
"How is it that you, the least of all, dared to accept the ministry 
of a great old man?" And he said: "When I get up to give the 
water round, I am glad if everyone takes it, because I have been 
able to do them a service and will have a reward. That is why I 
took it just now, to let the minister have his reward; perhaps he 
would have been sad if no one had accepted it. 3 ' And they all 
admired his discretion. 

29. Abba Poemen once asked Abba Joseph, saying: "What 
am I to do, when temptations approach me? Do I resist them, 
or let them come in? 33 The old man said: "Let them come in, 
and then fight them. 33 

So he went back to his cell at Scete. And it happened that 
a man from the Thebaid told the brothers in Scete that he had 
asked Abba Joseph the question: "When temptation ap- 
proaches, do I resist it, or do I let it come in? 33 And he said to 
him: "On no account let it come in, but cut it straight off." 

When Abba Poemen heard that Abba Joseph had said this 
to the man from the Thebaid, he rose and went back to Abba 
Joseph at Panephysis and said to him: "Abba, I entrusted my 
thoughts to your care: and you said one thing to me, and the 
opposite to a monk from the Thebaid. 3 ' And the old man said: 
"You know that I love you? 33 And he answered: "Yes. 33 And 
he said: "Did you not tell me to say what I thought as though I 
was talking for my own good? If temptations come in, and you 
deal with them there, they will prove you. I said this to you as I 
should say it to myself. But there are other men whom it is bad 
that passions should come near, and they should cut them 
straight off. 33 

30. Abba Poemen said: "In Lower Heracleon I once came 
to Abba Joseph, and he had in his monastery a very beautiful 
mulberry tree. In the morning he said to me: c Go fetch yourself 
some mulberries, and eat. 3 It was Friday. So I did not eat, as it 
was a fast day. And I asked: Tor the Lord 3 s sake, tell me why 
you said to me "go, eat. 33 1 did not go because it was a fast day, 
but I was ashamed to disobey your command: for I think you 
had some reason for it. 3 But he replied: 'Elders do not at first 



112 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

speak straightly to brothers, but say some very twisted things. 
And if they see that the brothers do these twisted things, then 
they only speak what is good for them, because they know that 
the brothers will obey them in everything.' " 

31. A brother asked Abba Joseph: "What shall I do? I 
cannot bear to be troubled, nor to work, nor to give alms." 
And the old man said to him: "If you cannot do any of these, 
at least keep your conscience from every sin against your 
neighbour, and you will be saved: for God seeks the soul that 
does not sin." 

32. Abba Isaac from the Thebaid said to his brothers: "Do 
not bring children here. Children were the reason why four 
churches in Scete were deserted." 

33. Abba Longinus asked Abba Lucius: "I have three ideas, 
the first is to go on a pilgrimage." And the old man answered: 
"If you do not control your tongue whensoever you travel, you 
will be no pilgrim. But control your tongue here, and you will 
be a pilgrim without travelling." Abba Longinus said: "My 
second idea is to fast two days together." And Abba Lucius 
answered: "The prophet Isaiah said: 'Even if you bend your 
neck to the ground, your fast will not so be accepted* : 3 1 you 
should rather guard your mind from evil thoughts." And Abba 
Longinus said: "My third idea is to avoid the sight of men." 
And Abba Lucius answered: "Unless you first correct your sin 
by living among men you will not be able to correct yourself 
when you live alone." 

34. Abba Macarius said: "If we remember the ill which men. 
have done us, we cut off from our minds the power of recollect- 
ing God. But if we remember the ill which the devils raise, we 
shall be undisturbed." 32 

35. Abba Mathois said: "Satan knows not which passion will 
seduce the soul, and so he scatters his tares in it without direc- 
tion. At one time he throws in the seeds of lust, at another the 
seeds of slander, and the rest in the same way. And wheresoever 
he sees a soul drawn towards one of the passions, he ministers to 
that soul. If he knew what was most tempting to a soul, he would 
not scatter such a variety of temptations." 

36. They told this story of Abba Nathyra, who was the 
disciple of Abba Silvanus. When he was living in his cell on 
Mount Sinai, he regulated his life with moderation and allowed 
himself what his body needed. But after he was made bishop in 

31 Cf. Isa. 58:5. 

32 A fuller version is Verba Seniorwn (Paschasius), VII, 37, 4. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 113 

Pharan, he sorely afflicted his spirit with severe austerities. And 
his disciple said to him: "Abba, when we were in the desert, 
you were not wont to torment yourself like this." And the old 
man said to him: "My son, there we had solitude, and quiet, 
and poverty: and so I wanted to discipline my body in such a 
way that I did not fall sick. For if I had fallen sick, I would 
have needed assistance which I could not have upon Mount 
Sinai. But now we are in the world; and there are many oppor- 
tunities of sin. And if I fall ill, there are friends who will help 
me, and prevent me from falling away from a monk's purpose." 

37. A brother asked Abba Poemen: "I am troubled in spirit, 
and want to leave this place." And the old man said: "Why?" 
And he said: "I have heard unedifying stories about one of the 
brothers." And the old man said: "Are the stories true?" And 
he said: "Yes, Father. The brother who told me is a man of 
trust." And the old man answered: "The brother who told you 
is not a man of trust. For if he was so, he would not have told 
you these stories. When God heard the cry of the men of Sodom, 
he did not believe it until he had gone down and seen with his 
own eyes." And the brother said: "I too have seen it with my 
own eyes." 

When the old man heard this, he looked down and picked 
off the ground a wisp of straw: and he said: "What is this?" 
And he answered: "Straw." Then the old man reached up and 
touched the roof of the cell, and said: "What is this?" And he 
answered: "It is the beam that holds up the roof." 

And the old man said: "Take it into your heart, that your 
sins are like this beam: and that brother's sins are like this wisp 
of straw." 

When Abba Sisois heard this saying, he marvelled, and said: 
"How shall I bless you, Abba Poemen? Your words are like a 
precious jewel, full of grace and glory." 

38. Some neighbouring priests once came to the monastery 
of Abba Poemen. Abba Anub went in and said to him: "Let us 
invite these priests to receive the gifts of God here in charity." 
But Abba Poemen stood in silence for a long time, and made 
no reply: and Abba Anub went out sadly. The men sitting 
round said to Abba Poemen: "Why did you not answer him?" 
And Abba Poemen said to them: "I have no reason to do so: 
for already I am dead. Dead men. do not speak. Do not blame 
me, that I am here in your company." 

39. A brother once went out on a pilgrimage from the 
monastery of Abba Poemen, and came to a hermit, who lived 



114 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

in charity towards all and received many visitors. The brother 
told the hermit stories of Abba Poemen. And when he heard of 
Poemen's strength of character, he longed to see him. 

The brother returned to Egypt. And after some little time, 
the hermit rose and went from his country to Egypt to see the 
brother who had visited him: for he had told him where he 
lived. When the brother saw the hermit, he was astonished, and 
very glad. The hermit said to him: "Of your charity towards 
me, take me to Abba Poemen." And the brother raised him up 
and showed him the way to the old man. 

And the brother told Abba Poemen this about the hermit, 
"A great man of much charity, and particular honour in his 
own province, has come here wanting to see you." So the old 
man received him kindly. And after they had exchanged 
greetings, they sat down. 

But the hermit began to talk of the Holy Scripture, and of 
the things of the spirit and of heaven. But Abba Poemen turned 
his face away, and answered nothing. When the hermit saw 
that he would not speak with him, he was distressed and went 
out: and he said to the brother who had brought him there: 
"My journey was useless. I went to the old man and he does 
not deign to speak to me." 

The brother went to Abba Poemen, and said: "Abba, it was 
to talk with you that this great man came here, a man of much 
honour in his own land. Why did you not speak to him?" The 
old man answered: "He is from above, and speaks of the things 
of heaven. I am from below, and speak of the things of earth. If 
he had spoken with me on the soul's passions, I would willingly 
have replied to him. But if he speaks of the things of the spirit, I 
know nothing about them." 

So the brother went out and told the hermit: "The reason is 
that the old man does not easily discuss Scripture. But if anyone 
talks to him about the soul's passions, he answers." 

Then the hermit was stricken with penitence, and went to 
the old man and said: "What shall I do, Abba? My passions 
rule me." And the old man gazed at him with gladness and 
said: "Now you are welcome: you have only to ask and I will 
speak with understanding." And the hermit was much strength- 
ened by their discourse, and said: "Truly, this is the way of 
charity." And he thanked God that he had been able to see so 
holy a man, and returned to his own country. 

40. A brother asked Abba Poemen and said: "I have com- 
mitted a great sin, and I would do penance for three years." 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 

But Abba Poemen said to him: "That is a long time. 5 ' And the 
brother said: "Do you order me one year's penance?" And 
again the old man said: "That is a long time." Some of the 
people who were nearby said: "A penance of forty days?" 
Again the old man said: "That is a long time." And he added: 
"I think that if a man is penitent with his whole heart, and 
determined not to sin that sin again, God will accept a penance 
of even three days." 

41. Abba Ammon questioned him on the subject of the 
impure thoughts bred within a man's heart, and on the subject 
of vain desire. And Abba Poemen said: "Shall the axe boast 
unless the woodman wield it? 33 Do not reach out your hands for 
these things, and they shall do you no harm." 

42. Abba Isaiah asked him about the same subject. Abba 
Poemen said: "Clothes, left too long in a chest, become rotten. 
If our bodies do not bring those thoughts forward, then at 
length they will rot or be destroyed." 

43. Abba Joseph asked him about the same subject. And 
Abba Poemen said: "If you shut a snake or a scorpion in a box, 
in the end it will die. And the wicked thoughts, which the 
demons scatter, slowly lose their power if the victim has endur- 
ance." 

44. Abba Joseph asked Abba Poemen: "How should we 
fast?" And Abba Poemen said: "I would have everyone eat a 
little less than he wants, every day." Abba Joseph said to him; 
"When you were a young man, did you not fast for two days 
on end?" And the old man said to him: "Believe me, I used to 
fast three days on end, even for a week. But the great elders 
have tested all these things, and they found that it is good to 
eat something every day, but on some days a little less. And they 
have shown us that this is the king's highway, for it is easy and 
light." 

45. Abba Poemen said: "Do not live in a place where some 
are jealous of you: you will make no progress there." 

46. A- brother came to Abba Poemen, and said to him: "I 
sow seed in my field, and make a love-feast with the crop." 
The old man said: "You do a good work." And he went away 
with purpose, and invited more to the love-feast which he was 
making. 

When Abba Anub heard this, he said to Abba Poemen: "Are 
you not afraid of God that you spoke so to the brother?" And 
the old man said nothing. But two days later Abba Poemen sent 
33 Cf. Isa. 10:15. 



Il6 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

to the brother and called him to his cell. And he said to him, 
in. the hearing of Abba Anub: "What did you ask me the other 
day? My mind was elsewhere." The brother said: "I sow my 
field, and make a love-feast with the crop." And Abba Poemen 
said to him: "I thought you were talking about your brother, 
who is a layman. What you are doing is not a monk's work." 
The brother was sad when he heard this, and said: "This is the 
only kind of work that I can do or know: I cannot stop sowing 
seed in my field." 

When he had gone away, Abba Anub began to do penance 
before Abba Poemen, and said: "Forgive me." Abba Poemen 
said to him: "Look, I knew from the beginning that it was not 
a monk's work. But I spoke to his soul's need, and stirred his 
soul to an increase of charity; and now he has gone away 
melancholy, yet he will go on with the same work." 

47. A brother asked Abba Poemen: "What is the meaning of 
the text 'Whoever is angry with his brother without a cause 5 ?" 34 
And he answered: "It is if you are angry with your brother for 
any trouble whatsoever that he tries to lay upon you that is 
anger without a cause, and it is better to pluck out your right 
eye and cast it from you. But if anyone wants to separate you 
from God, be angry with him." 

48. Abba Poemen said: "If a man sins and denies it, saying 
*I have not sinned' do not blame him, or you will break his 
purpose to amend. If you say: c Do not be cast down, my brother, 
but keep a watch on it in future,' you stir his heart to be 
penitent." 

49. The same father said: "Experience is good. By experience 
men are tested." 

50. He also said: "If a man preaches but does not practise 
what he preaches, he is like a well of water where everyone 
can quench their thirst and wash their dirt, but which cannot 
clean away the filth and dung that is around it." 

51. He also said: "He who knows himself is a man." 

He also said: "One man seems silent of speech, but is con- 
demning other people within his heart he is really talking 
incessantly. Another man seems to talk all day, yet keeps his 
silence: for he always speaks in a way that is useful to his 
hearers." 

52. He also said: "Suppose there are three men living to- 
gether. One lives a good life in quietness, the second is ill but 
gives thanks to God, the third ministers to their needs with 
3* Matt. 5:22, according to many ancient authorities. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 

sincerity. These three men are alike; it is as if they were all 
doing one work." 

53. He also said: "Wickedness cannot drive out wickedness. 
If anyone hurts you, do him good: and so by your good work 
you will destroy his wickedness." 

54. He also said: "The grumbler is no monk. The man who 
gives evil for evil is no monk: the irritable man is no monk." 

55. A brother came to Abba Poemen and said to him: 
"Many thoughts come into my head and put me in peril." And 
the old man drove him out into the open air, and said: "Open 
your lungs and hold your breath." And he answered: "I cannot 
do it." And the old man said to him: "Just as you cannot stop 
air coming into your breast, you cannot stop thoughts coming 
into your mind. Your part is to resist them." 

56. A brother asked him: "I have been left a fortune, what 
am I to do with it?" And Abba Poemen said to him: "Go, and 
come back in three days, and I will tell you." The brother 
came back as he was told, and the old man said: "What can I 
tell you, brother? If I say, Give it the church, they will dine off 
it. If I say. Give it to your relations, you will have no profit. If 
I say, Give it to the poor, you will be safe. So go and do what 
you like with it, I can give you no reasons for choosing." 

57. Abba Poemen also said: "If a thought about your bodily 
needs comes to you, and you put it aside; and then it comes 
again, and you put it aside, what will happen? If it comes a 
third time, you will not heed it, and it will do you no harm." 

58. A brother said to Abba Poemen: "If I see something, do 
you want me to tell you?" The old man said to him: "It is 
written, e lf a man answers before he has heard, it is foolishness 
to him and discredit.' 35 If you are asked, speak: if not, say 
nothing." 

59. Abba Poemen told a saying of Abba Ammon: "One man 
carries an axe all his life but cannot cut down a tree: another 
knows how to use it, and cuts down the tree with a few strokes." 
He used to say that the axe was discretion. 

60. He also said: "The will of a man is a brazen wall, and a 
stone hurled between himself and God. If he puts it aside, he 
can say the words of the psalm: 'In my God I shall go over a 
wall' and, 'as for my God, his way is undefiled.' 3(S If righteous- 
ness helps the will, then a man does good." 

6 1. A brother asked Abba Poemen: "I am suffering the loss 

35 Gf. Ecclesiasticus 11 :8. 
3* Ps. 18:29-30. 



Il8 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

of my soul by being with my abba. What do you order me? 
Should I continue to stay with him?" And Abba Poemen knew 
that his soul was being harmed by his abba, and was astonished 
that he asked whether he ought to stay with him. And he said 
to him: "If you want to stay, do so." And the brother went 
away and stayed with his abba. 

But he came a second time to Abba Poemen, and said: "I am 
burdening my soul." And Abba Poemen did not say to him: 
"Leave the abba." He came a third time, and said: "Believe 
me, henceforth I shall no longer stay with him." And the old 
man said: "Now you are saved: come, and stay with him no 
longer." And he went on: "A man who sees his soul being 
harmed, has no need to ask. A man ought to ask about his 
secret thoughts, to get them tested by the elders. But there is 
no need to ask about obvious sins: they must at once be cut off." 

62. Abba Abraham, who was a disciple of Abba Agatho, 
once asked Abba Poemen: "Why do the demons attack me?" 
And Abba Poemen said to him: "Do the demons attack you? 
The demons do not attack us when we follow our self-wills, 
because then our wills become demons and themselves trouble 
us to obey them. If you want to know the kind of people with 
whom the demons fight, it is Moses and men like him." 

63. Abba Poemen said that a brother asked Abba Moses: 
"How does a man mortify himself? Is it by his neighbour?" And 
he answered: "Unless a man has it in his heart that he has been 
shut in a tomb for three years, he cannot attain to mortifica- 
tion." 

64. A brother asked Abba Poemen and said: "How ought a 
brother to sit in his cell?" And the old man said: "To sit in the 
cell is, externally, to work with the hands, eat once a day, keep 
silence and meditate; and, internally, to make progress by 
carrying a reproach wheresoever you may be, and keeping the 
hours of prayer, and keeping a watch on the secret thoughts of 
the heart. If it is time to stop working with the hands, fall to 
prayer and finish it in tranquillity. The end of it all is to keep 
company with men of good life, and avoid the company of the 
wicked." 

65. Two brothers once came to Abba Pambo. And one of 
them asked him: "Abba, I fast for two days, and then eat two 
large buns. Do you think I am saving my soul, or losing it?" 
And the other said: "With my hatids I make two vegetable 
stews every day, and I keep a little for food, and give the rest 
away in alms: do you think I shall be saved or lost?" And al- 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS IIQ 

though they pressed him for an answer he did not reply. After 
four days they were on the point of going. And the clergy said 
to them: "Do not be distressed, God will reward you. This is 
always the way of the old man, he does not talk easily, unless 
God gives him something to say." So they went in to the old 
man and said: "Abba, pray for us." And he said to them: "Do 
you want to go away?" And they said: "Yes," And he gazed at 
them; and supposing himself in their place, he wrote upon the 
ground and said; "Pambo fasts for two days and eats two large 
buns: do you think this makes him a monk? No." Then he said: 
"And Pambo makes two vegetable stews every day and gives 
them away to the poor: do you think this makes him a monk? 
Not yet." He was silent for a little, and then said: "These works 
are good. But if you act conscientiously to your neighbour, that 
is the way to be saved." 

And so the brothers were edified, and went away joyfully. 

66. A brother asked Abba Pambo: "Why do the spirits pre- 
vent me doing good to my neighbour?" The old man said: "Do 
not talk like that, or you will make God a liar. Say 'I do not at 
all want to be kind.' For God came down and said: C I have 
given you the power of treading upon scorpions and snakes, 
and over all the might of the enemy.' 37 Why then do you not 
trample on the unclean spirits?" 

67. Abba Palladius said: "The soul which is being trained 
according to the will of Christ should either be earnest in learn- 
ing what it does not know, or should publicly teach what it 
knows. If it wants to do neither, though it could, it is mad. The 
first step on the road away from God is contempt for teaching, 
when it has no desire for the foods of the soul which truly loves 
God." 3 * 

68. A brother ssid to Abba Sisois: "Why do my passions not 
leave me?" And the old man said to him: "Because the vessels 
of those passions are within you. Give them a pledge and they 
will go away." 

69. A brother came to Abba Silvanus on Mount Sinai. And 
when he saw the brothers working, he said to the old man: 
"Labour not for the meat which perisheth": and "Mary hath 
chosen the best part." 39 And the old man said to his disciple: 
"Call Zacharias, and put this brother in a cell where there is 

37 Luke 10 : 19, 

38 From the letter of Palladius to Lausus: cf. the Greek in C. Butler , The 
Lausiac History ofPalladitts, vol. ii, p. 7. 

3? John 6:127; Luke 10:412. 



I2O WESTERN ASCETICISM 

nothing." And when three o'clock came, he kept looking at the 
door, to see when they would send someone and summon him 
to eat. But no one spoke to him. So he rose and went to the old 
man and said: "Abba, do not the brethren eat today?" And 
the old man said: "Yes, they have eaten already." And the 
brother said: "Why did you not call me?" And the old man 
answered: "You are a spiritual person and do not need food. 
We are earthy, and since we want to eat, we work with our 
hands. But you have chosen the good part, reading all day, and 
not wanting to take earthly food." When the brother heard this 
he prostrated himself in penitence and said: "Forgive me, 
Abba." And the old man said: "I think Mary always needs 
Martha, and by Martha's help Mary is praised." 

70. Saint Syncletice said: "Merchants toil in search of riches 
and are in danger of their lives from shipwreck: the more 
wealth they win, the more they want; and they think of no 
worth what they have already, but bend their whole mind to 
what they have not yet. But we have nothing, even of what we 
ought to seek, and we do not even want to possess what we need, 
because we fear God." 

71. She also said: "There is a useful sorrow, and a des- 
tructive sorrow. Sorrow is useful when we weep for sin, and for 
our neighbour's ignorance, and so that we may not relax our 
purpose to attain to true goodness: these are the true kinds of 
sorrow. Our enemy adds something to this. For he sends sorrow 
without reason, which is something called accidie. We ought 
always to drive out a spirit like this with prayer and psalmody," 

7 1 A. She also said: "It is good not to be angry. If it happens, 
do not give way to it for as much as one day." 

713. She said: " 'Let not the sun go down upon your wrath/ 
But you wait until the sun is going down on your life; you do 
not know how to say: Sufficient unto the day is the evil thereof.' 
Why do you hate the man who has harmed you? It is not he 
who has harmed you but the devil. You ought to hate the 
sickness, not the sick man." 

7 ic. She also said: "It is dangerous for a man to try teaching 
before he is trained in the good life. A man whose house is about 
to fall down may invite travellers inside to refresh them, but 
instead they are hurt in the collapse of the house. It is the same 
with teachers who have not carefully trained themselves in the 
good life: they ruin their hearers as well as themselves. Their 
mouth invites to salvation, their way of life leads to ruin." 

72. She also said : "The devil sometimes sends a severe fast, too 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 121 

prolonged the devil's disciples do this as well as holy men. 
How do we distinguish the fasting of our God and King from 
the fasting of that tyrant the devil? Clearly by its moderation. 
Throughout your life, then, you ought to keep an unvarying 
rule of fasting. Do you fast four or five days on end and then lose 
your spiritual strength by eating a feast? That gladdens the 
devil. Everything which is extreme is destructive. So do not 
suddenly throw away your armour, or you may be found un- 
armed in the battle and made an easy prisoner. Our body is like 
armour, our soul like the warrior. Take care of both, and you 
will be ready for what comes." 

73. Two old men came from the Pelusium country to the 
Abbess Sarah. On their way they said to each other: "Let us 
humble this old woman. 53 And they said to her: "Take care 
that your soul be not puffed up, and that you do not say: 
'Look, some hermits have come to me, a woman! 5 " And the 
Abbess Sarah said to them: "I am a woman in sex, but not in 
spirit." 

74. Abbess Sarah also said: "If I asked God that all men 
should be edified in me, I should be doing penance at the door 
of everyone. I pray rather that my heart should be pure in all 
things." 

75. Abba Hyperichius said: "The man who teaches men by 
his life and not his speech is the true wise man." 

76. There once came from the city of Rome a monk who had 
held a high place in the palace. He lived near the church in 
Scete, and had with him a servant who ministered to him. The 
priest of the church saw that he was infirm and knew that he 
was accustomed to comfort: and so he passed to him whatever 
the Lord gave him or was given to the church. After he had 
lived in Scete for twenty-five years, he became celebrated as a 
contemplative with the spirit of prophecy. 

One of the great Egyptian monks heard of his reputation 
and came to see him in the hope that he would find a more 
austere way of life. He came into the cell and greeted him: and 
after they had prayed they sat down. But the Egyptian saw his 
soft clothing, and a bed of reeds, and a blanket under him, and 
a little pillow under his head, and his clean feet with sandals on 
them; and he was inwardly scandalized. In Scete they never 
used to live like this, but practised a sterner abstinence. 

But the old Roman, with his gift of contemplation and 
second sight, saw that the Egyptian monk was inwardly scandal- 
ized. And he said to his servant: "Make us a good meal today, 



122 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

for this abba who has come." And he cooked the few vegetables 
which he had, and they rose and ate at the proper hour: and 
he had a little wine by reason of his infirmity, and they drank 
that. And at evening they said twelve psalms, and went to 
sleep afterwards: and the same in the night. But at dawn the 
Egyptian rose, and saying: "Pray for me," he went away, not 
edified at him. 

And when he had gone a little way off, the old Roman 
wanted to heal his mind, and sent after him and called him 
back. And he said: "What is your province?" And he answered: 
"I am an Egyptian." And he said: "Of what city?" And he 
answered: "Of no city, I never lived in a city." And he said: 
"Before you were a monk, how did you earn your living?" 
And he answered: "I was a herdsman." And he said to him: 
"Where did you sleep?" He answered: "In the fields." And he 
said: "Had you any mattress?" And he answered: "How should 
I have a mattress for sleeping in a field?" And he said: "And 
how did you sleep?" He answered: "On the ground." And he 
said: "What did you eat when you were in the fields? And what 
wine did you drink?" And he answered: "What kind of food 
and drink do you find in a field?" And he said: "How then did 
you live?" He answered: "I ate dry bread, and salt fish if there 
were any, and I drank water." And the old man said: "A hard 
life." And he said: "Was there a bath on the farm where you 
worked?" And the Egyptian said: "No: I washed in the river, 
when I wanted." 

And when the old man had extracted these answers, and 
knew how he lived and worked before he became a monk, he 
wanted to help him: and so he described his own past life in 
the world. "This wretch in front of you came from the great 
city of Rome, where I had an important post at the palace in 
the Emperor's service." And when the Egyptian heard this 
first sentence, he was stricken, and began to listen attentively. 
And he went on: "So I left Rome, and came into this desert." 
And he said: "I, whom you see, had great houses and wealth: 
and I scorned them, and came to this little cell." And he said: 
"I, whom you see, had beds ornamented with gold, with costly 
coverings: and instead of them God gave me this bed of reeds 
and this blanket. My clothes were rich and expensive: and 
instead of them I wear these tatters." And he said: "On my 
dinner-table I used to spend much money: and instead of it he 
has given me these few vegetables and this little cup of wine. 
Many servants used to wait upon me, and instead the Lord has 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 123 

given this one man alone a spirit penitent enough to look after 
me. Instead of a bath I dip my feet in a little bowl of water, and 
I use sandals because of my infirmity. For the pipe and the lyre 
and all the varieties of music which used to delight me at dinner, 
I say twelve psalms in the day, and twelve psalms in the night. 
But for the sins which once I committed, I now offer this poor 
and useless service to God in quietness. 

See then, Abba, do not be scandalized at my infirmity. 5 ' 
And when the Egyptian heard it, he came to himself and 
said: "I am a wretch. I came from a hard life of labour to be 
at rest in the monk's way of life: and now I have what I did 
not have before. But you have come of your own accord to this 
hard life, and have left the comforts of the world: you came 
from honour and wealth to loneliness and poverty." 

And he went away with much profit; and he became his 
friend, and used to go to the old man for his soul's good, for 
he was a man of discerning, and was full of the fragrance of the 
Holy Spirit. 

77. An old man said: "All this talking is unnecessary. Nowa- 
days everyone talks: and what is needed is action. That is what 
God wants, not useless talking." 

78. A brother asked some of the fathers whether a man 
suffered pollution if he thought on vileness. When they were 
asked this question, some said: "Yes": and some said: "No: for 
if he were polluted we ordinary people could not be saved. If 
we think of vile actions but do them not, this brings salvation." 

The questioner was discontented with the fathers' diverse 
answers, and he went to an experienced old man and asked him. 
And the old man replied: "Everyone is required to do accord- 
ing to his capacity." Then the brother asked the old man: "For 
the Lord's sake, explain this saying to me." And the old man 
said: "Look, suppose there was a jug of value. And two brothers 
came in, one of whom had a great capacity for a disciplined life, 
and the other a small capacity. Suppose that the mind of the 
more disciplined man were moved at the sight of the jug and he 
said inwardly C I would like to own that jug' but the thought 
does not remain, and he quickly drives away the desire then he 
would not be polluted. But if the less disciplined man coveted 
the jug and was strongly moved by an impulse to take it, and 
yet did not take it, he would not be polluted." 

79. An old man said: "If a man lives in a place but does not 
harvest the crops of that place, the place drives him out because 
he has not done the work of that place." 



124 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

80. An old man said: "If a man does anything according to 
his self-will, and not according to God's will, he can afterwards 
return to the Lord's way, if he did it in ignorance. But the man 
who obeys his self-will and not God's, and will not listen to 
admonition, but thinks he knows, will hardly be able to come 
to the Lord's way." 

81. An old man was asked: "What is meant by the text 
'Narrow and strait is the way'?" And the old man answered: 
"Narrow and strait is the way by which a man does violence to 
his thoughts and for God's sake breaks down his self-will. This 
is what was written of the apostles, e Lo, we have left all, and 
followed thee.'" 4 

82. An old man said: "As the order of monks is more honour- 
able than that of men of the world, so the travelling monk 
ought to be in every way a mirror for the monks of the places 
where he stays." 

83. One of the fathers said: "If a labourer remains where 
there are no other labourers, he can make no progress. The 
true labourer struggles that the work may not deteriorate. If 
an idle man works with a labourer the idle man becomes less 
idle; and if he does not make progress, at least he does not get 
idler by seeing someone working." 

84. An old man said: "If a man has words but no works, he 
is like a tree with leaves but no fruit. Just as a tree laden with 
fruit is also leafy, the man of good works will also have good 
words." 

85. An old man said that a man once committed a grave 
sin. Stricken with penitence, he went to confess to an old man. 
He did not tell him what he had done, but put it in the form of a 
question: "If such a thought rose in a man's mind, would he 
be saved?" The old man, who had no discretion, answered: 
"You have lost your soul." 

When the brother heard this, he said: "Well, if I perish, I 
will go to the world." But on his way he considered the matter 
and decided to tell his temptations to Abba Silvanus, who 
possessed great discretion in these matters. The brother went 
to him and did not tell him what he had done, but again put it 
in the form of the question: "If such a thought arose in a man's 
mind, would he be saved?" Silvanus began to speak to him with 
texts from Scripture, and said: "That judgement does not fall 
Dn people tempted to sin." The brother perceived the force of the 
saying, and took hope, and told him what he had done. When 
to Matt. 7:14; 19:27. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 125 

Abba Silvanus learnt what he had done, he acted like a skilled 
physician and put on his soul a poultice made of texts from 
Scripture, showing him that repentance is available for them 
who in truth and in charity turn to God. After some years Abba 
Silvanus met the old man who had driven the brother to 
despair, and told him what had happened, and said: "That 
brother, who despaired because of your words, and had gone 
back to the world, is now a bright star among the brothers." 
He told him this so that we may know how perilous it is when 
a man confesses his thoughts or sins to people without discretion. 

86. An old man said: "We are not condemned if ill thoughts 
enter us, but only if we use them ill. Through our thoughts we 
may suffer shipwreck, through our thoughts we may attain a 
crown." 

87. An old man said: "Do not give to or receive from men 
of the world. Take no notice of a woman. Do not have con- 
fidence for long in a boy." 

88. A brother asked an old man: "What shall I do, for I am 
troubled by many temptations, and know not how to repel 
them?" The old man said: "Do not fight against them all, but 
against one of them. All the temptations of monks have a 
single head. You must consider what it is, what kind of tempta- 
tion, and fight it. And in this way all the other temptations will 
be defeated." 

89. An old man said against evil thoughts: "I beg you, my 
brothers, control your thoughts as you control your sins." 

90. An old man said: "Anyone who wants to live in the desert 
ought to be a teacher and not a learner. If he still needs 
teaching, he will suffer harm." 

91. An old man was asked by a brother: "How do I find 
God? With fasts, or labour, or watchings, or works of mercy?" 
The old man replied: "In all that you have said, and in dis- 
cretion. I tell you that many have afflicted their body, but have 
gained no profit because they did it without discretion. Even if 
our mouths stink with fasting, and we have learnt all the 
Scriptures, and memorized the whole Psalter, we still lack what 
God wants humility and charity." 

92. A brother asked an old man: "Abba, look: I ask my 
elders questions, and they speak to me for the salvation of my 
soul, and I can remember nothing that they say. Is it any use 
asking questions when I profit nothing? I am deep in impurity." 

There were two empty vessels nearby. And the old man said: 
"Go, and take one of those vessels away and put oil in it, and 



126 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

rinse it, and pour out the oil, and put the vessel back." And he 
did so. And he said: "Do it again." And he did it. And after 
he had done it several times, the old man said: "Now, take both 
vessels and see which is the cleaner." And he answered: "The 
one into which I put oil." The old man said: "So it is with the 
soul which asks questions. Although it remembers nothing that 
it hears, it will be cleaner than the soul which never asks 
questions." 

93. A brother was sitting quietly in his cell, and demons 
wanted to seduce him in the guise of angels. And they stirred 
him up to go out to the congregation in church, and they 
showed him a light. But he went to an old man and said: 
"Abba, angels come to me with light, and stir me to go to the 
congregation." And the old man said to him: "Heed them not, 
my son: they are demons. When they come to stir you out, say: 
'I go when I want, and do not listen to you. 3 " He accepted the 
command and returned to his cell. On the next night the 
demons came again as usual to stir him. He answered as he had 
been told: "I go when I want, and do not listen to you." And 
they said to him: "That wicked old man has trapped you. A 
brother came to him to borrow money; and, although he had 
some, he lied and said that he had none, and would give him 
nothing; that shows you he is a deceiver." 

At dawn the brother rose and came to the old man and told 
him what had happened. The old man said to him: "It is true. 
I had money, and I did not give to the brother who wanted to 
borrow some. I knew that if I gave it to him, I should be 
harming his soul. I thought it better to transgress one com- 
mandment than ten. If he had received money from me, we 
should have come into trouble on his account. So do not listen 
to the demons who want to seduce you." 

And the brother went back to his cell, much comforted by 
the words of the older man. 

94. Three brothers once came to an old man in Sccte. One 
of them asked him: "Abba, I have memorized the Old and New 
Testaments." And the old man answered: "You have filled the 
air with words." And the second asked him: "I have written 
the Old and New Testaments with my own hand." But the old 
man said: "And you have filled the window-ledge with manu- 
scripts*" And the third said: "The grass is growing up my 
chimney." And the old man answered: "And you have driven 
away hospitality." 

95. Some of the fathers told this story of a great old man. If 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 127 

anyone came to ask a word of him, he used to say with great 
confidence: "Look, I am acting in place of God and sitting in 
his judgement seat: what do you want me to do for you? If you 
say to me, "Have mercy upon me,' God says to you, 'If you want 
me to have mercy on you, you must have mercy on your 
brothers and then I will have mercy on you. If you want me to 
forgive you, you must forgive your neighbour.' 

Then is God the cause of guilt? God forbid. It is in our 
power, if we do not want to be saved." 

96. They said of an old man in Gellia that he was a great 
worker. While he was at a work, a holy man happened to come 
to his cell; and when he was outside the door, he heard the 
old man within battling with his thoughts, and saying: "Am 
I to lose everything because of a single word?" The man out- 
side thought that he was quarrelling with someone else, and 
knocked on the door to go in and make peace between them. 
But when he went in and saw no one else there, he had faith 
in the old man, and said: "With whom were you quarrelling, 
Abba?" He replied: "With my thoughts. I have memorized 
fourteen books; and when I was outside I heard one little word. 
And when I came to say the divine office, I had forgotten all 
fourteen books and could remember only the one word which 
I heard outside. And that is why I am quarrelling with my 
thoughts." 

97. Some brothers from a monastery came into the desert 
to see a hermit: and he received them gladly. And as is the way 
of hermits, he saw that they were tired with their journey and 
made a meal for them, though it was not the proper time for a 
meal, and so refreshed them with what he had in his cell. And 
in the evening they said twelve psalms, and twelve more in the 
night. While the old man was keeping watch, he heard them 
saying: "Hermits have more rest in the desert than do monks in 
the monastery." 

In the morning they were departing to visit a neighbouring 
hermit. And he said to them: "Greet him for me, and tell him: 
*Do not water the vegetables.' " The neighbouring hermit 
understood the message, and kept them working until evening 
without any food. And at evening he prolonged the divine 
office to great length, and then said: "Let us rest a little for your 
sakes. You are tired after your labours." And he said: "We do 
not usually eat today, but let us eat a little for your sake." And 
he brought them dry bread and salt, and said: "Look, we have 
a feast today because you have come": and he added a little 



128 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

sour wine to the mixture. And they rose, and began to sing 
psalms until dawn. And he said: 6 'Because you travellers are 
here, you must rest a little, and that prevents us keeping the 
rule." And at daybreak, they wanted to go hastily. But he asked 
them to stay, and said: "Spend a little time with me: or at least, 
for the commandment's sake, keep the hermit's way of life with 
me for three days." 

But when they saw that he was not letting them rest, they 
stole away in secret. 

98. A brother asked one of the fathers: "If by chance I 
oversleep, and am late for the hour of prayer, I am ashamed 
that others will hear me praying so late, and so I become 
reluctant to keep the rule of prayer." And the old man said: 
"If ever you oversleep the dawn, rise when you wake, shut the 
door and the windows, and say your office. For it is written 
The day is thine and the night is thine.' 41 God is glorified 
whatever time it is." 

99. An old man said: "One man eats a lot and is still hungry. 
Another eats a little and has had enough. The man who eats a 
lot and is still hungry has more merit than the man who eats a 
little but enough for him." 

100. An old man said: "If some distressing controversy rises 
between you and another, and the other denies it and says: e l 
said no such thing, 3 do not argue with him or say: 'You did say 
it.' For he will be exasperated, and will say: 'Very well: I did 
say it.' " 

101. A brother asked an old man: "My sister is poor. If I 
give her alms, am I giving alms to the poor?" The old man 
said: "No." The brother said: "Why, Abba?" And the old 
man replied: "Because your kinship draws you a little towards 
her." 

1 02. An old man said: "A monk ought not to listen to dis- 
paragement: he ought not to be disparaged: and he ought not 
to be scandalized." 

103. An old man said: "Do not be pleased at everything 
which is said, and do not agree with everything that is said. Be 
slow to believe, and quick to say what is true." 

1 03 A. An old man said that even though holy men had to 
endure much in the desert they had already received some 
portion of the heavenly rest. But he meant it for those who are 
free from worldly cares. 

1033. An old man said: "If a monk knows a person with 
<u PS. 74:16. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 

whom he would make progress, but in a place where the life 
would be hard, he is an atheist if he does not go there." 

1030. A brother asked a boy monk: "Is it good to speak or 
keep silence?" The boy said to him: "If the words are idle, leave 
them unsaid. If good, find room for them and speak. But even 
if the words are good, do not prolong what you say but cut it 
short: and so you will have peace of mind." 

104. An old man said: "Sometimes a text enters the heart of 
a brother as he is sitting in his cell: and the brother, meditating 
inwardly upon the text, cannot understand its meaning and is 
not drawn by God to true understanding. Then demons come 
to his help, and show him whatever meaning suits them." 

105. One of the old men said: "When first we used to meet 
each other in the assembly and talk of what was helpful to our 
souls, we became ever more withdrawn from the things of sense, 
and mounted to the heavenly places. But now we meet, and 
spend our time in gossip, and each drags the other downwards." 

1 06. Another of the fathers said: "If our inner man behaves 
with seriousness, it can control the outer man : but if the inner man 
does not, what other means is there of controlling the tongue?" 

107. He also said: "We need to labour in praise of God 
because we have come into the desert. If we are not labouring 
with our body, we may labour mightily in God's praise." 

1 08. Another father said: "A man ought always to be work- 
ing at something in his cell. If he is busy with the divine office, 
the devil comes to him day after day, but finds no resting-place 
there. And if he succeeds in conquering him and taking him 
prisoner, God's spirit often comes again. But if we are sinners 
and do not let God's spirit come to us, he goes away." 

109. Some Egyptian monks once went down to Scete to see 
the elders of that place. And they saw them famished with a 
long fast and so wolfing their food: and they were scandalized 
at them. But the priest saw it and wanted to heal their minds 
and send them away edified. And he preached to the people in 
the church, saying: "My brothers, prolong your fast yet fur- 
ther." The Egyptian visitors wanted to leave, but he kept them. 
When they had fasted one day and then a second, they were 
much weakened; for he had made them fast for two days with- 
out a break. (But in Scete the monks fast for a week.) 

On Saturday the Egyptians sat down to eat with the old 
men. And they reached voraciously for their food. And one of 
the old men- checked their hands, and said: "Eat like monks, 
in a disciplined way." 



130 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

One of the Egyptians threw off his restraining hand, and said: 
"Leave go. I am dying, I have not eaten cooked food all the 
week." And the old man said to him: "If you are so weak at a 
meal after a fast of only two days, why were you scandalized at 
brothers who always keep their abstinence for a week at a 
time?" 

And they did penance before them, and went away gladly, 
edified at their abstinence. 

no. A brother who renounced the world and took the 
monk's habit, immediately shut himself up in a hermitage, 
saying: "I am a solitary." When the neighbouring elders heard 
of it, they came and threw him out of his cell, and made him 
go round the cells of the brothers and do penance before them, 
and say: "Forgive me. I am no solitary but have only lately 
begun to be a monk." 

in. Some old men said: "If you see a young man climbing 
up to heaven by his own will, catch him by the foot and pull 
him down to earth: it is not good for him." 

112. A brother said to a great old man: "Abba, I wanted to 
find an old man after my own heart, and die with him." And 
the old man said: "Your search is good, my Lord." The brother 
reiterated his desire, not understanding the irony of the old 
man. But when the old man saw that he thought this was a good 
idea, he said to him: "If you find an old man after your own 
heart, you want to live with him?" And the brother said: "Yes. 
I wholeheartedly want this, if I can find one according to my 
mind." Then the old man said to him: "You do not want to 
follow the will of an old man: you want to follow yours, and so 
you will be comfortable with him." 

But the brother saw the sense of what he said, and rose and 
prostrated himself in penitence, saying: "Forgive me. I was 
very proud of myself for saying something good, when in truth 
there was nothing good about me." 

113. Two earthly-minded brothers renounced the world* 
The younger was the first to begin the converted life. One of 
the fathers came to stay with them, and they brought a basin 
of water for him to wash. And the younger came to wash the 
feet of the old man. But the old man took his hand and motioned 
him away, and made the elder do it: it is the custom for the 
first men in a monastery to do this. But the brothers standing 
near said: "Abba, the elder brother is the younger in religion*" 
The old man answered: "And I take away the first place from 
the younger, and give it to him who is older in years." 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 131 

114, An old man said: "The prophets wrote books. Our 
fathers came after them, and worked much at them, and then 
their successors memorized them. But this generation has come, 
and it copies them on papyrus and parchment and leaves them 
unused on the window-ledge." 

115. An old man said: "The cowl we use is the symbol of 
innocence. The amice which covers neck and shoulders is the 
symbol of a cross: the girdle, the symbol of courage. Let us live 
our lives in the virtues symbolized by our habit. If we do 
everything with earnestness, we shall not fail." 

PART XI 

That it is right to live soberly 

1 . A brother asked Abba Arsenius to speak a word to him. 
The old man said to him: "As far as you can, strive to make 
your inner progress as God would have it, and by it conquer 
the passions of the outer man. 5 * 

He also said: "If we seek God, he will appear to us: if we 
hold him, he will stay with us." 

2. Abba Agatho said: "A monk ought not to let his con- 
science accuse him about anything." 

When this Abba Agatho was on his death-bed, he remained 
motionless for three days with his eyes open. The brothers 
shook him, saying: "Abba, where are you?" And he said: "I am 
standing in the presence of God's judgement." They said to 
him: "Are you afraid?" And he said: "Mostly I have worked as 
much as I could to keep the commandments of God. But I am 
a man, and I do not know whether my works will be pleasing 
in God's sight." The brothers said to him: "Do you not trust 
in your works? For they were obedient to God's will." And the 
old man said: "I do not presume, except I come before God: 
for the judgements of God are not the judgements of men." 

When they still wished to ask him to speak, he said to them: 
"Of your charity do not talk to me, for I am busy." And at the 
words, he breathed forth his spirit with joy. And they saw him 
welcoming his spirit as a man greets his dear friends. In every- 
thing Abba Agatho kept a careful guard, and he used to say: 
"There is no virtue which a man can acquire without taking 
guard." 

3. They said of Abba Ammoi that when he went to church, 
he did not let his disciple walk with him, but made him follow 
a long way behind. And if the disciple drew near to ask him 



132 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

something, he gave him a rapid answer and drove him back at 
once, saying: "I am afraid that while we are talking for the 
soul's good, some irrelevant words will be spoken: and that is 
why I do not let you walk by my side." 

4. Abba Ammoi began by saying to Abba Aesius: "How do 
you see me now? 55 And he said: "Like an angel, father." And 
later he said again: "Now how do you see me?" And he said: 
"Like Satan: for even if you speak a good word, it is like a sword 
to me." 

5. Abba Allois said: "Unless a man say in his heart, Only I 
and God are in the world, he shall not find rest." 

6. He also said: "If a man wills, in one day he can come by 
the evening to a measure of divinity." 

7. Abba Bessarion said when he was dying: "A monk ought 
to be all eye, like the Cherubim and Seraphim." 

8. Abba Daniel and Abba Ammoi were once on a journey 
together. Abba Ammoi said: "Do you think sometime we 
shall rest in a cell, father?" Abba Daniel said to him: "Who can 
take God away from us? God is abroad in the world, and he is 
in the cell likewise." 

9. Abba Evagrius said: "It is a great thing to pray without 
hindrance. It is a greater, to sing psalms without hindrance." 

10. He also said: "If you always remember your death and 
do not forget the eternal judgement, there will be no sin in your 
soul." 

11. Abba Theodore of the ninth region of Alexandria said: 
"If God reckons to us the carelessness of our times of prayer, 
and the captivity of our minds to other things during our 
psalmody, we cannot be saved." 

12. Abba Theonas said: "Our mind is hindered and held 
back from contemplating God, because we are imprisoned in 
our bodily passions." 

13. Some of the brothers once came to tempt Abba John the 
Short, for he never let his mind wander among worldly 
thoughts, and he never spoke for the world's sake. They said to 
him: "Thanks be to God, it has rained hard this year, and the 
palm-trees have had enough water to begin to bear; and so 
the brothers who are engaged in bodily labour will find fruit 
from their labour," So Abba John said to them: "So it is 
when the Holy Spirit comes down into the hearts of saintly 
men. They grow green and fresh, and in the fear of God put 
forth leaves." 

14. They said of this Abba John that he once made enough 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 133 

material for two baskets, and twisted it all into one basket, but 
did not see what he was doing until he tried to hang them on 
the wall. For his mind was occupied in the contemplation of 
God. 

I4A. Abba John the Short also said: "I am like a man sitting 
in the shade of a tall tree, who sees wild beasts and snakes 
coming at him and knows his danger and rushes to climb the 
tree to safety. I sit in my cell, and see temptations coining at 
me: and when I cannot stand up to them I rush to pray God, 
and so I find safety from the enemy's attack." 

15. There was an old man in Scete, with a reasonable rule 
of bodily life, but not at all careful in remembering what he 
heard. So he went to Abba John the Short to ask him about 
forgetfulness. He listened to Abba John, went back to his celL 
and forgot what he had been told. He came a second time and 
asked him, listened, went back, and forgot what he had heard 
the moment he had reached his cell. Many times he went back- 
wards and forwards, but could never remember. 

He happened to meet the old man and said: "Do you know, 
father, that I again forgot what you told me? I did not wish to 
trouble you, so I did not come again." Abba John said to him: 
"Go, light a lamp." And he lit it. And he said: "Bring more 
lamps and light them from the first." And he did so. And Abba 
John said to the old man: "Was the first lamp harmed, because 
you used it to light others?" And he said: "No." "So John is not 
harmed: even if all the monks of Scete should come to me, it 
does not keep me from God's love. So come to me whenever 
you want, and do not hesitate," 

And so, by patience on both sides, God cured the forgetful- 
ness of the old man. This was the work of the men of Scete, to 
strengthen those who were attacked by passion; their own 
experience in the moral struggle enabled them to help others 
along the road. 

1 6. A brother asked Abba John: "What am I to do? A 
brother keeps coming and takes me away to help with the work 
which he is doing: but I am wretched and sick, and am too 
weak for it. How then am I to obey God's commandment?" 
The old man answered him: "Caleb the son of Jephunneh said 
to Joshua the son of Nun 42 e l was forty years old when, Moses 
the servant of the Lord sent me with you to that country: and 
now I am eighty-five. Then I was strong: and I am still just as 
capable of beginning and ending a battle.' And so do you go, 
42 Josh. 14:6 and 10-11 inaccurately. 



134 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

if you can finish the work as well as you begin it. If you cannot, 
sit in your cell and lament your sins. And if they find you 
weeping when they come, they will not force you to go out with 
them." 

17. Abba Isidore, who was the priest in Scete, said: "When 
I was a young man and stayed in my cell, I made no limit to 
the number of psalms which I used in the service of God. Night 
and day alike were spent in psalmody." 

1 8. Abba Gassian told a story of an old man, living in the 
desert, who asked God to grant that he never fell into a doze 
when the conversation was edifying: but that, if anyone spoke 
with back-biting or hate, he should immediately fall asleep, and 
so he would not listen to the poisonous words. He said that the 
devil strove earnestly to make men speak idle words, and 
assailed all spiritual teaching. 

In this connexion he gave the following example: "When 
once I was talking to some brothers for the good of their souls, 
they fell into a drowsiness so deep that they could not even keep 
their eyelids open. I wanted to show them that this was the 
devil's work, so I started gossiping: and at once they lost all 
drowsiness and began to enjoy what I was saying. But I said 
sorrowfully: c We were talking of the heavenly till just now, and 
your eyes were drooping into heavy slumber: but the moment 
the talk is frivolous, you all begin to listen avidly. I beg you 
then, dear brothers, since you know that this is the work of an 
evil demon, to look to yourselves, and beware of sleep when- 
ever you are doing or hearing the things of the spirit. 9 " 43 

19. When Abba Poemen was a young man, he once went to 
an old man to ask him three questions. When he arrived at the 
old man's cell he forgot one of his three questions, and went 
back to his own cell. And he was just stretching out his hand 
for the key of his cell when he remembered the question which 
he had forgotten. He left the key lying there, and returned to 
the old man. The old man said to him: "You have travelled 
fast to get here, my brother.' 9 And Poemen told him; "When I 
was stretching out my hand for the key, I remembered the 
question: so I did not open my cell door, but immediately 
returned to you." 

The distance between the cells was very great. The old man 

43 Gassian, Institutes, V, 29 and 31. Verba Smiorum has, again, translated from 
a Greek translation of Gassian's Latin text, but it was a full translation 
and not an epitome. Gassian himself attributed the first story to an old 
man named Machetes. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 135 

said to him: "Truly you are Poemen, 44 shepherd of sheep: for 
your name shall be renowned in all Egypt." 

20. Abba Ammon came to Abba Poemen, and said to him: 
"If I go to my neighbour's cell, or if he comes to mine, we are 
both frightened of unsuitable conversation, which may harm 
our monastic purpose." And the old man said to him: "You are 
right. Young men need to be on their guard." Abba Ammon 
said to him: "What about old men?" And Abba Poemen said to 
him: "Old men who make progress, and are stable, do not find 
these unsuitable words in their mouths and so they do not say 
them." And Abba Ammon said: "If I need to talk with my 
neighbour, do you think I should talk to him about the Scrip- 
tures, or about the sayings and judgements of the elders?" And 
the old man said to him: "If you cannot keep silence, it is much 
better to talk about the sayings of the elders than about the 
Scriptures. For the danger is no small one." 

21. Abba Poemen was asked about pollutions. He replied: 
"If we strengthen our moral life and make earnest efforts, we 
shall not find pollutions in ourselves." 

22. They used to say of Abba Poemen that when he was soon 
to go out for the divine office, he first sat by himself for an hour 
in self-examination, and then went out. 

23. Abba Poemen said that a man asked Abba Paysio this 
question: "What am I to do to my soul? It has become in- 
capable of feeling and does not fear God." And he said to him: 
"Go, and put yourself under a man who does fear God: and 
when you live with him, you will learn to fear God also." 

24. He also said: "The beginning and the end is the fear of 
the Lord. For thus it is written, The fear of the Lord is the 
beginning of wisdom 3 : and, when Abraham built an altar the 
Lord said to him: "Now I know that thou fearest God/ " 4S 

24A. He also said: "If a man makes a new heaven and a new 
earth, he still cannot be safe from temptation." 

25. He also said: "Depart from any man who is always scorn- 
ful in his conversation." 

26. He also said: "I once asked Abba Peter, the disciple of 
Abba Lot: 6 When I am in my cell, my soul is at peace. But if 
some brother arrives and tells me what is being said outside, 
my soul is troubled?' And Abba Peter told me that Abba Lot 
said: 'Your key has opened my door.' 

44 Poemen is Greek for shepherd. Some of the Latin translators turned his 
name into Pastor, 

45 Ps. 1 1 1 : io a et d,\ Gen. 22 :g and 12, 



136 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

And I said: 'What does that mean?' And he said: If someone 
comes to visit you, you ask him: How are you? Where do you 
come from? How are such-and-such brothers faring, did they 
receive you or not? Then you are opening the door for your 
brother to talk, and you hear words which you do not want to 
hear. 3 And I said to him: That is so. But what shall a man do 
otherwise, when a brother visits him?' And the old man said: 
'True teaching is always in sorrow. Where sorrow is not, you 
cannot keep a watch on the mind.' 

And I said to him: 'When I am in my cell, sorrow is with me. 
But when anyone visits me, or when I go out of my cell, I am 
sorrowful no longer.' And the old man said: c You are not yet 
stable in sorrow, you use it as a transitory and expedient feeling.' 
And I said: 'What does that mean?' And he said to me: *If a 
man labours for something as vigorously as he can, he finds it 
ready to hand whenever he needs it for his spiritual profit.' " 

27. A brother asked Abba Sisois: "I long to guard my 
heart." The old man said to him: "And how can we guard the 
heart if our tongue leaves the door of the fortress open?" 

28. Abba Silvanus was once living on Mount Sinai. His 
disciple, who was about to go off on some necessary task, said 
to the old man: "Bring water, and water the garden." The old 
man went to draw water: and he covered his face with his 
cowl, so that he could see only his feet. By chance a visitor 
arrived to see him at that moment: and looking at him from a 
distance, marvelled at the sight. And he went up to him and 
said: "Tell me, Abba, why did you cover your face with your 
hood, and so water the garden?" And the old man said to him: 
"So that my eyes should not see the trees, and my mind should 
not be disturbed from its work by the sight." 

29. Abba Moses asked Abba Silvanus: "Can a man live every 
day as though it were the first day of his religious life?" Abba 
Silvanus answered: "If a man is a labourer, he can live every 
day, nay every hour, as though it were the first day or hour of 
his religious life." 

30. Some brothers once asked Abba Silvanus: "What way of 
life did you practise to be endowed with such prudence?" And 
he answered: "I never let any embittering thought remain in 
my heart." 

3 1 . Abba Serapion said: "The imperial guards while on duty 
in the emperor's presence must keep their eyes to the front and 
not turn their heads to one side or the other. And the monk, 
in God's presence, must keep his attention all the time upon 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 137 

the fear of God and so none of the enemy's wickednesses can 
affright him. 9 ' 

3 1 A. Saint Syncletice said: "My sons, we all know the way 
to be saved, and fail to travel it because we do not care." 

32. Saint Syncletice said: "Let us live soberly. For through 
our bodily senses, willy-nilly, robbers come in. The inside of 
the house is sure to be blackened when the smoke that is 
climbing up the outer walls finds the windows open." 

33. She also said: "We ought to be armed at all points 
against the demons. They come at us from outside; and are 
invited by the inner man if the soul is weak. Sometimes a ship 
is crushed by the battering of heavy seas; sometimes it is sunk 
because the bilge water steadily rises within. And in the same 
way we are sometimes condemned because we have committed 
wicked acts, and sometimes because the inner thoughts are evil. 
So we must watch for the assaults of unclean spirits, and 
cleanse the thoughts of the heart." 

34. She also said: "We have no security in this world. The 
Apostle said: c Let him that standeth, take heed lest he fall.' 46 
We are sailing on uncharted seas; as the Psalmist David said: 
'Our life is like a sea.' Yet some seas have dangerous reefs, some 
are full of sharks, some seas are calm. We seem to be sailing in 
calm waters, while men of the world are sailing in rough 
weather. And we are sailing in daylight, led by the Sun of 
righteousness, while they are being driven along in the night 
time the night of ignorance. Yet it often happens that worldly 
men, sailing in darkness and through storms, are so afraid of 
the danger that they save the ship, by calling upon God and by 
watchfulness: while we, in our calm waters, become negligent, 
get off the proper course of righteousness, and are sunk." 

35. Abba Hyperichius said: "Let your mind be ever upon the 
kingdom of heaven, and you will soon win its inheritance." 

36. He also said: "The life of a monk should be like that of 
the angels, in burning up sin." 

37. Abba Orsisius said: "I think that unless a man has a good 
watch on his heart, he will become forgetful and careless in his 
conversation. And so the enemy gets a footing in him and 
overthrows him. A lamp will give light if it has oil and a 
trimmed wick. But if the oil is forgotten, it goes slowly out and 
little by little the shadows creep in upon it. If a mouse comes 
to it and tries to eat the wick before it is quite out, it is thwarted 
by the heat of the dying flame. But when it sees that the light 
46 I Cor. 10:12. 



138 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

is gone and the wick is cool, it knocks the lamp to the floor. If 
the lamp is earthenware, it is smashed, if it is brass, it is re- 
parable. 

If the soul is negligent, the Holy Spirit goes from it little by 
little, until it has grown quite cold: and then the enemy 
devours the soul's purpose, and wickedness puts an end to it. 
If a man through his Godward affection is a good man and has 
merely been caught in temporary negligence, the merciful God 
stirs the mind to remember the punishment waiting for sinners 
in the next life; and henceforth the mind takes trouble to be 
earnest and watches itself carefully, until the time of its visita- 
tion. 55 

38. An old man visited another old man. In their con- 
versation one said: "I am dead to the world.' 5 And the other 
said: "Do not be self-confident until you die. You may say 
about yourself that you are dead: but Satan is not dead. 55 

39. An old man said: "A monk ought every day to examine 
himself morning and evening, how far he has kept the Lord's 
will. He ought to be leading a penitential life all his days. That 
was the way Abba Arsenius lived.' 5 

40. An old man said: "If you lose gold or silver, you can 
find something as good as you lost. But the man who loses time 
can never make up what he has lost. 55 

41. An old man said: "Before soldiers or hunters start on 
expeditions, they do not consider whether some will be wounded 
and others unhurt. Each one fights for himself alone. That is 
how the monk should be. 55 

42. An old man said: "No one can harm the man at the 
emperor's side: and Satan cannot harm us if our souls are fixed 
upon God: as it is written, 'Draw nigh to me, and I shall draw 
nigh unto you. 547 But because we are so often puffed up with 
pride, it is easy for the enemy to snatch away our wretched soul 
to carnal passion and its ignominy. 55 

42 A. An old man said: "A man must work so that his work 
does not perish. However much he does, it is no use if it is im- 
permanent. It is work that is little and lasting which shall 
stand. 55 

42B. An old man said: "Sometimes I do a great work, some- 
times a little. And I have regard to the results in my thoughts 
and deeds. 5 ' 

420. An old man said: "Waking or sleeping, whatever you 
do a you will not fear the devil if God be before your eyes. Even 
47 Zech. r 13. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 139 

if temptation stays with a man, so does God's power stay with 
him." 

420. An old man said: "When you wake in the morning, tell 
yourself this: 'Work, my body, for your food. Be earnest, my 
soul, to win your inheritance. 9 " 

43. A brother said to an old man: "I see no battle in my 
heart." And the old man said: "You are like double doors: 
anyone who likes can go inside, and come out again when he 
likes, and you are unaware of what is happening. If you had a 
door and shut it, you would not let wicked thoughts come in, 
and then you would see them standing outside the door and 
fighting against you." 

44. They said of an old man that his thoughts suggested to 
him: "Let be today; tomorrow you shall do penance." And he 
contradicted them thus: "No, I do penance today, and to- 
morrow the Lord's will be done." 

45. An old man said: "Unless the inner man live soberly, the 
outer man is uncontrollable." 

46. An old man said: "Satan has three powers, which lead 
to all the sins. The first is forgetfulness, the second negligence, 
the third concupiscence. If forgetfulness comes, it begets negli- 
gence: negligence is the mother of concupiscence: and by 
concupiscence a man falls. If the mind is serious, it repels 
forgetfulness, negligence does not come, concupiscence finds no 
entry and so with help from Christ's grace, he shall never 
fall." 

47. An old man said: "Take care to be silent. Empty the 
mind. Attend to your meditation, in the fear of God, whether 
you are resting in bed or at work. If you do this, you will not 
fear the assaults of demons." 

48. An old man said to a brother: "The devil is like a 
hostile neighbour and you are like a house. The enemy con- 
tinually throws into you all the dirt that he can find. It is 
your business not to neglect to throw out whatever he throws 
in. If you neglect to do this, your house will be so full of mud 
that you will not be able to walk inside. From the moment he 
begins to throw, put it out again, bit by bit: and so by Christ's 
grace your house shall remain clean." 

49. An old man said: "When the donkey's eyes are covered, 
it walks round the mill-wheel. If you uncover its eyes, it will 
not go on walking in the circle. And if the devil succeeds in 
covering a man's eyes, he lowers him into every kind of sin. 
But if man's eyes are uncovered, he can more easily escape." 



I4O WESTERN ASCETICISM 

50. The old men used to say that on the mountain of Abba 
Antony, seven monks took turns at the time of the grape 
harvest to drive away the birds from the fruit. One old man 
among them, on the day when it was his turn to guard the 
grapes, used to shout: "Go away ill thoughts within, birds 
without." 

5 1 . A brother collected palm-leaves in his cell. And as soon 
as he sat down to plait them, his mind suggested to him that 
he should go visit one of the old men. He meditated on it, and 
said: "I will go in a few days." And then his mind suggested: 
"Suppose he dies during the next few days, what will you do?" 
"I will go now and talk with him, because it is summer time." 
And again he thought: "No, it is not the proper time yet." 
Then he said: "It will be time when you have cut the reeds for 
the mats." And he said: "I will spread out these palm-leaves and 
then go." Then he said: "But today it is fine weather." 

So he rose, left his pile of palms, took his cloak, and went 
out. But nearby was another old man, a man of prophetic 
vision. When he saw the brother hurrying out, he called to him: 
"Prisoner, prisoner, where are you running to? Gome here to 
me." He came: and the old man said to him: "Go back to your 
cell." The brother described to him the ups and downs and 
indecisions of his mind, and then went back to his cell. And 
as soon as he entered it, he fell down and did penance. And 
suddenly the demons shrieked aloud: "You have conquered us, 
monk, you have conquered us." And the mat on which he lay 
was singed as though by fire, and the demons vanished away 
like smoke; and so the brother learnt their wiles, 

52. They told a story of an old man who was dying in Scete. 
The brothers stood round his bed, and clothed him, and began 
to weep. But he opened his eyes and began to laugh; it hap- 
pened three times. So the brothers asked him: "Tell us, Abba, 
why do you laugh at our weeping?" And he told them: "I 
laughed the first time because you fear death; I laughed the 
second time because you are not ready for death; I laughed the 
third time, because I am passing from labour to rest, and yet 
you weep." And so saying, he closed his eyes and died. 

53. A brother who was living in his cell once came to one 
of the fathers and said that he was grievously troubled by his 
thoughts. And the old man said: "You have thrown on the 
ground a mighty weapon, which is the fear of God, and taken 
in your hand a stick made of reeds, which is wicked thoughts. 
You must take to yourself the fire which is the fear of God. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 14! 

And when the wicked thought approaches you, the fear of God 
will destroy it as a fire burns reeds. Wickedness cannot over- 
come men who fear God." 

54. One of the fathers said: "Unless you first hate, you 
cannot love. Unless you hate sin, you cannot live righteously. 
As it is written: 'Eschew evil and do good.' 48 But mental 
purpose is needed for all this. Adam, though in Paradise, dis- 
obeyed God's command: Job, living in a dung-hill, kept it. It 
seems that God requires from man a good purpose, the 
purpose of fearing him always." 



PART XII 

That we ought to pray earnestly and unceasingly 

1 . They said of Abba Arsenius that on Saturday evening he 
put his back to the setting sun and stretched out his hands 
towards heaven, and prayed, until at dawn on Sunday the 
rising sun lit up his face: and then he sat down again. 

2. The brothers asked Abba Agatho: "Father, which virtue 
in our way of life needs most effort to acquire?" And he said 
to them: "Forgive me, I think nothing needs so much effort 
as prayer to God. If a man is wanting to pray, the demons 
infest him in the attempt to interrupt the prayer, for they know 
that prayer is the only thing that hinders them. All the other 
efforts of a religious life, whether they are made vehemently or 
gently, have room for a measure of rest. But we need to pray 
till we breathe out our dying breath. That is the great struggle." 

3. Abba Dulas, the disciple of Abba Bessarion, said: "I once 
went into the cell of my abba, and found him standing in 
prayer, with his hands stretched towards heaven. He stayed 
like that for fourteen days. At the end he called me and said: 
"Follow me." We went out and took our way through the 
desert. I grew thirsty, and said to him: "Abba, I am thirsty." 
He took off his cloak, and went away a stone's throw: and he 
prayed, and brought me the cloak full of water. And we went 
to the city of Lycus, and came to Abba John, and greeted him, 
and prayed. Then they sat down and began to talk about a 
vision which they had seen. Abba Bessarion said: "The Lord 
has given a commandment that the temples be destroyed." And 
so it was done. They were destroyed. 

4. Abba Evagrius said: "If your soul grows weak, pray. As 

48 PS. 37:27. 



142 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

it is written, 49 pray in fear and trembling, earnestly and 
watchfully. We ought to pray like that, especially because our 
unseen and wicked enemies are vehemently trying to hinder us. 5 ' 

5. He also said: "When a contrary thought enters the heart, 
do not cast around here and there in your prayer, but be 
simply penitent and so you will sharpen your sword against 
your assailant." 

6. Epiphanius, of holy memory, the bishop from Cyprus, was 
told this by the abbot of his monastery in Palestine. "By your 
prayers we have kept our rule; we carefully observe the offices 
of terce, sext, none and vespers." But Epiphanius rebuked him 
and said: "Then you are surely failing to pray at other times. 
The true monk ought to pray without ceasing, ought always to 
be singing psalms in his heart." 

7. Abba Isaiah said: "A priest at Pelusium was holding a 
love-feast: and while the brothers in church were eating and 
conversing, he rebuked them thus: e Be silent, my brothers. I 
know of one brother who is supping among you, and his prayer 
mounts in the sight of God like a darting flame.' " 

8. Abba Lot went to Abba Joseph and said: "Abba, as far as 
I can, I keep a moderate rule, with a little fasting, and prayer, 
and meditation, and quiet: and as far as I can I try to cleanse 
my heart of evil thoughts. What else should I do?" Then the 
old man rose, and spread out his hands to heaven, and his 
fingers shone like ten candles: and he said: "If you will, you 
could become a living flame." 

9. Some monks called Euchites, 50 or "men of prayer," once 
came to Abba Lucius in the ninth region of Alexandria. And 
the old man asked them: "What work do you do with your 
hands?" And they said: "We do not work with our hands. 
We obey St Paul's command and pray without ceasing." The 
old man said to them: "Do you not eat?" They said: "Yes, we 
eat." And the old man said to them: "When you are eating, 
who prays for you?" Again, he asked them: "Do you not sleep?" 
They said: "We sleep." And the old man said: "Who prays 
for you while you are asleep?" They would not answer him. 

w Later copyists removed "As it is written." 

50 These are members of the celebrated heretical sect, otherwise known as 
Messalians: for the best account see Hans Lietzmann, The Era of the 
Church Fathers (ET. 1951), pp. 168 ff. For recent bibliography upon a 
much debated question, see A. Kemmcr, "Gregor von Nyssa und Ps. 
Makarius: Der Messalianismus im Lichte ostlicher Herzenmystik," in 
Antonius Magnus Eremita (edited by B. Steidle, O.S.B.), Rome 1956, pp. 
268-82. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 143 

And he said to them: "Forgive me, brothers, but you do not 
practise what you say. I will show you how I pray without 
ceasing though I work with my hands. With God's help, I sit 
and collect a few palm-leaves, and plait them, and say: 'Have 
mercy upon me, O God, after thy great mercy: and according 
to the multitude of thy mercies do away with mine ini- 
quity.' " 51 And he said to them: "Is that prayer, or is it not?" 
They said: "It is prayer." 

And he said: "When I stay all day working and praying in 
my heart, I make about sixteen pence. Two of these I put 
outside the door, and with the rest I buy food. And he who 
receives the two pennies outside the door, prays for me while I 
am eating and sleeping: and so by God's grace I fulfil the text: 
Tray without ceasing.' " 

10. Some brothers asked Abba Macarius: "How should we 
pray?" And the old man said: "There is no need to talk much 
in, prayer. Spread out your hands often, and say: c Lord, have 
mercy upon me, as thou wilt and as thou knowest.' But if war 
presses into the soul, say: 'Lord, help me. 9 He knows what is 
best for us, and has mercy." 

1 1 . They said of Abba Sisois that unless he soon lowered 
his hands when he stood up to pray, his mind was snatched 
up into the heavenly places. So if he happened to be praying 
with another brother, he quickly lowered his hands and ended 
the prayer, so that his mind should not be rapt or remain in 
prayer too long for his brother. 

12. An old man used to say: "Constant prayer soon cures 
the mind." 

13. One of the fathers said: "No one can see his face re- 
flected in muddy water: and the soul cannot pray to God with 
contemplation unless first cleansed of harmful thoughts." 

14. An old man once visited Mount Sinai. And when he was 
going away, a brother met him by the path, and groaned, and 
said: "Abba, we are afflicted by drought. There has been no 
rain." And the old man said: "Why do you not pray and ask 
God?" And he said: "We have been praying and asking God 
constantly, and still there is no rain." And the old man said: "I 
believe you are not praying intently enough. Shall we try 
whether it is so? Come, let us stand and pray together." He 
stretched out his hands to heaven and prayed; and at once the 
rain fell. The brother was afraid at the sight, and fell down and 
worshipped him. But the old man fled away from that place. 
51 Ps. 51:1. 



144 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

15. The brothers told this story. "We once visited some old 
men, and after the usual prayer we exchanged greetings and 
sat down. And after we had talked together, we made ready to 
go, and asked once again for prayer to be made. But one of the 
old men said to us: 'What, have you not prayed already?' And 
we said: 'Yes, father, when we came in, we prayed, and since 
then we have been talking.' And he said: 'Forgive me, brothers; 
one brother, while he was sitting and talking with you, offered a 
hundred and three prayers.' Ajad with these words he prayed, 
and sent us away." 

PART XIII 

That we ought to be hospitable and show mercy with cheerfulness 

1. Some of the fathers once came to Abba Joseph in Pane- 
physis, to ask him if they should break their fast when they re- 
ceived brothers as guests, and so could celebrate their coming. 
And before they asked their question, the old man said to his 
disciple: "Meditate on what I am going to do today." And he 
put two seats, made of reeds, tied in bundles, one on his left and 
the other on his right, and said: "Sit down." Then he went into 
his cell and put on rags; and he came out, and walked past 
them, and then went in again and put on his ordinary clothes. 

The visitors were astonished, and asked him what it meant. 
He said to them: "Did you see what I did?" They said: "Yes." 
And he said: "Did the rags change me for the better?" They 
said: "No." He said: "Did the good garment change me for 
the worse?" They said: "No." And he said: "So I am myself 
whether I wear good clothes or rags. I was not changed for 
better or worse because I changed my clothes. That is what we 
ought to do in receiving guests. It is written in the Holy Gospel, 
'Render unto Caesar the things that are Caesar's; and unto God 
the things that are God's.' So when visitors come, we ought to 
welcome them and celebrate with them. When we are by our- 
selves, we need to be sorrowful." 

When they heard it, they were astonished that he knew what 
they intended to ask him, and they glorified God. 

2. Abba Cassian said: 52 "We came from Palestine to Egypt, 
and visited one of the fathers. After he had offered us hospital- 
ity, we asked him: 'Why, when you receive guests, do you not 
keep the fast? In Palestine they keep it.' He answered: 'Fasting 
is ever with me. I cannot keep you here for ever. Fasting is 
52 Institutes, V, 24. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 145 

useful and necessary, but we can choose to fast or not fast. 
God's law demands from us perfect charity. In you I receive 
Christ: and so I must do all I can to show you the offices of 
charity. When I have bidden you farewell, I can return and 
make up my rule of fasting. The sons of the bridegroom cannot 
fast while the bridegroom is with them: when he is taken from 
them, then they can fast.' 53 " 

3. Abba Cassian also said: 54 "We came to another old man 
and he invited us to sup, and pressed us, though we had eaten, 
to eat more. I said that I could not. He answered: C I have 
already given meals to six different visitors, and have supped 
with each of them, and am still hungry. Have you only eaten 
once and yet are so full that you cannot eat with me now?' " 

4. In Scete there once went out an order that they should 
fast that week, and then celebrate Easter. During the week 
some brothers happened to come from Egypt to visit Abba 
Moses, and he cooked a little vegetable stew for them. The 
nearby hermits saw the smoke, and said to the clergy of the 
church: "What is that smoke? Moses must be disobeying the 
order, and cooking stew in his cell." The clergy said: "We will 
talk to him when he comes." On Saturday the clergy, who knew 
the greatness of his way of life, said to Abba Moses in front of 
the whole congregation: "Abba Moses, you have broken a 
commandment of men: but you have mightily kept the com- 
mandments of God." 

5. A brother came to Abba Poemen in the second week of 
Lent and told him his thoughts, and found peace of mind from 
his answer. Then he said: "I was almost stopped from coming 
to see you today." And the old man said: "Why?" And he said: 
"I was afraid that the door would not be opened as it is Lent." 
And Abba Poemen answered him: "We were not taught to shut 
wooden doors; the door we need to keep shut is the mouth." 55 

6. A brother said to Abba Poemen: "If I give my brother 
anything like a piece of bread, the demons pollute the gift; for 
it makes it seem to be done to please men." And the old man 
told him: "Even if it is done to please men, we still ought to give 
our brothers what they need." And he told him this parable: 
"There were in a town two farmers. One of them sowed seed, 

53 Matt. 9 : 15. 

54 Institutes, V, 25. 

55 In Latin a pun "non januam ligneam [lineam MB.] scd linguae 
januam." But the Greek had no pun, cf. Apophthegmata Poemen 27, PG 65, 
col. 335. 



146 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

and gathered a poor harvest: the other was idle and did not 
sow, and had no harvest to gather. If famine came, which of 
them would survive?" And the brother answered: "The one 
who sowed, even if the harvest was poor." And the old man 
said: "It is so with us. We sow a few seeds, and they are poor 
but in a time of famine we shall not die." 

7. A brother came to a hermit: and as he was taking his 
leave, he said: "Forgive me, Abba, for hampering you in keep- 
ing your rule." The hermit answered: "My rule is to welcome 
you with hospitality, and to send you on your way in peace." 

8. A hermit, possessed of much virtue, lived not far from a 
community of monks. Some visitors to the community happened 
to go to see him and made him eat, though it was not the 
proper time. Later the monks of the community said to him: 
"Were you not disturbed, Abba?" And he answered: "I am 
disturbed when I do my own will." 

9. An old man in Syria, they said, lived near the way to the 
desert: and it was his work faithfully to refresh every monk who 
came from the desert, at whatever time he came. One day a 
hermit arrived, and was asked by him to sup. But the hermit 
refused, saying: "I am fasting." The old man was grieved, and 
said: "I beseech you, do not pass by your servant, do not scorn 
me. Come, let us pray together. Look, here is a tree: let us 
obey him for whom the tree bows down when he kneels and 
prays." So the hermit knelt and prayed: but nothing happened. 
Then the old man knelt down, and at once the tree bent its trunk 
as he did. They rejoiced at the sight, and gave thanks to God 
who is ever performing marvels. 

10. Two brothers once came to an old man, whose custom it 
was not to eat every day. When he saw them, he greeted them 
gladly, and said: "A fast has its reward." And "He who sups 
from a motive of charity, obeys two commandments. He leaves 
his self-will, and refreshes his brothers." 

11. An old man in Egypt lived in a desert place. And far 
away lived a Manichaean who was a priest, at least was one of 
those whom Manichaeans call priests. While the Manichaean 
was on a journey to visit another of that erroneous sect, he was 
caught by nightfall in the place where lived this orthodox and 
holy man. He wanted to knock and go in and ask for shelter; 
but was afraid to do so, for he knew that he would be recognized 
as a Manichaean, and believed that he would be refused 
hospitality. But, driven by his plight, he put the thought aside, 
and knocked. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 147 

The old man opened the door and recognized him: and he 
welcomed him joyfully, made him pray with him, gave him 
supper and a bed. The Manichaean lay thinking in the night, 
and marvelling: "Why was he not hostile to me? He is a true 
servant of God." And at break of day he rose, and fell at his 
feet, saying: "Henceforth I am orthodox, and shall not leave 
you." And so he stayed with him. 

12. A monk of the Thebaid received from God the grace of 
ministry, to minister to the poor as they had need. In a village 
once he happened to be holding a love-feast. And a woman 
clad in tatters came up to him to receive her share. When he 
saw the tatters, he meant to take a great handful, so as to give 
her a big helping: but his hand was kept nearly shut, and he 
took little. Another, well-dressed, woman came up: and seeing 
her clothes, he meant to take a little handful for her: but his 
hand was opened, and he took a big helping. So he made 
enquiry about the women, and he found that the well-dressed 
woman had been a lady who had sunk to poverty and clothed 
herself well because she felt that she had a standard to maintain 
before her family. But the other had put on tatters so as to 
receive more. 

13. A monk had a poor brother living in the world, to whom 
he gave all the profit from his work. But the more he gave him, 
the poorer he became. So the monk went and told an old man 
what was happening. The old man said to him: "If you take 
my advice, you will give him nothing more, but will tell him: 
'Brother, I have given you what I had. It is yours to work now, 
and give me of the produce' : accept whatever he brings you, 
and give it to any poor pilgrim or old man whom you find, and 
ask them to pray for him." 

The monk listened to the advice, and did so. When his 
brother from the world came, he spoke to him as the old man 
advised, and his brother went away grieved. And then, the next 
day, he brought the monk a few vegetables from the garden. 
The monk accepted them, and gave them to some old men, 
asking them to pray for his brother. He received a blessing from 
them and returned home. Later his brother brought him vege- 
tables and three loaves of bread: and he accepted it and gave it, 
and again received a blessing. But the third time his brother 
brought costly articles, wine and fish. The monk was astonished 
at the sight, and called in poor men, and fed them. But he said 
to his brother from the world: "Do you not need all that 
bread?" And his brother said: "No, Lord, When I used to 



148 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

accept presents from you, it was as though a fire entered into 
my house and consumed it: but now, while I am receiving 
nothing from you, I have plenty, and God blesses me." 

So the monk went and told the old man what had happened. 
And the old man said to him: "Do you not know that the monks' 
work is a fire which consumes wherever it passes? It is best for 
your brother that he should eke out a pittance from his own 
effort, and be prayed for by holy men: then he receives God's 
blessing, and he will have plenty." 

14. One of the old men said: "There are some who do good, 
yet the devil insinuates a mean spirit into their souls, so that 
they lose the reward of all the good that they do. When I was 
once living in Oxyrhynchus with a priest who was generous in 
almsgiving, a widow came to ask him for a little barley. He said 
to her: c Go and fetch a measure, and I will weigh you some. 3 
She brought a measure. But he weighed the measure in his 
hand and said: 'It is too big': and he made the widow ashamed. 

After she had gone, I said: Triest, did you lend barley to that 
widow, or what?' He said: 'No; I gave it her.' But I said: 
*If you wanted to make her a free gift, why were you so exact 
about the measure and made her ashamed?' " 

15. An old man lived a common life with another brother, 
and he was an old man with a merciful disposition. Once in a 
time of famine, people began to come to his door to take part 
in a love-feast, and the old man ministered bread to everyone 
who came. But when his brother saw this, he said: "Give me 
my share of the bread, and do what you like with your share." 
The old man divided the bread into two, and went on giving 
away his own share as usual. But a multitude flocked to the old 
man, hearing that he gave to all comers. And God, seeing his 
purpose, blessed that bread. 

But the brother who had taken his share, gave none away: 
and he ate up his bread, and said to the old man: "I have only 
a little of my bread left, Abba: so take me back to a life in 
common." Aiid the old man said to him: "I will do whatever 
you want." And again they began to live together and have 
everything in common. Again, they had plenty of food, and 
again the needy kept coming to receive a love-feast. 

One day the brother happened to go in and see that there 
was no bread left. And a poor man came, asking for the love- 
feast. So the old man said to the brother: "Give him some 
bread." And he said: "There is none left, father." And the old 
man said: "Go in, and look for some." The brother went in, 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 149 

and saw the bin full of loaves. He was afraid at the sight, and 
took some and gave to the poor man. And he recognized the 
faith and goodness of the old man, and glorified God. 

PART XIV 
Of obedience 

1. Abba Arsenius, of blessed memory, once said to Abba 
Alexander : "When you have finished your palm-leaves, come and 
have supper with me. But if pilgrims come, eat with them." 

Abba Alexander worked away gently and unhurriedly. And 
at supper-time he had not finished his palm-leaves. Wanting to 
obey the old man's order, he went on, hungry, until he had 
finished the palm-leaves. Abba Arsenius saw that he was late, 
and had his own supper: for he thought that perhaps pilgrims 
had come, and he was eating with them. Abba Alexander 
finished his task, and in the evening came to Abba Arsenius. 
And Abba Arsenius said to him: "Did pilgrims visit you?" And 
he said: "No." And Abba Arsenius said: "Then why did you 
not come?" And he answered: "Because you told me, come 
when your palm-leaves are finished. I kept your word in mind, 
and did not come, and have only just now finished the work." 
And the old man admired the exactness of his obedience, and 
said to him: "You should lay aside your work sooner, so as to 
make your psalmody, and fetch water for yourself: otherwise 
your body will soon grow weak." 

2. Abba Abraham came to Abba Ares; and while they were 
sitting together, a brother came and said to Abba Ares: "Tell 
me, what must I do to be saved?" And the old man said: "Go 
away, eat bread and salt every evening for a whole year: and 
come back, and I will talk to you." So the brother went away 
and did so, and at the end of a year came again to Abba Ares. 
By chance Abba Abraham was again with him. This time Abba 
Ares said to the brother: "Go away, fast for a year, and eat 
every second day." 

When he had gone, Abba Abraham said to Abba Ares: 
"Why, when you put a light yoke on all the brothers, have you 
laid such a grievous burden on this brother?" And the old man 
said to him: "Other brothers come to ask questions and go 
away as they came. But this brother comes to hear a word for 
God's sake, and he is a mighty labourer of God who takes the 
greatest trouble to do whatever I tell him. That is why I speak 
to him the word of God." 



150 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

3. They told this story of Abba John the Short. He went to 
an old man from the Thebaid, who was living in the desert 
of Scete. His abba once took a dead stick and planted it, and 
told him: "Pour a jug of water over its base every day until it 
bears fruit." Water was so far from their cell that he went away 
to fetch it every evening and did not return until dawn. At the 
end of three years the stick turned green, and bore fruit. The 
old man picked some of the fruit and took it to church, and said 
to the brothers: "Take and eat the fruit of obedience." 56 

4. They said of Abba John, the disciple of Abba Paul, that 
he was a man who possessed the virtue of obedience in great 
measure. There was a tomb, in which lived a dangerous 
lioness. The old man saw the dung of the lioness lying round, 
and said to Abba John: "Go fetch that dung." And Abba John 
said to him: "And what am I to do, Abba, about the lioness?" 
The old man smiled and said: "If she comes at you, tie her up 
and bring her here." 

So the brother went there in the evening, and the lioness 
rushed out at him. He obeyed the old man's word, and ran at 
her to catch her. The lioness turned and fled: Abba John 
chased her, shouting: "Wait! My abba told me to tie you up." 
And he caught her and tied her up. 

The old man sat a long time waiting for him, and was 
greatly troubled in his mind because he was late. But at last 
he came, and brought the lioness with him, tied. The old man 
marvelled at the sight. But wanting to humble him, he beat 
him and said: "You fool, have you brought me a silly dog?" 
And the old man immediately untied her, and drove her away. 

5. They said that Abba Silvanus had a disciple in Scete 
named Mark, who possessed in great measure the virtue of 
obedience. He was a copyist of old manuscripts: and the old 
man loved him for his obedience. He had eleven other disciples, 
and they were aggrieved that he loved Mark more than them. 
When the nearby old men heard that he loved Mark above the 
others, they took it ill. One day they visited him. Abba Silvanus 
took them with him, and went out of his cell, and began to 
knock on the door of each of his disciples, saying: "Brothers, 
come out, I have work for you." And not one of them appeared 
immediately. Then he came to Mark's cell, and knocked, 
saying: "Mark." And as soon as Mark heard the voice of the 

w The same story is to be found in Cassian, Institutes, IV, 24 and Sulpidius 
Severus, Dialogues, i, 19. Each tradition of the story appears to be inde- 
pendent of the others. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 151 

old man, he came outside; and the old man sent him on some 
errand. 

So Abba Silvanus said to the old men: "Where are the other 
brothers?" And he went into Mark's cell, and found a book 
which he had just begun to write, and he was making the letter 
O. And when he heard the old man's voice, he had not finished 
the line of the O, And the old men said: 'Truly, Abba, we also 
love the one whom you love; for God too loves him." 57 

6. Once the mother of Mark, with many attendants, came 
to see him. She said to the old man, when he went out to 
receive her: "Abba, tell my son to come out to me, so that I 
can see him." The old man went into Mark's cell, and said to 
him: "Go out, so that your mother can see you." Mark was 
clad in a torn piece of sackcloth patched with rags, and his 
head and face were sooty from smoke of the cooking fire. He 
came out obediently, but closed his eyes, and so greeted his 
mother and her attendants, saying: "I hope you are well." 
And none of them, not even his mother, knew who he was. 
Again she sent a message to the old man, saying: "Abba, send 
me my son, so that I may see him." And he said to Mark: "Did 
I not tell you to go out so that your mother could see you?" 
And Mark said to him: "I went out as you said, Father. But I 
beg you, do not give me that order again, for I am afraid of 
seeming disobedient to you." The old man went out and said 
to his mother: "Your son is the man who came out and greeted 
you with C I hope you are in good health.' " And he comforted 
her, and sent her on her way. 

7. Four monks once came from Scete to Abba Pambo, 
clothed in tunics of skin. And each described the goodness of 
one of the others, though not in his presence. One of them 
fasted much, one of them owned nothing, the third was a man 
of great charity; and they said of the fourth that he had lived 
in obedience to the elders for twenty-two years. 

Abba Pambo answered: "I tell you, this last is a greater 
virtue than the others. Each of you others has to use his own 
will to keep his virtue. But he eradicates his self-will and makes 
himself the servant of another's will. Men like that, if they 
persevere till death, are confessors." 

8. There once came to Abba Sisois of the Thebaid a man who 
wanted to become a monk. And the old man asked him: "Have 
you any ties in the world?" And he said: CC I have a son." And 
the old man said to him: "Go and throw him in the river, and 
5 7 Gassian knew the story: cf. Institutes, IV, 12: and Rule ofSt Benedict 9 5. 



152 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

then you would be a monk." He went away to throw his boy 
into the river. But the old man sent a monk to stop him. He 
was already holding his son, ready to throw him in, when the 
brother said: "Stop! What are you doing?" And he said: "The 
Abba told me to throw him in." And the brother said: "Now 
the Abba says, do not throw him in." So he left his son, and 
came to the old man, and became a monk of high worth, 
tested through obedience. 58 

9. Saint Syncletice said: "I reckon that for coenobites obedi- 
ence is a higher virtue than continence, however perfect. Con- 
tinence carries pride with it, obedience has the promise of due 
humility." 

10* She also said: "We ought to rule our souls with dis- 
cretion: and to remain in the community, not following our 
own will, nor seeking our own good. We are like exiles: we have 
been separated from the things of the world and have given 
ourselves in faith to the one Father. We need nothing of what 
we have left behind. There we had reputation and plenty to 
eat: here we have little to eat and little of everything else." 

11. Abba Hyperichius said: "The monk's service is obedi- 
ence. He who possesses it shall have his prayers answered, and 
shall stand by the Crucified in confident faith. For that was 
how the Lord went to his cross, being made obedient even unto 
death." 

12. The old men said: "If a man trusts another man, and 
makes himself his servant, he ought not to think about God's 
commandments, but give himself completely to obey the will 
of his spiritual father. If he obeys him in everything, he will 
not sin against God." 

13. The old men used to say: "God demands this of Chris- 
tians: to obey the inspired Scriptures, which contain the pattern 
of what they must say and do, and assent to the teaching of the 
orthodox bishops and fathers." 

14. A brother from Scete was going to harvest: and he 
turned to a great old man and said: "Tell me, Abba, what am 
I to do, for I go to harvest?" The old man said to him: "If I 
tell you, will you do as I say?" The brother answered: "Yes; 
I will obey you." The old man said: "If you do what I say, 
you will rise, and give up your harvesting: and come here, and 
I will tell you what to do." 

So the brother abandoned his harvesting, and came to the 

58 Cassian knew a different version of the same story: Institutes, IV, 27. It was 
a common piece of desert homiletic. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 153 

old man. The old man said: "Go into your cell, and stay there 
fifty days without a break. Eat bread and salt once a day. At 
the end I will tell you what to do next." And he did so, and at 
the end came back to the old man. The old man knew him for 
an earnest person, and told him what sort of a person he ought 
to be in his cell. And the brother went down to his cell, and for 
three days and nights he lay prone upon the ground, in peni- 
tence before God. Then the thought came into his mind: "You 
are exalted, you are a great man," and so he took control of 
his thoughts, and in humility called his sins to mind, saying: 
"And where are all the sins I have done?" And if the thought 
rose in his mind that he had much neglected the command- 
ments of God, he said to himself: "I will offer God a little 
service, and I believe that he will have mercy upon me." So 
he conquered the spirits which sent wicked thoughts: and the 
spirits appeared before him in a visible form, and said: "You 
are troubling us." He said to them: "Why?" They said: "If we 
exalt you, you are quick to be humble: if we humble you, you 
lift yourself on high." 

15. The old men used to say: "From those who have not long 
been converted to the life of a monk, God demands no virtue 
so much as earnest obedience." 

1 6. An old hermit had a servant, who himself lived on a 
nearby estate. Once it happened that because the servant did 
not come, the hermit had not what he needed, neither food to 
eat nor materials to work. He was troubled at having neither 
means of work nor means of keeping alive, and said to his 
disciple: "Do you want to go to the estate, and call here the 
servant who usually brings what we need?" And he answered: 
"I will do as you say." But the old man would not yet give him 
an order to go, for he did not dare to send the monk. After they 
had suffered for a long time because the servant did not come, 
the old man again said to his disciple: "Do you want to go to 
the estate, and bring him here?" And he answered: "I will do 
what you want." The disciple was afraid that if he went down 
to the estate, he would cause scandal: but so as not to be dis- 
obedient to his father, he consented to go. The old man said: 
"Go, and believe in the God of your fathers, who will protect 
you in every temptation": and he prayed, and sent him on his 
way. 

The monk came to the estate, and enquired where the 
servant lived, and found his house. The servant happened to 
be away from the estate with all his family except a daughter. 



154 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

When the monk knocked, the daughter opened the door. And 
when he asked her where her father was, she urged him to 
come into the house, and indeed tried to pull him inside. He 
at first refused to go in, but in the end she pressed him and 
succeeded in persuading him in. Then she flung herself about 
him and tried to seduce him to lie with her. He felt lust rising 
in him, and his mind in a turmoil; and he groaned and called 
out to God: "Lord, for the prayers of my father, give me 
liberty now." As soon as he said it, he found himself by the river 
on the path to the hermitage, and so was restored, unharmed, 
to his abba. 

17. Two men, who were brothers (in the worldly sense) 
came to live in a monastery. One possessed the virtue of self- 
control, the other the virtue of obedience, each to a remarkable 
degree. If the abba said to the second, Do this, he did it: if he 
said, Sup at dawn, he supped at dawn. And so he gained a 
reputation in the monastery for his obedient conduct. But the 
other brother was pricked by the needle of envy against him, 
and said to himself: "I will test whether he is so obedient." He 
went to the father of the monastery, and told him: "Send my 
brother away with me, and we will go somewhere else." The 
abba sent them on their way. 

And the ascetic brother wanted to tempt the obedient 
brother. They came to a river infested by crocodiles. And he 
said to him: "Walk down into the river, and cross." He im- 
mediately walked into the river and the crocodiles swam to 
him 3 and licked his body, but did not hurt him. And when his 
brother saw what happened, he said: "Gome out of the river." 

On their journey they found a corpse lying by the wayside. 
And the ascetic said to his brother: "If we had an old coat, 
we could put it over the corpse." And he answered: "We had 
better pray: perhaps he will live again." And when they had 
stood in earnest prayer, the dead man stood up. The ascetic 
brother was proud, and said: "This dead man has been raised 
because I am so self-controlled." 

But God revealed what had happened to the abba of the 
monastery, how he had tempted his brother, how the crocodiles 
had not hurt him, and how the dead had been raised. And 
when they came back to the monastery, the abba said to the 
ascetic: "Why did you do this to your brother? The dead man 
was raised because he is so obedient." 

1 8. A man of worldly life, who had three sons, renounced 
the world: and leaving his sons in the city, came to a monastery. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 155 

After three years in the monastery, he began to be much 
troubled in his mind by memories of the three sons, and was 
very grieved for their sakes: he had not told his abba of their 
existence. The abba, seeing him to be grieving, said: "Why are 
you sad?" He told him that he had three sons in the city, and 
he wanted to bring them to the monastery. The abba told him 
to bring them. 

When he arrived at the city, he found that two of them were 
already dead, and only one survived. He took him back to the 
monastery, and looked for the abba but could not find him. He 
asked the brothers where was the abba, and was told that he 
had gone to the bakery. He took his child in his arms and went 
to the bakery. The abba saw him coming, and greeted him. 
And he took the child, and hugged and kissed him. Then he said 
to the father: "Do you love him?" He said: "Yes." And he said: 
"Do you love him with all your heart?" He answered: "Yes." 
At these words the abba said: "Then, if you love him, pick him 
up and throw him into the oven, throw him now while it is 
red-hot." And the father took his son, and threw him into the 
red-hot oven. And in that moment the oven was transformed 
and became as cool as the dew. So the father received glory for 
an act like that of the patriarch Abraham. 

19. An old man said: "A brother who entrusts his soul in 
obedience to a spiritual father has a greater reward than the 
brother who retires alone to his hermitage." And he said: 
"One of the fathers saw a vision of four ranks in heaven. The 
first rank was of men who are sick, yet are grateful to God. The 
second rank was of men who minister to them with willingness 
and generosity. The third rank was of men who live in the desert 
and see no one. The fourth rank was of men who for God's sake 
put themselves under obedience to spiritual fathers. But the rank 
of the obedient men had a golden necklace and a crown, and 
shone more than the others. And I said to the being who showed 
me the vision: 'How is it that the rank, which is least, shines 
the most?' And he answered : 'Hospitable men do what they 
themselves want. Hermits have followed their own will in 
withdrawing from the world. But the obedient have cast away 
their self-will, and depend on God and the word of their 
spiritual father: that is why they shine the most.' 

So, my sons, obedience is good, if it is for God's sake. Strive 
to win at least some trace of this virtue. It is the salvation of the 
faithful, the mother of virtue, the opening of the kingdom of 
heaven, the raising of men from heaven to earth. Obedience 



156 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

lives in the house of the angels, is the food of all the saints, who 
turn to it at their weaning and by its nourishment grow to a 
perfect life." 

PART XV 

Of humility 

1 . Abba Antony was baffled as he meditated upon the depths 
of God's judgements, and prayed thus: "Lord, how is it that some 
die young and others grow old and infirm? Why are there some 
poor and some wealthy? And why are the rich unrighteous and 
grind the faces of the righteous poor?" 

And a voice came to him: "Antony, look to yourself: these 
are the judgements of God, and it is not good for you to know 
them." 

2. Abba Antony said to Abba Poemen: "Man's great work 
is to lay his guilt upon himself before God, and to expect to be 
tempted to the end of his life." 

3. Abba Antony also said: "I saw all the devil's traps set 
upon the earth, and I groaned and said: 'Who do you think 
can pass through them?' And I heard a voice saying: 
'Humility.' " 

4. Once some old men came to Abba Antony, and Abba 
Joseph was with them. Abba Antony, wanting to test them, 
began to speak about holy Scripture. And he began to ask the 
younger monks the meaning of text after text, and each of them 
replied as he was able. And to each the old man said: "You 
have not yet found it." Then he said to Abba Joseph: "What do 
you say is the meaning of this word?" He answered: "I do not 
know." And Abba Antony said: "Truly Abba Joseph alone has 
found the true way, for he answered that he does not know." 

5. Some demons were once standing near Abba Arsenius in 
his cell, and were troubling him. Then some brothers came, 
who usually ministered to him. And as they stood outside the 
cell, they heard him crying aloud to the Lord: "Lord, do not 
leave me, though I have done nothing good in thy sight. Grant 
me, Lord, according to thy loving-kindness, at least the very 
beginning of a good life." 

6. They said of Abba Arsenius, that while he was in the 
Emperor's palace he was the best dressed person there: and 
while he was leading the religious life, no one was clothed in 
worse rags. 

7. Abba Arsenius was once asking an old Egyptian for advice 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 157 

about his temptations. And another, who saw this, said: "Abba 
Arsenius, how is it that you, who are so learned in the Greek 
and Latin languages, come to be asking that uneducated 
countryman about your temptations?" He answered: "I have 
acquired the world's knowledge of Greek and Latin: but I have 
not yet been able to learn the alphabet of this uneducated 
man." 

8. The old men said that they once gave the brothers in 
Scete a few figs: but because they had so few, they did not give 
any to Abba Arsenius, for fear he should be offended. When he 
heard of this, he did not go out as usual to the divine office with 
the brothers, and said: "You have excommunicated me, by not 
giving me the blest food which the Lord sent to the brothers, 
because I was not worthy to receive it." And they were edified 
at his humility, and the priest went and took him some of the 
figs, and brought him back to the congregation happy. 

9. They used to say that no one could fathom the depth of 
his religious life. Once when he was living in Lower Egypt, 
and suffering from importunate visitors, he decided to leave his 
cell. He took nothing with him, and said to his disciples 
Alexander and Zoilus: "Alexander, you board a ship, and you, 
Zoilus, come with me to the Nile and find for me a little boat 
that is sailing to Alexandria, and then sail to join your brother." 
Zoilus was troubled at this, but said nothing, and so they parted. 

The old man went down to the country near Alexandria, and 
theie fell gravely ill. But his disciples said to each other: "Do 
you think one of us has grieved him, and that is why he has 
separated from us?" They examined themselves, but could not 
find that they had been ungrateful to him, or that they had ever 
disobeyed him. When the old man had recovered from his 
illness, he said to himself: "I will go to my fathers." And so he 
came to the place called Petra, where were Alexander and 
Zoilus his servants. While he was by the river-bank, he met an 
Ethiopian, girl, who came up and touched his cloak. The old 
man rebuked her. But she said: "If you are a monk, go to the 
mountain." 

The old man was stricken in heart at these words, and said 
to himself: "Arsenius, if you are a monk, go to the mountain." 
And on the way his disciples Alexander and Zoilus met him, 
and fell at his feet. And the old man too threw himself on the 
ground, and they all wept. Then the old man said: "Did you not 
hear that I fell ill?" They said to him: "Yes, we heard." And he 
said: "Then why did you not come to see me?" And Alexander 



158 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

said: "We were aggrieved at your parting from us. For many 
people were vexed at it, and said: 'Unless they had disobeyed 
the old man, he would surely not have left them. 3 " And the old 
man said to them: "Yes, I knew this would be said. But men 
shall say again: 'The dove found no rest for his feet, and so 
returned to Noah in the ark.' " 

The minds of his disciples were healed by the saying, and they 
stayed with him to the end of his life. But when he lay dying, 
they were much distressed. And he said to them: "The hour 
is not yet come. But I will tell you when it comes. You will be 
judged with me before the judgement seat of Christ, if you let 
anyone touch my dead body." And they said: "What then shall 
we do? We do not know how to clothe or bury a dead body-" 
And the old man said: "Surely you know how to tie a rope to 
my leg and pull me up the mountain?" 

When he was soon to commit his soul to God, they saw him 
weeping, and said: "Truly, Father, are you afraid, even you, 
of death?" And he said: "Truly. The fear which possesses me 
now has been with me since I became a monk: and I am very 
afraid." So he slept in peace* 

Arsenius always used to say this: "Why, you words, did I let 
you go out? I have often been penitent that I spoke, never that 
I kept silent." 

When Abba Poemen heard that Arsenius had departed this 
life, he wept, and said: "You are blessed, Abba Arsenius; for 
you wept for yourself in this world; and he who does not weep 
for himself in this world, shall lament for ever in the next. We 
cannot escape lamentation: if we do not lament here of our own 
will, we shall later be forced to lament against our will." 

10. Abba Daniel said of Abba Arsenius that he never wanted 
to discuss any question about the Scripture, though he was 
wonderful at expounding it when he wanted: and that he was 
very slow to write anyone a letter. When from time to time 
he came to the meeting in church, he sat behind a pillar so that 
none should see his face and he himself should be undistracted. 
And like Jacob, he looked like an angel, having white hair, a 
man lovely to look upon, yet somehow dried up. He had a long 
beard which reached down to his waist: his eyes were dim with 
constant weeping: and although he was tall, his body was bent, 
for he died at the age of ninety-five. He lived for forty years in 
the palace of the Emperor Theodosius the Great of holy 
memory, the father of Arcadius and Honorius: then he lived 
forty years in Scete, ten years in the place called Trohe 3 above 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 159 

Babylon, near the city of Memphis, and three years in Canopus 
near Alexandria. Then he returned to Trohe for two more 
years, and there ended his life in peace and the fear of God. He 
was "a good man, full of the Holy Spirit and of faith." 59 

1 1 . Abba John told this story. Abba Anub and Abba Poemen 
and the others, who were born of the same mother, were monks 
in Scete. And some savage Mazicae came and sacked Scete. 
The monks went away, and came to a place called Terenuthis, 
while they discussed where to live, and stayed a few days there 
in an old temple. Abba Anub said to Abba Poemen: "Of your 
charity, let me live apart from you and your brothers, and we 
shall not see each other for a week." And Abba Poemen said: 
"Let us do as you wish": and they did so. 

In the temple stood a stone statue. And every day at dawn 
Abba Anub rose and pelted the face of the statue with stones: 
and every day at evening he said: "Forgive me." Every day for 
a week he did this: and on Saturday they met again. And Abba 
Poemen said to Abba Anub: "I saw you, Abba, throwing stones 
at the face of the statue every day this week, and later doing 
penance to the statue. A true Christian would not have done 
that." And the old man answered: "For your sakes I did it. 
When you saw me throwing stones at the statue's face, did it 
speak? Was it angry?" 

And Abba Poemen said: "No." 

And he said: "When I did penance before the statue, was it 
troubled in heart? Did it say: C I do not forgive you?' " And Abba 
Poemen answered: "No." 

And he said: "Here we are, seven brothers. If we want to 
stay together, we must become like this statue, which is un- 
troubled by the injuries I have done it. If you will not become 
like this statue, see, there are four doors to this temple, and 
each of us may go in the direction he chooses." 

At these words they fell upon the ground before Abba Anub, 
and said to him: "As you say, Father. We will do what you tell 
us." And afterwards Abba Poemen described what happened. 
"We remained together all our lives, doing our work and 
everything else as the old man directed us. He appointed one 
of us as a steward, and we ate whatever he put before us; no 
one could have said: 'Bring something else to eat, 9 or 'I will not 
eat that/ And so we passed our lives in quiet and peace." 

12. They said of Abba Ammon that some people asked him 
to arbitrate in their quarrel. But the old man took no notice 
39 Acts 1 1 : 24. 



l6o WESTERN ASCETICISM 

of them. And one woman said to another woman standing next 
to her: "That old man is a fool." And the old man heard what 
she said; and he called her, and said: "Can you imagine what 
travail I have endured in different deserts in the effort to acquire 
this folly? And you are making me lose it all today." 

13. There was a bishop of the city of Oxyrhynchus named 
Affy. They said that while he was a monk, he treated his body 
very severely. And when he became a bishop, he wanted to 
continue in his city the austerities which he had practised in the 
desert, but he could not. So he fell prostrate before God, and 
said: "Dost thou think, my Lord, that thy grace has left me 
because I have become a bishop?" And it was revealed to him: 
"No: in the desert you had no man to help you, and God alone 
sustained you. But now you are in the world, and have men to 
help you." 

14. Abba Daniel said that in Babylon there was a nobleman's 
daughter, who had a devil. Her father sought out a monk. And 
the monk said to him: "No one can cure your daughter except 
some hermits I know: and if you go to them, they will refuse to 
do it from motives of humility. Let us do this: when they come, 
bringing their produce for sale, tell them that you want to buy 
what they have. And when they come into the house to receive 
the money, we will ask them to pray, and I believe that your 
daughter will be healed." 

So they went into the street, and found a disciple of the 
old men, who was sitting there to sell his baskets. They took him 
back with them to the house, as if to receive the money for his 
wares. And when the monk had come into the house, the girl, 
who was troubled with the demon, went up to him and slapped 
him. And he followed the Lord's commandment, and turned 
her the other cheek. The demon was forced out, and began to 
cry: "Violence! The commandment of Jesus Christ is driving me 
out" : and so the girl was in that moment healed. When they came 
to the old men, they told them what had happened, and glorified 
God, saying: "The pride of devils cannot but fall before the 
humble obedience to the commandments of Jesus Christ." 

15. Abba Evagrius said: "The beginning of salvation is, to 
contradict yourself." 

1 6. Abba Serapion said: "I have afflicted my body far more 
than my son Zacharias, and I cannot equal his humility or his 
silence," 

17. Abba Moses said to the brother Zacharias: "Tell me 
what to do." And at the words, Zacharias threw himself at his 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS l6l 

feet, saying: "Why ask me, Father?" The old man said: 
"Believe me, my son Zacharias, I saw the Holy Spirit coming 
upon you, and so I cannot but ask you." Then Zacharias took 
his cowl from his head, and put it beneath his feet and stamped 
on it, and said: "Unless a man stamps upon himself like that, he 
cannot be a monk." 

1 8. Abba Poemen said: "Abba Moses asked the monk 
Zacharias, who was dying: 'What can you see?' And he said: 
'Nothing better than being silent, Father.' And Abba Moses 
said: 'Truth, my son: keep silent.' " 

At the moment of his death Abba Isidore looked up to 
heaven, and said: "Rejoice, my son Zacharias: for the gates of 
the kingdom of heaven are opened to you." 

19. Theophilus of holy memory, the bishop of Alexandria, 
once went to the mount of Nitria, and an abba of Nitria came 
to him. The bishop said: "What have you found upon your way, 
Father?" And the old man answered: "To blame myself un- 
ceasingly." And the bishop said: "This is the only way to 
follow." 

20. When Abba Theodore was supping with the brothers, 
they received the cups with silent reverence, and did not 
follow the usual custom of receiving the cup with a "Pardon 
me." And Abba Theodore said: "The monks have lost their 
manners and do not say 'Pardon me.' " 

21. They said of this Abba Theodore, that after he was 
ordained deacon in Scete, he refused to minister in services, 
but escaped to various places to avoid having to do so. And the 
old men brought him back, and said: "Do not desert your 
ministry." Abba Theodore said to them: "Let me go, and I will 
pray to God. If he shows me that I ought to act as a minister, I 
will do so." And he prayed to God thus: "Show me, Lord, if it 
be thy will that I minister as a deacon." And there appeared a 
pillar of fire from earth to heaven, and a voice was heard 
saying: "If you can become like this pillar, go, and exercise 
your ministry." When he heard this, he determined never to 
exercise his ministry. And when he came back to the church, 
they did penance before him, and said: "If you do not want to 
take part in the service, at least hold the chalice." But he re- 
fused, saying: "If you do not let me go, I will leave this place 
altogether." And so they left him. 

22. Abba John the Short said: "The gateway to God is 
humility. Our fathers endured much suffering and so entered 
the city of God with joy." 



l62 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

He also said; "Humility and the fear of God surpass all the 
other virtues." 

23. Abba John of the Thebaid said: "The monk ought above 
all to be humble. For this is the Saviour's first commandment: 
'Blessed are the poor in spirit, for theirs is the Kingdom of 
heaven.' " 60 

24. The brothers in Scete were once assembled, and began 
to discuss Melchizedek the priest. But they forgot to call for 
Abba Copres. Later, they summoned him and asked him what 
he thought upon the question. He struck his mouth three times 
and said: "Woe upon you, Copres. You have left undone what 
God commanded you to do, and you have dared to enquire 
into things which he did not ask of you." At these words the 
brothers fled, each to his own cell, 

25. Abba Macarius once said of himself: "When I was a 
young man, and was staying in my cell in Egypt, they caught 
me, and made me a cleric at a village. And because I did not 
want to minister, I fled to another place. And a man of the 
world, but of a devout life, came to me, and took what I made 
with my hands and ministered to my needs. 

It happened that a girl of the village was tempted by the 
devil and seduced. And when she was seen to be pregnant, she 
was asked who was the father of the child: and she said: c lt was 
this hermit, who slept with me. 5 They came out, arrested me, 
and brought me back to the village: and they hung dirty pots 
and jug handles on my neck, and made me walk round the vil- 
lage, beating me as I went, and saying: 'This monk has seduced 
our girl. Away with him, away with him.' And they beat me 
until I was almost dead: but one of the old men came and said: 
c How long have you been beating that stranger monk?' The 
man who used to minister to my needs followed behind, 
ashamed: and they heaped insults on him, saying: 'You bore 
witness to this hermit, and look what he has done.' 

The parents of the girl said that they would not let me go 
unless I found someone to guarantee her support. I spoke to the 
man who used to minister to me and asked him to be my 
guarantor, and he gave a pledge on my behalf. I went back to 
my cell, and I gave him all the baskets I had, and said: 'Sell 
them, and give my woman some food.' Then I said to myself: 
'Macarius, you have found a woman for yourself; you need to 
work much harder to support her.' So I worked night and day, 
and passed her the money which I made. 
60 Matt, 5:3. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 163 

When it was time that the unfortunate girl should bear a 
child,, she spent many days in travail, and still did not bring 
forth the baby. They said to her: 'What's the matter?' She said: 
'I know why I am in agony so long.* Her parents asked her why. 
She said: 'I accused that monk falsely, for he had nothing to do 
with it: the father is a young man named N.' 

The man who ministered to me heard this, and came to me 
with joy saying: 'The girl could not bear her child, until she 
confessed that you had nothing to do with it and that she told 
lies against you. And look all the villagers want to come to 
your cell and glorify God, and do penance to you.' When I 
heard this, I did not want the mefi. to trouble me, so I rose and 
fled here to Scete: and this was the reason why I began to live 
here." 

26. Abba Macarius was once returning to his cell from the 
marsh carrying palm-leaves. And the devil met him by the Way, 
with a sickle, and wanted to run him through with the sickle, 
but could not. The devil said: "Macarius, I suffer much violence 
from you, for I cannot overcome you. For whatever you do, I do 
also. If you fast, I eat nothing: if you keep watch, I get no sleep. 
But it is only one quality in you which overcomes me." And 
Abba Macarius said to him: "What is that?" The devil ans- 
wered: "Your humility that is why I cannot prevail against 
you." 

27. Abba Mathois once went from Raythu to the country of 
Gebalon, and his brother was with him. And the bishop of 
Gebalon came to him, and ordained him priest. And at supper 
the bishop said: "Forgive me, Abba* I know that you did not 
want to be ordained: but I dared to do it, so that you would 
give me your blessing." The old man said humbly: "My soul 
did not much want ordination, it is true. But I am grieved by 
the fact that I must be divided from my brother who is with me: 
and by myself I cannot offer all the prayers which together we 
offer." The bishop said: "If you know that he is a worthy 
person, I will ordain him too." Abba Mathois said: "Whether 
he is worthy I do not know: but one thing I do know, that he is 
better than I am." 

So the bishop ordained his brother too: and neither of them, 
when he died, had offered the sacrifice at the altar. The old 
man said: "I trust God, that perhaps he will not judge me 
hardly for my ordination, provided I do not dare to consecrate 
the offering. For that is the duty of men who live innocently." 

28. Abba Mathois said: "The nearer a man comes to God, 



164 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

the more he sees himself to be a sinner. Isaiah the prophet saw 
the Lord, and knew himself to be wretched and unclean." 61 

29. They said of Abba Moses that when he was ordained a 
cleric, they put the pall on his shoulders. And the archbishop 
said to him: "See, you are clothed in white and ready for your 
ordination, Abba Moses." He answered: "White outside, Lord 
Pope, or white inside, do you think?" 

The archbishop, wishing to test him, said to the clergy: 
"When Abba Moses comes to the altar, turn him away: but 
follow him and listen to what he says." They began to drive 
him from the church, saying: "Get out, Ethiopian." As he went 
out, he said: "You thing of dust and ashes, they have done you a 
good turn. You are not a man, how dare you remain in the 
company of men?" 

30. While Abba Poemen was in a community, he heard of 
Abba Nesteros and wanted to see him. So he sent a message to 
his abba to ask him to let Nesteros come to him. But the abba 
did not wish it, and refused. A few days afterwards the steward 
of the monastery asked the abba to let him go to Abba Poemen, 
so that he could tell him his thoughts. His abba, when he was 
giving him leave, said to him: "Take with you the brother 
Nesteros whom the old man asked me to send him. I did not 
dare to let him go alone, and have put off sending him until 
now." When the steward reached the old man, he talked to him 
about his thoughts, and the old man healed his mind by his 
answer. Then the old man turned to the brother and said: 
"Abba Nesteros, how have you won this virtue, that if there is 
trouble within the monastery, you do not speak, and remain 
serene?" The brother had to be pressed by the old man for 
an answer. In the end he said: "Forgive me, Abba. When I 
first entered the community, I said to my soul, You and 
the donkey must be alike. The donkey says nothing when he is 
beaten* That is what you must do: as you read in the Psalm: 
'I am become as a beast before thee: and I am always with 
thee.' " * 

31. They told this story of Abba Olympius in Scete. He was 
a slave, and each year went down to Alexandria carrying what 
he had earned for his masters. They met him, and greeted him. 
The old man put water in a basin and brought it to wash his 
masters* feet. But they said to him: "No, Father, please do not 
put a burden on us." He answered: "I confess that I am your 
slave: and I am grateful that you have let me go free to serve 
61 Isa. 6. Ps. 73:21-2. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 165 

God. Yet I wash your feet, and here is what I have earned." 
But they refused to accept it. And he said: "Believe me, if you 
will not accept my earnings, I shall stay here and be your 
servant." But they revered him, and gave him leave to do what 
he wanted. And they brought him back to the desert with 
honour, and gave him what he needed to make a love-feast on 
their behalf; and henceforward was renowned in Scete. 

32. Abba Poemen said: "A man ought ever to be absorbing 
humility and the fear of God, as the nostrils breathe air in and 
out." 

33. A brother asked Abba Poemen: "How ought I to behave, 
in my cell in the place where I live?" The old man answered: 
"Be as prudent as a stranger; and wherever you are, do not 
expect your words to be powerful in your presence, and you 
will find peace." 

34. He also said: "The tools of the soul are these: to cast 
oneself down in God's sight; not to lift oneself up; and to put 
one's self-will behind one." 

35. He also said: "Do not put a value on yourself, but cleave 
to the man who is living a good life." 

36. He also said: "A brother asked Abba Alonius: 'What is 
lowliness?" And the old man said: To be lower than brute 
beasts; and to know that they are not condemned.' " 

37. He also said: "Humility is the ground whereon the Lord 
ordered the sacrifice to be offered." 

38. He also said: "If a man keeps his own place, he shall not 
be troubled." 

39. He also said: "Once when the old men were sitting down 
to supper, Abba Alonius stood and waited on them: and when 
they saw it, they praised him. But he said not a word. So one 
of them whispered to him: "Why do you not answer when the 
old men praise you?" And Abba Alonius said: "If I answer 
them, I shall find pleasure in being praised." 

40. Abba Joseph told this story. "Once when we were sitting 
with Abba Poemen, he talked of 'Abba' Agatho. We said to 
him: c He is a young man, why do you call him Abba?' And 
Abba Poemen said: 'His speech is such that we must call him 
Abba.' " 

41. They said of Abba Poemen, that he never wanted to cap 
the saying of another old man, but always praised what had 
been said. 

42. Once Theophilus of holy memory, the archbishop of 
Alexandria, came to Scete. The brothers assembled there said 



l66 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

to Abba Pambo: "Say a word to the Pope, that his soul may be 
edified here." And the old man answered; "If my silence does 
not edify him, my speech certainly will not." 

43. A brother named Pystus told this story. "Seven of us, 
hermits, went to Abba Sisois, who was living in the island of 
Clysmatus. And when we asked him to give us a word, he 
answered: 'Forgive me, I am an ignoramus. But I once went 
to Abba Hor and Abba Athrem: Abba Hor had been ill for 
eighteen years. And I began to beg them to speak a word to 
me. And Abba Hor said: "What have I to say to you? Go and 
do whatever you think right, God is the God of the man who 
extracts from himself more than he can do, and carries all by 
violence." 

These men, Abba Hor and Abba Athrem, were not of the 
same province. But there was much grace between them, until 
they died, Abba Athrem was a man of perfect obedience, 
Abba Hor of great humility. I spent a few days with them, 
observing their virtues; and I saw Abba Athrem do a wonderful 
thing. Someone brought them a little fish, and Abba Athrem 
wanted to prepare it for his elder, Abba Hor, So Abba Athrem 
took a knife and cut into the fish: but at that moment Abba 
Hor called him: "Athrem, Athremp" And he left the knife in 
the middle of the fish and did not finish the cut but ran to Abba 
Hor. I was astonished at his obedience, and that he did not 
say: "Wait until I have cut the fish/' So I said to Abba Athrem: 
"Where did you find this obedience?" And he answered me: "It 
is not mine: it is that old man's." And he took me and said: 
"Come and see his obedience." He cooked a piece offish badly, 
intentionally so, and put it in front of the old man. Abba Hor 
ate it without saying a word. Abba Athrem said: "Is it good, 
Abba?" He answered: "Very good." Then he brought him 
another piece, very well cooked, and said: "See, I have ruined 
it, Abba, by cooking it badly." Abba Hor answered: "Yes, you 
have cooked it rather badly." And Abba Athrem turned to me 
and said: "Did you see his obedience?'' And I left them: and 
have tried, as far as I could, to practise what I saw.' 

All this was told the brothers by Abba Sisois. One of us 
asked him: 'Of your charity, speak us a word.' And he said: 
'The man who has limitless knowledge understands the 
Scriptures perfectly/ 

Another of us asked him: 'What is pilgrimage, Father?' He 
answered; 'Keep silent: and wherever you go, say "I am at 
peace with all men": that is pilgrimage.'" 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 167 

44. A brother once came to Abba Sisois on the mountain of 
Abba Antony. And in their talk he said to Abba Sisois: "Have 
you not yet attained the stature of Abba Antony, Father?" 
And the old man answered: "If I had a single thought like Abba 
Antony, I should quite leap toward heaven like a flame. But 
I know myself to be a man who can only with an effort bear his 
thoughts." 

45. The same brother asked him: "Do you think Satan per- 
secuted the men of old as he persecutes us?" And Abba Sisois 
said: "More: for now his doom has drawn nearer, and he is 
troubled." 

46. Some others came to hear a word from Abba Sisois. And 
he said nothing to them, but kept repeating: "Forgive me." 
They saw his baskets, and said to his disciple, Abraham: "What 
are you doing with those baskets?" And he answered: "We sell 
them now and then." The old man heard, and said: "And so 
Sisois eats now and then." They were very edified at his 
humility, and went away happy. 

47. A brother asked Abba Sisois: "I observe my own mind, 
and I see that it is recollected and intent upon God." And the 
old man said to him: "This is no great thing that your mind 
should be with God. The great thing is to see yourself to be 
lower than every created being. Bodily toil will put it right, 
and lead you on the way to humility." 

48. Syncletice of blessed memory said: "As a ship cannot 
be built without nails, a man cannot be saved without 
humility." 

49. Abba Hyperichius said: "The tree of life is lofty, and 
humility climbs it." 

50. He also said: "Imitate the publican, to prevent yourself 
being condemned with the Pharisee. Follow the gentleness of 
Moses, and hollow out the rocky places of your heart, so that 
you turn them into springs of water." 

51. Abba Orsisius said: 63 "If you put a piece of unbaked 
tiling in a building with a river nearby, it does not last a day. 
If it is baked, it is as good as stone. So it is with the man with 
worldly wisdom, who is not proved by the word of God, as 
Joseph was proved at his beginning. To live among men is 
to be tempted often. It is good that a man should know his 
weakness, and not pick up too heavy a burden at first- But 
men of strong faith cannot be moved. Take the life of Saint 
Joseph and see what grievous temptations he suffered, and 
6* In the Syriac (Wallis Budge, Paradise, vol. ii, no. 220) of Arsenius. 



l68 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

in a country where there was no trace of the true worship of 
God. But the God of his fathers was with him, and kept him 
safe in every tribulation, and he is now with his fathers in the 
kingdom of heaven. Let us then own our weakness, and so 
struggle onward. For it is hard for us to escape the judgement 
of God." 

52. There was an old hermit in the desert who said to him- 
self that he was perfectly virtuous. He prayed God and said: 
"Show me what makes me perfect, and I will perform it." But 
God wanted to humble him, and said: "Go to that archi- 
mandrite, and do what he tells you." God gave a revelation to 
the archimandrite, before the hermit came, and said: "A 
hermit is soon coining to see you. Tell him to take a whip, and 
go and herd your swine." The old man arrived, knocked at the 
door, and went in to the archimandrite: they greeted each other, 
and sat down. The hermit said: "Tell me what I must do to be 
saved." And the archimandrite said: "Will you do what I tell 
you?" And he said: "Yes." The archimandrite said: "Take this 
whip, and go herd the swine." 

When those who knew the hermit and his reputation, saw 
that he had gone to be a swineherd, said: "Do you see that 
hermit who had won so great a reputation? Look what he is 
doing. He has gone mad, and is troubled by a demon, and is 
herding swine." But God looked upon his humility, and saw 
how he bore these insults with patience, and told him to go back 
to his cell. 

53. A demoniac, frothing terribly at the mouth, struck an 
old hermit on the jaw, and the old man turned him the other 
cheek. The humility tortured the demon like flames, and drove 
him out there and then. 

54. An old man said to a brother: "When a proud or vain 
thought enters you, examine your conscience to see if you are 
keeping God's commandments; if you love your enemies; if you 
rejoice in your adversary's triumph, and are grieved at his 
downfall; if you know yourself to be an unprofitable servant, 
and a sinner beyond all others. But not even then must you 
think yourself to have corrected all your faults; knowing that 
this thought alone in you shall undo all the other good you 
have done." 

55. An old man said to a brother: "Do not measure your 
heart against your brother, saying that you are more serious 
or more continent or more understanding than he. But be 
obedient to the grace of God, in the spirit of poverty, and in 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 169 

charity unfeigned. The efforts of a man swollen with vanity 
are futile. It is written, c Let him that thinketh he standeth take 
heed lest he fall.' Be in your spirit seasoned with salt and so 
dependent upon Christ. 55 64 

56. An old man said: "He who is praised and honoured 
above his deserts suffers grievous loss. He who receives no 
honour at all among men, shall be hereafter glorified." 

57. A brother asked an old man: "Is it good to be constant 
in penitence? 5 ' And the old man answered: "We have seen 
Joshua the son of Nun: it was when he was lying prostrate on 
his face that God appeared to him. 55 65 

58. An old man, asked why we are troubled by demons, 
answered: "Because we throw away our armour humility, 
poverty, patience and men 5 s scorn. 55 

59. A brother asked an old man: "If a brother brings me 
talk from the world, Abba, do you want me to tell him not to 
bring them to me? 55 And the old man said: "No. 55 The brother 
said: "Why? 55 The old man answered: "Because we cannot 
stop ourselves doing the same. We should find ourselves doing 
what we are telling our neighbour not to do. 55 And the brother 
said: "Then what is best? 55 And the old man answered: "If 
we would keep silence, that is enough for our neighbour as 
well. 55 

60. An old man was asked: "What is humility?" He 
answered: "If you forgive a brother who has wronged you before 
he is penitent towards you. 55 

61. An old man said: "In every trial do not blame another, 
but blame yourself, saying: 'This has happened to me because 
of my sins. 5 55 

62. An old man said: "I never push myself up and walk 
above my station; and am untroubled when I am put in a low 
place. For all the time I try to pray God to strip me of un- 
regenerate man. 55 

63. A brother asked an old man: "What is humility? 5 ' And 
the old man answered: "To do good to them that do ill to you. 5 ' 
And the brother said: "Suppose a man cannot attain that 
standard, what is he to do? 5 ' The old man answered: "He is to 
run away, and choose silence." 

64. A brother asked an old man: "What is the work of 
pilgrimage?" And he said: "I know a monk who was on 
pilgrimage, and came into a church where a love-feast was 
being held: and he sat down to eat with the monks. But some 
* I Cor. 10:12; GoL 4 :6. Josh. 5 : 14. 



J7O WESTERN ASCETICISM 

of them said: 'Who brought that man in here?' And they saic 
to him: 'Get out of here/ He rose from the table and went out 
But some of the others were grieved that he had been driver 
away and went outside and brought him back. Then someone 
asked him: c How do you think you felt in your heart when yot 
were driven out and then brought back?' And he said; *I pui 
it in my heart that I was no better than a dog, and a dog goe* 
out when he is chased out and comes back when he is called.' ' 

65. Some people once came to an old man in the Thebaid 
so that he might cure a demoniac whom they brought with 
them. After the old man had been importuned for some time 
he said to the demon: "Go out of God's creature." The demor 
answered: "I will go: but I ask you a question; tell me, who an 
the goats and who are the sheep?" And the old man said: "The 
goats are people like myself: who the sheep are, God alone 
knows." And the demon shouted aloud at the words, crying 
"See, I go out because of your humility": and he went out al 
that moment. 

66, An Egyptian monk was living in the suburbs of Con* 
stantinople: 66 and when the Emperor Theodosius II passed 
that way he left his train of courtiers and came unattended tc 
the cell. The monk opened the door to his knock, and at one* 
recognized him to be the Emperor: but he received him as 
though he was one of the imperial guards. After he had conu 
in, they prayed together and sat down. The Emperor began tc 
ask him: "How are the fathers in Egypt?" He answered: "The> 
are all praying for your salvation," The Emperor looked round 
the cell to see if he had any food, and saw nothing except a 
basket with a little bread, and a flagon of water. The monk 
said to him; "Will you take a little supper?" And he put the 
bread in front of him, and mixed oil and salt, and gave hino 
to eat and drink. 

The Emperor said to him: "Do you know who I am?" And 
he said: "God knows you, who you are." The Emperor said: 
"I am the Emperor Theodosius." The monk at once fell down 
before him and did humble obeisance. The Emperor said: 
"Blessed are you, for you have an, untroubled life, without 
thought of the world. I tell you truly, I was born an emperor, 
and I have never enjoyed bread aad water as I have today: I 
have supped with real pleasure." And he began to do honoui 
to the monk, 

But the old man went out, and fled back to Egypt. 

<s In Vitae Patrum, III, 19, the narrator of this story is 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS IJI 

67. The old men said: "We are the more humbled when we 
are tempted: for God, knowing our weakness, protects us. But 
if we boast of our own strength, he takes away his protection, 
and we are lost." 

68. The devil appeared to a monk in the guise of an angel 
of lightj and said to him: "I am the angel Gabriel, and I have 
been sent to you." But the monk said: "See whether you were 
not sent to someone else. I am not worthy that an angel should 
be sent to me." And the devil vanished. 

69. The old men said: "If an angel in truth appears to you, 
do not accept it as a matter of course, but humble yourself, and 
say: e l live in my sin and am not worthy to see an angel.* " 

70- They said of another old man, that while he was under- 
going temptation in his cell, he saw the demons face to face, 
and was contemptuous of them. The devil, seeing himself 
overcome, came and showed himself, saying: "I am Christ." 
The old man looked at him, and then shut his eyes. The devil 
said: "I am Christ, so why have you shut your eyes?" The old 
man answered: "I would not see Christ in this life, but in the 
next." And the devil vanished at the words. 

71. The demons, wanting to seduce an old man, said to him: 
"Would you like to see Christ?" He said: "A curse be upon 
you and him of whom you speak* I believe my Christ when he 
said: c lf anyone says to you, Lo, here is Christ, or Lo, there, 
do not believe him.' " And they vanished at the words. 

72. They said of an old man that he went on fasting for 
seventy weeks, eating a meal only once a week. He asked of 
God the meaning of a text of the holy Scriptures and God did 
not reveal it to him. So he said to himself: "Here I am: I have 
worked so hard, and profited nothing. I will go to my brother 
and ask him." Just as he had shut his door on the way out, an 
angel of the Lord was sent to him; and the angel said: "The 
seventy weeks of your fast have not brought you near to God: 
but now you are humbled and going to your brother, I have 
been sent to show you the meaning of the text." And he ex- 
plained to him what he had asked, and went away. 

73. An old man said: "If anyone, in humility and the fear 
of God, orders a monk to do something, the very word, thus 
spoken for God's sake, makes the monk ready, and obedient 
to the command. But if he gives the command because he wants 
to give a command, if he sets himself up as an authority and 
seeks power over the monk, and does not give a command in 
the fear of God, God sees the secrets of the heart and does not 



172 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

let the monk obey the command. Everyone can see whether 
the work is done for God, or whether it is an order of self-will 
and desire for power. An order from God is given with humility 
and gentleness. An order given from a desire for power is given 
with anger and trouble of mind, for it is of the devil." 

74. An old man said: "I would rather be defeated and 
humble than win and be proud." 

75. An old man said: "Do not think little of your neighbour 
for you do not know whether God's Spirit is in you or in him. 
I tell you that your servant is your neighbour." 

76. A brother asked an old man: "If I live with other monks, 
and see something wrong, do you want me to speak out?" The 
old man said: "If some are older than you, or your contem- 
poraries, you will have more peace of mind in keeping silent. 
For you will make yourself at peace in the fact that you are 
putting yourself below the others." The brother said to him: 
"What then am I to do, father? For the spirits trouble me." 
The old man said to him: "If you are suffering about the matter, 
give a piece of advice, once, with humility. If they do not obey 
you, leave what you have done in God's sight, and he will 
comfort you. For this is the way the worshipper of God should 
lay himself before God, and not follow his self-will. But take 
care that your anxiety be of God. Yet, as far as I see, it is good 
to be silent, for here silence is humility." 

77. A brother asked an old man: "What is man's way of 
progress?" The old man answered: "Humility. The more a 
man bends himself to humility, the more he is lifted up to 
make progress." 

78. An old man said: "If anyone says, Forgive me, and 
humbles himself, he burns up the demons which tempt him." 

79. An old man said: "Even if you have succeeded in the 
habit of keeping silent, you are not to have it in you as though 
it was a kind of virtue, but say: C I am not worthy to speak.' ** 

80. An old man said: "Unless the miller blindfolded the 
donkey in the treadmill, it would turn round and eat the corn. 
And God has mercifully blindfolded us, so that we cannot see 
the good that we do: for then we should perhaps pat ourselves 
on the back, and lose our reward. That is why we are left for a 
time with ill thoughts, so that as we see them, we judge and 
condemn ourselves. Those very thoughts are the cloth which 
blindfolds and prevents the piece of goodness from being seen. 
When a man accuses himself, he does not lose his reward." 

81. An old man said: "I would learn rather than teach.'* 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 173 

He also said: "Do not teach too early, or you will have less 
understanding during the rest of your life." 

82. An old man was asked: "What is humility?" He 
answered: "Humility is a great work, and a work of God. The 
way of humility is to undertake bodily labour, and believe 
yourself a sinner, and make yourself the servant of all," And a 
brother said: "What does it mean, to be the servant of all?" 
The old man answered: "To be the servant of all is not to look 
out for the sins of others, ever to look out for your own sins, and 
to pray God without ceasing." 

83. A brother asked an old man: "Tell me one thing, that I 
may keep it and live by it." And the old man said: "If you can 
suffer injury and endure, this is a great thing, above all virtues." 

84. An old man said: "He who bears scorn and injury and 
loss with patience, can be saved." 

85. An old man said: "Do not take much notice of your abba, 
and do not often go to see him: for you will get confidence from 
it, and start to want yourself to be a leader." 

86. A brother 67 so took upon himself any charge that 
threatened his community, that he even accused himself of 
fornication. Some of the monks, who did not know the truth 
about his life, began to murmur against him, saying: "This 
man does much ill and no work." The abba, knowing the truth, 
said to the brothers: "I want rather one mat with humility, 
than all your mats with pride." And to show by God's judge- 
ment the kind of person the monk was, he brought all the things 
which the monks had made, and the mat made by the monk of 
whom they were complaining. And he brought a lighted 
brand, and threw it into the pile of mats. All the mats were 
burnt except the mat of this monk, which was untouched. The 
brothers were afraid at the sight, and did penance to him, and 
thenceforth treated him as a father. 

87. An old man was asked how it was that some people said 
they had seen angels. He answered: "Blessed is he who always 
sees his own sin." 

88. A brother learnt that another brother was aggrieved at 
him, and went to make satisfaction. But the other did not open 
the door of his cell. So he went to an old man, and told him the 
circumstances. And the old man said: "See that you have no 
reason, which looks like a just reason, in your heart for blaming 
your brother: as though you would accuse him and justify 
yourself, and so God would not touch his heart to open the door 
67 Vitae Patrwn, III, 29, gives him the name of Eulalius. 



174 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

to you. I tell you this: even if he has sinned against you, keep 
it in your heart that you have sinned against him: justify your 
brother rather than yourself: and then God will put it into his 
heart to make peace with you." And he told him the following 
story: 

"There were two devout men, living in the world: and after 
talking with each other they went out and became monks. 
Wanting to equal the precept in the Gospel, but not according 
to knowledge, they castrated themselves, as if it was for the sake 
of the kingdom of heaven. The archbishop heard of it and ex- 
communicated them. They believed that they had done right, 
and were indignant with the archbishop saying: 'Have we 
castrated ourselves for the kingdom of heaven, and he ex- 
communicates us? Let us go and persuade the archbishop of 
Jerusalem against him.' They went and told everything to the 
archbishop of Jerusalem. And he said: 'And I excommunicate 
you too. 3 Further aggrieved, they went to the archbishop of 
Antioch, and told him everything: and he excommunicated them 
likewise. So they said: 'Let us go to see the patriarch at Rome, 
and he will vindicate us from all these others.' So they went to 
the Pope of Rome and put before him what the other arch- 
bishops had done, saying: 'We have come to you, as you are 
the head of all/ But he also said to them: *I excommunicate you, 
and you are put out of the Church/ 

Then the excommunicated persons had no further excuse, 
and said to each other: 'These bishops defer to each other, and 
reach agreement because they meet in synods. Let us go to that 
holy man of God, Epiphanius, the bishop in Cyprus, for he is a 
prophet, and takes no account of anyone's rank.' As they were 
approaching his city, he received a revelation about them, and 
sent to meet them, saying: 'Do not enter this city.' 

Then they recovered their right minds and said: 'Truly, we 
are rightly blamed: why then do we seek to justify ourselves? 
Even supposing the archbishops excommunicated us unjustly, 
that cannot be true of this prophet, for he has received a revela- 
tion about us.' And they charged themselves with the great 
guilt of what they had done. So God, who sees men's hearts, 
revealed to Epiphanius the bishop that they had made them- 
selves guilty for the truth's sake. And so, of his own initiative, 
he sent and brought them back, and comforted them, and 
received them to communion. He wrote to the archbishop of 
Alexandria about them, saying: 'Receive back your children, 
for they have dojie penance in the truth/ 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 175 

The old man, who told the story, added: 'This is a man's 
sanity and his obedience to God's will, that he casts himself 
before God with confession of his sin.' " 

At these words the brother obeyed his word, and went and 
knocked on the other monk's door. As soon as the other learnt 
who it was, he spoke penitently, and opened the door at once: 
they kissed each other with sincerity and perfect peace was 
established. 

89. Two monks, brothers in the flesh, lived together, and the 
devil wanted to cause division between them. The younger 
once lit a lamp and put it on the lampstand. The demon playing 
his trick, upset the lampstand and the elder was angry and beat 
his younger brother. But the younger was penitent, and said: 
"Be patient with me, brother, and I will light it again." And 
suddenly the power of the Lord came and tortured that demon 
until break of day. So the demon told his chief, a pagan priest, 
what had happened. And the pagan priest went out and 
became a monk; and from the start of his religious life he held to 
humility, saying: "Humility breaks the power of the enemy. 
I know, for I have heard them saying: 'When we trouble the 
monks, one of them turns to God and is penitent, and so 
destroys our power/ " 

PART XVI 

Of patience 

I. The brothers said that Abba Gelasius* 58 had a parchment 
book worth eighteen shillings, containing the whole of the Old 
and New Testament. The book was put in the church, so that 
any monk who wished could read it. But a travelling monk 
came to visit the old man: and when he saw the book, he 
coveted it, stole it, and went away. The old man, though he 
knew who the thief was, did not give chase or try to catch him. 

The thief went to a city and looked for a buyer. He found a 
man who wanted it, and began by asking him sixteen shillings 
for it. The man, who wished to beat him down, said: "First 
give it to me so that I may show it to someone and get advice, 
and then I will pay your price." So the monk gave him the book 
for this purpose* He took the book to Abba Gelasius to discover 
whether it was a good bargain and worth this high price. He 
told Abba Gelasius the price that the seller was asking. The old 

68 VP, III, 30 attributes this to Anastasius. In Budge, ii, no. 184 it is anony- 
mous. 



176 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

man said: "Buy it. It is a good bargain, and worth that price." 
So he went back to the seller, but instead of doing what the 
old man had told him, he said: "Look, I showed this book to 
Abba Gelasius, and he told me it was too highly priced, and not 
worth what you said. 35 The thief said: "Did the old man tell 
you nothing else?" He answered: "Nothing." Then the thief 
said: "Now I do not want to sell the book." 

Stricken in heart, he went to the old man, did penance, and 
asked him to take the book back. The old man did not want to 
accept it. Then the monk said: "Unless you take it back, I 
cannot have peace of mind." And the old man said: "If you 
cannot have peace of mind unless I take it back, I will take it 
back." 

And the brother remained with the old man until his death, 
and made progress by learning from his patience. 

2. At a meeting of the hermits in CelKa, an Abba Evagrius 
spoke. And the priest there said: "Abba Evagrius, we know that 
if you were in your own country, perhaps you would already 
be a bishop, and ruling over many souls. Here you are like a 
stranger." Evagrius was stricken in heart at the words: 
but, serenely and without haste, he bent his head, looked at the 
ground, wrote in the dust with his finger, and said: "Truly, 
Fathers, it is so. But, as it is written, I have spoken once: and 
I will no more answer." 69 

3. The brothers surrounded Abba John the Short when he 
was sitting in front of the church, and each of them asked him 
about their thoughts. Another old man flared up in envy at the 
sight, and said: "Abba John, your cup is full of poison." And 
Abba John answered: "Yes, Father, it is. But you have said 
this when you can only see the outside what would you say 
if you saw the inside?" 

4. John the Less of the Thebaid, a disciple of Abba Ammon- 
ius, was said to have lived for twelve years ministering to an 
old man who was ill, and sitting on a mat near him. But the old 
man was always cross with him; and although John worked a 
long time for him, he never said: "May it be well with you." 
But when the old man was on his death-bed, in the presence of 
the elders of the place, he held John's hand and said: "May it 
be well with you, may it be well with you." And the old man 
commended John to the old men, saying: "This is an angel, not 
a man." 

5. They said of Abba Isidore, the priest in Scete, that if 
Job 40 .-5. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 177 

anyone had a monk sick, or weak, or insolent, and wanted to 
drive him out, he would say: "Bring him to me." And he took 
him, and cured the soul by his patience. 

6. Abba Macarius, when in Egypt, found a man who had 
brought a beast to his cell and was stealing his possessions. As 
though he was a traveller, who did not live there, he went up 
to the thief and helped him to load the beast, and peaceably 
led him on his way, saying to himself: "We brought nothing 
into this world; 70 but the Lord gave: as he willed, so it is done: 
blessed be the Lord in all things." 

7. At a meeting of monks in Scete, the old men wanted to 
test Abba Moses. So they poured scorn on him, saying: "Who 
is this blackamoor that has come among us?" Moses heard 
them, but said nothing. When the meeting had dispersed, the 
men who had given the insults, asked him: "Were you not 
troubled in your heart?" He answered: "I was troubled, and I 
said nothing." 

8. Paysius, the brother of Abba Poemen, loved a monk of 
his cell. Abba Poemen did not like it. So he rose and fled to 
Abba Ammonas, and said to him: "My brother Paysius loves 
some people and I do not like it." Abba Ammonas said to him: 
"Abba Poemen, are you still alive? Go sit in your cell, and put it 
in your heart that you have been already a year in your grave." 

9. Abba Poemen said: "Whatever travail comes upon you 
shall be overcome by silence." 

10. A brother who was hurt by another brother went to the 
Theban Abba Sisois and said: "I want to avenge myself on a 
brother who has hurt me." The old man begged him: "Don't, 
my son: leave vengeance in the hands of God." But he said: 
"I cannot rest until I avenge myself." The old man said: "My 
brother, let us pray." The old man stood up and said: "O God, 
we have no further need to think of thee, for we take vengeance 
of ourselves." The brother heard it and fell at the old man's 
feet, saying: "No longer will I quarrel with my brother: I beg 
you to forgive me." 

1 1. A man who saw a religious person carrying a corpse on a 
bed, said: "Are you carrying dead men? Go and carry the 
living." 

12. They said of a monk, that the more bitterly anyone 
injured or assailed him, the more he was well-disposed to him; 
for he said: "People like this are a means to cure the faults of 
serious men. People who make them happy, do their souls harm. 
70 I Tim. 6: 7; Job 1:21. 



178 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

For it is written: 'They that call thee blessed, deceive thee*' " 71 

13. Some robbers once came to the hermitage of an old man 
and said: "We have come to remove everything in your cell." 
And he said: "Take what you see, my sons. 35 So they took what 
they found in the cell, and went away. But they missed a little 
bag which was hidden in the cell. The old man picked it up, 
and gave chase, shouting out: "My sons, you missed this take 
it." They admired his patience and restored everything, and 
did penance to him: and said to each other: "Truly this is a man 
of God." 

14. Some brothers came to a holy old man who lived in the 
desert; and outside the hermitage they found a boy tending the 
sheep and using ill-mannered words. After they had told the 
old man their thoughts and profited from his reply, they said: 
"Abba, why do you allow those boys to be here, and do not 
order them to stop hurling abuse at each other?" The old man. 
said: "Believe me, my brothers, there are days when I want to 
order them, but I stop myself; saying, If I cannot put up with 
this little thing, how shall I put up with a serious temptation, 
if God ever lets me be so tempted? So I say nothing to them, 
and try to get a habit of enduring whatever happens." 

15. There was a story that an old man had a little boy 
living with him. And seeing him doing some unsuitable work, 
he said: "Don't do that." The child disobeyed him. The old 
man, observing him to be disobedient, washed his hands of his 
upbringing, and let him do as he liked. But for three days the 
boy kept shut the door of the room with the bread and let the 
old man go without food. The old man did not say: "Where 
are you?" or "What are you doing out there?" 

A neighbour of the old man saw that the boy was late in 
bringing food; he made a little stew, and passed it to him 
through a hole in the wall of the cell, and asked him to eat. 
And he said to the old man: "Why is that disciple of yours so 
long away?" The old man said: "When he has leisure, he will 
come back." 

1 6. There was a story that some philosophers once came to 
test the monks. One of the monks came by dressed in a fine robe. 
The philosophers said to him: "Come here, you." But he was 
indignant, and insulted them. Then another monk came by, a 
good person, a Libyan by race. They said to him: "Gome here, 
you wicked old monk." He came to them at once, and they 
began to hit him: but he turned the other cheek to them. Then 
7i Isa. 3:12. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 179 

the philosophers rose and did homage to him, saying: "Here 
is a monk indeed," And they made him sit down in their 
midst, and asked him: "What do you do in this desert more 
than we do? You fast: and we fast also. You chastise your bodies 
and so do we. Whatever you do, we do the same." The old man 
answered: "We trust in God's grace, and keep a watch on our 
minds." They said; "That is what we cannot do." And they 
were edified, and let him go. 

17, An old man, who had a proved disciple, once turned 
him out in a fit of irritation. The disciple sat down outside to 
wait: and the old man found him there when he opened the 
door, and did penance to him, saying: "You are my Father, 
because your humility and patience have conquered the weak- 
ness of my souL Come inside: now you are the old father, and I 
am the young disciple: my age must give way to your conduct," 

1 8, One of the old men, said that he had heard holy men say 
that there are young men who show old men how to live: and 
they told this story. 

There was a drunken old man, who wove a mat a day, sold 
it in the next village, and drank as much as he could with the 
money. Then a monk came to live with him, and also wove a 
mat a day. The old man took this mat as well, sold it, bought 
wine with the price of both, and brought back to the monk only 
a little bread for the evening meal. Though this went on for 
three years, the brother said nothing. 

At the end of three > Jars the monk said to himself; "Here 
am I, with little enough bread and nothing else, I will go 
away." But then he had second thoughts, and said to himself: 
"Where can I go? I will stay here, and for God's sake continue 
with this common life." And immediately an angel of the Lord 
appeared to him, and said: "Don't go away, we shall come for 
you tomorrow." That day the monk begged the old man: 
"Don't go anywhere: today they will come to take me away." 
At the time when the old man usually went out to the village, 
he said to the monk: "They will not come today, my son: it is 
already late." The monk used every argument to show that they 
would come: and even while he was talking, he slept in peace, 

The old man wept, and said: "I am sorrowful, my son, that 
I have lived in neglect for so many years, and you through 
patience have saved your soul in so short a time." And thence- 
forward the old man became sober and serious. 

19, A brother who lived near a great old man, is said to 
have entered his cell from time to time and stolen the contents. 



180 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Though the old man saw him, he did not abuse him, but 
struggled to produce more than usual, saying: "I believe that 
brother is in need." And while he worked harder than usual, 
he tightened his belt and ate less. When the old man was on his 
death-bed, the brothers stood round him. And he looked at the 
thief, and said: "Come here and touch me. 5 ' And he grasped 
his hand and kissed it, saying: "I thank these hands of yours, 
my brother: it is because of them that I go to the kingdom of 
heaven." The thief was stricken with remorse and did penance: 
and he became a true monk, and followed the example of that 
great old man. 

[20. 72 There was a harlot named Thais, so beautiful that for 
her sake many people impoverished themselves. Her lovers 
used always to be quarrelling, and several young men spilt 
their blood on her doorstep. 

When Abba Paphnutius heard of it, he took a secular dress 
and a gold shilling, and set out to see her in one of the cities of 
Egypt. He gave her his gold shilling for the price of her sin; 
she accepted it, and said: "Let us go into the house." As he 
was about to He on the bed, which was strewn with costly 
coverlets, he beckoned her and said: "If there is an inner room, 
let us go into it." She said: "There is an inner room. But if you 
are frightened of men, no one comes into this outer room. If 
you are frightened of God, you cannot escape his eye any- 
where." To this the old man said: "Do you know about God?" 
She answered: "I know about God, and the kingdom of the 
next world, and the future torment for sinners." He said: "If 
you know this, why have you destroyed so many souls, and 
therefore will have to give account for theirs as well as your 
own?" 

When Thais heard this, she fell down at Paphnutius' feet, 
weeping: and said: "Lay a penance upon me, father. I trust 
with your prayers to win forgiveness. Let me have three hours' 
grace, and I will come wherever you command and do what- 
ever you tell me." When Abba Paphnutius had appointed her 
a place to meet, she collected all the presents she had won by 
her sins. She took them into the city square and publicly burnt 
them, crying: "Come, all you people who have sinned with me, 
see how I am burning your presents." The value of the pile was 
forty pounds. 

When she had burnt it all, she went to the appointed place* 
He found for her a hermitage for maidens, and put her in a 
72 A later addition: found in none of the manuscripts. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS l8l 

little cell. He sealed the door, and left a little window through 
which she could receive food, and told the sisters of the convent 
to bring her a little bread and water every day. When Paph- 
nutius had sealed the door and was going away, Thais said to 
him: "Where, father, would you have me pour my water?" 
And he said: "In the cell, you are worthy." Then she asked him 
how to pray to God. He said: "You are not worthy to have 
God's name on your lips, nor to stretch out your hands towards 
heaven; for your lips are full of wickedness and your hands 
polluted. You must simply sit down, look towards the east, and 
say this prayer again and again: 'Thou who hast fashioned me, 
have mercy upon me.' " 

After she had been shut there for three years, Abba Paph- 
nutius was moved with sympathy, and went to see Abba 
Antony, to ask him whether God had forgiven her sins or not. 
Abba Antony, learning all the circumstances, summoned his 
disciples and told them to watch all night, and persevere in 
earnest prayer that God would declare to one of them the 
answer for which Abba Paphnutius had come. They all went 
apart, and prayed continually: and Abba Paul, the chief 
disciple of Saint Antony, suddenly saw a bed in heaven covered 
with precious coverlets, and guarded by three maidens whose 
faces shone. Paul said to himself: "This is the gift of none but 
my father Antony." And a voice came to him: "It is not the 
gift of your father Antony, but of the harlot Thais." 

Abba Paul told what he had seen: and Abba Paphnutius 
recognized the will of God, returned to the hermitage where 
Thais was shut, and broke the seals on the door. She asked him 
to let her stay shut in. But he opened the door, and said: "Come 
out, for God has forgiven your sins." She answered: "I call God 
to witness that from the time I came here I have kept my sins 
in my mind's eye like a burden, and I have kept weeping at 
the sight of them." Abba Paphnutius said: "God has forgiven 
you, not for your penitence, but because you always kept in 
your mind the thought of your sins." And he brought her out: 
and she lived for only fifteen days, and died in peace.] 

PART XVII 
Of charity 

i. Abba Antony said: "Now I do not fear God, but I love 
him: for love casteth out fear." 73 
73 1 John 4:18. 



I&2 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

2. He also said: "From our neighbour are life and death. 
If we do good to our neighbour, we do good to God: if we 
cause our neighbour to stumble, we sin against Christ." 

3. Abba Ammon of Nitria came to Abba Antony, and said 
to him: "I see that I endure more than you: how is it that your 
reputation is great among men?" And Abba Antony said: "It 
is because I love God more than you do." 

4. Abba Hilarion once came from Palestine to Abba Antony 
on the mountain: and Abba Antony said to him: "Welcome, 
morning star, for you rise at break of day." And Abba Hilarion 
said: "Peace to you, pillar of light, for you prop up the earth." 

5. Abba Mark said to Abba Arsenius: "Why do you run 
away from us?" The old man said: "God knows I love you. But 
I cannot be with God and with men. The countless hosts of 
angels have but a single will, while men have many wills. So I 
cannot let God go, and come and be with men." 

6. Abba Agatho said: "I never went to sleep intentionally 
while I kept a grudge against anyone. Nor did I let anyone go 
away to sleep while he had a grievance against me*" 

7. Once when Abba John was going up from Scete with 
other monks, their guide missed his way in the night. The 
brothers said to Abba John: "What are we to do, Abba, to 
prevent ourselves dying in the desert, now that this brother has 
missed the way?" The old man said: "If we say anything to 
him, he will be grieved. Look, I will pretend I am worn out, 
and say I cannot walk, and will lie here till daylight." And they 
did so. The others said: "We will not go on, but will stay with 
you here." They stayed there until daybreak, so that they 
should not abuse the monk who had wrongly guided them* 

8. Before Abba Poemen went to Egypt, there was an old 
man there with a great reputation. But when Abba Poemen 
came up from Scete with his monks the people left this old man 
in favour of Abba Poemen. The old man was jealous, and spoke 
ill of them* When Poemen heard this, he was sad, and said to 
his monks: "What shall we do for that old man? These people 
have made us suffer, by leaving that old man and visiting us 
who are nobody. How can we heal his mind?" And he said to 
them: "Make some supper, and take a little jug of wine: we 
will go and eat with him, perhaps we shall be able to heal his 
mind." So they took the bread which they had made ready, 
and went to the old man's cell. 

When they knocked, his disciple answered the door, and said: 
"Who are you?" They said: "Tell the abba that it is Poemen, 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 183 

who wants to be blessed by you. 95 The disciple told the old man, 
who returned the message: "Go away, I am busy." But they 
persevered and said: "We will not go away until we have got 
the old man's blessing." So seeing their perseverance and their 
humility, the old man was stricken with remorse, and opened 
the door to them. They entered, and supped with him. While 
they were having supper, the old man said: "Truly, I have 
heard less than the truth about you. I see that you do a hundred- 
fold more than I was told." Arid he became their friend from 
that moment. 

9. Abba Poemen said: "Try, so far as you can, to do wrong 
to no man, and keep your heart chaste to every man." 

10. He also said: "There is nothing greater in love than 
that a man, should lay down his life for his neighbour. When 
a man hears a complaining word and struggles against himself, 
and does not himself begiu to complain; when a man bears an 
injury with patience, and does not look for revenge; that is when 
a man lays down his life for his neighbour." 

11. Abba Pambo happened once to be travelling in, Egypt 
with some monks. He saw some men from the world sitting 
down, and said to them: "Stand up, and give a greeting, and 
kiss the monks that you may be blessed. For they often talk with 
God, and their mouths are holy." 

12. Abba Paphnutius is said to have drunk wine seldom. 
But once on a journey he happened upon a meeting-place of 
robbers, while they were drinking. The chief of the robber 
band recognized him and knew that he would not drink wine, 
He saw that he was tired out. So he filled a cup with wine, 
held a naked sword in his other hand, and said: "If you do not 
drink, I will kill you." The old man knew that the robber 
chieftain was trying to obey the commandment of God: and in 
his desire to help him, he took the cup and dr^nk. 

Then the robber chieftain did penance before him, and said: 
"Forgive me, Abba, that I grieved you," And the old man said 
to him: "I believe that because of this cup my God will have 
mercy upon you in this world and the next." And the robber 
chieftain answered: "And I believe in God that henceforward I 
shall harm no one." And the old man won over the whole band 
of robbers, because for God's sake he let himself fall into their 
power. 

13. Abba Hyperichius said: "Snatch your neighbour from his 
sins, so far as you caw, and refrain from condemning him: for 
God does not reject those who turn to him. Let no word of 



184 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

wickedness towards your brother dwell in your heart, ^so that 
you can say: 'Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our 
debtors.' " 

14. Two monks were in Cellia. One of them was an old man, 
and asked the younger: "Let us stay together, my brother." 
The other said: "I am a sinner, and cannot stay with you, 
Abba." But he begged him: "Yes, we can stay together." The 
old man had a clean heart, and the younger did not want him 
to know that he sometimes fell to lust. The monk then said: 
"Let me go away for a week, and we will talk about it again." 
At the end of the week the old man came back, and the 
younger, wishing to test him, said: "I succumbed to a great 
temptation during this week, Abba. When I had gone to a 
village on an errand, I lay with a woman." The old man said: 
"Are you penitent?" And the brother said: "Yes." The old 
man said: "I will carry half the burden of the sin with you." 
Then the brother said: "Now I know that we can stay together." 
And they remained together till death parted them. 

15. One of the fathers said: "If anyone asks you for some- 
thing, and you give it to him; even if you are forced to give it, 
let your heart be in the gift: as it is written: c lf a man forces you 
to go with him one mile, go with him two' : 74 it means, if you 
are asked for something, give it with a willing heart." 

1 6. A monk is said to have made baskets and put handles 
on them, when he heard another monk saying nearby: "What 
am I to do? The trader is soon coming, and I have no handles 
to put on my baskets." So he took of? the handles he had put 
on his own baskets, and took them to the nearby monk, saying: 
"I do not need these: take them and put them on your baskets." 
And he allowed the brother to finish his baskets, but left his 
own unfinished. 

17. They said that an old man in Scete, who was ill, wanted 
to eat a little new bread. One of the experienced monks heard 
of it: and he took his cloak, put stale bread into it, went to 
Egypt, chaiiged the stale bread for new, and brought the new 
bread back to the old man. When the brothers saw the new 
bread, they were astonished. The old man did not want to eat 
it, and said: "It is the blood of this brother." And the old men 
begged him, saying: "For God's sake eat, so that his sacrifice is 
not vain." And so he ate it. 

18. A brother asked an old man: "There are two monks: 
one stays quietly in his cell, fasting for six days at a time, and 
7* Matt 5:41. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 185 

laying many austerities upon himself: and the other ministers to 
the sick. Which of them is more acceptable to God?" The old 
man answered: "If the brother, who fasts six days, even hung 
himself up by his nostrils, he could never be the equal of him 
who ministers to the sick." 

19. An old man was asked: "How is it that some struggle 
away at their religious life, but do not receive grace like the 
old fathers?" The old man said: "Because then charity ruled, 
and each one drew his neighbour upward. Now charity is 
growing cold, and each of us draws his neighbour downward, 
and so we do not deserve grace." 

20. Three monks once went to harvest, and were given a 
big area to harvest. But the first day one of them fell sick, and 
returned to his cell. Of the two remaining, one said to the other: 
"Look, brother, our brother has fallen ill: you work as hard as 
you can, and I will do what little extra I can, and we will trust 
God that by our sick brother's prayers we shall harvest his part 
of the field as well as finishing our own part." So they harvested 
the whole area which they had been given, and went to receive 
their pay. 

And they summoned their brother, saying: "Gome, brother, 
take your money." He said: "I have not harvested, so I have 
earned nothing." They said to him: "We finished the harvest 
through your prayers: come and take your pay." And there was 
fierce argument between them, the one saying: "I will not take 
it because I have not earned it," the others refusing to accept 
their pay unless he would take his share. So they went off to a 
great old man, to accept his judgement. And the brother who 
had been sick said to him: "We three went to earn money by 
harvesting in a man's field. When we came to the place, I fell 
ill on the first day and returned to my cell, and I could not har- 
vest a single day with them. And now they are forcing me, 
saying: c Come, brother, take your pay for work you have not 
done.' " 

But the other two said: "The truth is this. When we arrived 
at the field, we were given a big area to harvest. If there had 
been three of us, we might with the greatest difficulty have just 
finished the work. But by the prayers of this our brother, the 
pair of us harvested the field more quickly than three of us 
would have done. So we say to him: 'Come, take your pay,' and 
he will not." 

The old man marvelled to hear them, and said to one of his 
monks: "Ring the bell in the brothers' cells to gather them 



l86 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

here." When they had assembled, he said to them: "Come, 
brothers, and hear today a just judgement. 33 And the old man 
told them the whole story, and decided that the brother should 
receive his pay, and do with it whatever he would. And the 
brother went away grieved and weeping like a man who has 
been sentenced. 

21* An old man said: "Our fathers had the custom of 
visiting the cells of new brothers who wanted to lead a solitary 
life, to see if any of them was tempted by demons and had 
taken harm from his thoughts. And if they found anyone who 
had taken harm, they brought him to church. A basin was 
filled with water. Then, after they had all prayed for the one 
who was suffering under temptation, all the monks washed their 
hands in the basin: and then the water was poured upon the 
tempted brother, and he was at once cleansed." 

22. Two old men lived together for many years without a 
quarrel. One said to the other: "Let us have one quarrel with 
each other, as is the way of men." And the other answered: "I 
do not know how a quarrel happens." And the first said: "Look, 
I put a tile between us, and I say, That's mine. Then you say, 
No, it's mine. That is how you begin a quarrel." 

So they put a tile between them, and one of them said: 
"That's mine." Ajnd the other said: "No; it's mine." And he 
answered: "Yes, it is yours. Take it away." And they went 
away unable to argue with each other, 

23. A brother asked an old man: "If I see a monk of whom I 
have heard as guilty of a sin, I cannot persuade my soul to 
bring him into my cell. But if I see a good monk, I gladly bring 
him in." And the old man said: "If you do good to a good 
brother, it is little to him. To the other, give twofold, for it is 
he who is sick." 

24. An old man said: "I never wanted a work to be useful 
to me while causing loss to my brother: for I have this hope, 
that what helps my brother will bring fruit to me." 

25* There was a brother who served one of the fathers. The 
old man's body happened to be badly hurt, and evil-smelling 
pus flowed out of the wound* The serving brother thought to 
himself: "Get out of here. You cannot bear the smell of the 
gangrene." To quell the thought, he took a bowl, washed the 
wound, and kept the water which he used: and whenever he 
was thirsty, he drank from it. But the thought began to trouble 
him again, saying to him: "If you will not go away, at least do 
notdrink this pus." The brother struggled away with endurance, 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 187 

and went on drinking the washing water. And God saw his 
charity as he ministered to the old man; and God turned the 
washing water into the purest water, and by some unseen 
means healed the old man. 



Part XVIII of the Sayings is of ecstasies and raptures and prophecies 
and wondrous visions: such as this: 

A brother went to the cell of Abba Arsenius in Scete, and 
looked through the window, and saw him like fire from head 
to feet. (He was a brother worthy to see such sights.) And 
when he knocked, the old man came out, and saw the 
brother standing there in amazement, and said to him: 
"Have you been knocking long? Did you see anything?" And 
he answered: "No." And after talking with him, Abba 
Arsenius sent him on his way. 

In the middle of Part XVIII is the division, where it is believed that 
the deacon Pelagius ceased to translate, and the subdeacon John contin- 
ued the work. 

Part XIX is of the holy men who wrought signs: for example: 

A demoniac once came to Scete. Prayer was made for him 
in the church, and his demon could not be cast out because 
it was a powerful demon. The clergy said to each other: 
"What shall we do to this demon? Nobody but Abba 
Bessarion can cast him out: and if we ask Abba Bessarion, he 
will not even come to the church. This is what we will do: 
he will come to the church at daybreak tomorrow before 
anyone else: and we will make the demoniac sit in Abba 
Bessarion's seat. And when he comes in, we will stand in 
prayer, and say: 'Abba, wake up that brother! 3 " And they 
did so. When the old man came at daybreak, they stood in 
prayer, and said: "Abba, wake up that brother!" And the 
old man said to the sufferer: "Get up and go outside": and 
at once the demon went out of him, and he was made whole. 

Part XX is of the holy life of various men, and contains a miscellany 
of stories, some of which might from their subject have been included 
under one of the existing headings. Here is one example (5) : 

Abba Sisois was once living alone pn the mountain of 
Antony. His servant wa$ slow in coming to him, and for ten 
months ho did not see a single human being. But walking one 



188 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

day on the mountain, he found a tribesman herding beasts. 
The old man said to him: "Where have you come from, and 
how long have you been here?" He said: "Abba, I have 
been eleven months on this mountain, and you are the first 
person I have seen." When he heard this, the old man went 
back to his cell, and struck himself, and said: "Look, Sisois, 
you thought you had done something: and you have not even 
done as much as that man from the world." 

And it contains one of the most celebrated of the Macarius stories (17): 
Once when Abba Macarius was praying in his cell, he 
heard a voice which said: "Macarius, you have not yet 
reached the standard of two women in that city." On his 
arrival, he found the house and knocked at the door. A 
woman opened it, and welcomed him to her house. He sat 
down, and called them to sit down with him. Then he said to 
them: "It is for you that I have taken this long journey. Tell 
me how you live a religious life." They said: "Indeed, how 
can we lead a religious life? We were with our husbands last 
night." But the old man persuaded them to tell him their way 
of life. 

Then they said: "We are both foreigners, in the world's 
eyes. But we accepted in marriage two brothers. Today we 
have been sharing this house for fifteen years. We do not 
know whether we have quarrelled or said rude words to each 
other; but the whole of this time we have lived peaceably 
together. We thought we would enter a convent, and asked 
our husbands for permission, but they refused it. So since we 
could not get this permission, we have made a covenant 
between ourselves and God that a worldly word shall not pass 
our lips during the rest of our lives." 

When Macarius heard it, he said: "Truly, it is not whether 
you are a virgin or a married woman, a monk or a man in the 
world: God gives his Holy Spirit to everyone, according to 
their earnestness of purpose." 

Part XXI is another miscellany; in some early manuscripts (MP) 
there is a Part XXII, of various final sayings (Sententiae Patrum), 
but in spite ofDom Wilmarfs judgement I do not think they formed part 
of the original translation. 

The M manuscript gives at the end this prayer: 

"Lord Jesus Christ, whose will all things obey: pardon 
what I have done and grant that I, a sinner, may sin no more. 



THE SAYINGS OF THE FATHERS 189 

Lord, I believe that though I deserve it not, thou canst 
cleanse me from all my sins. Lord, I know that man looks 
upon the face, but thou seest into the heart. Send thy spirit 
into my inmost being, to take possession of my soul and my 
body. Without thee I cannot be saved. With thee to protect 
me I long for thy salvation. And now I ask thee for wisdom. 
Deign of thy great goodness to help and defend me. Guide my 
heart. Almighty God, that I may remember thy presence day 
and night. 3 ' 



II 

The Conferences of Cassian 

INTRODUCTION 

CASSIAN HAD BEGUN HIS CAREER IN A MONASTERY 
in Bethlehem, though not the monastery presided over 
by St Jerome. He had then visited Egypt for some un- 
certain number of years (more than seven, probably ten or 
twelve), and studied under various Egyptian hermits and 
coenobites, mainly near the Nile delta and in Scete. Like many 
others among the more educated Greek-speaking monks, he 
was concerned in the Origenist controversy of 399-401, which 
sharply divided the monastic world, and soon found himself 
with other Origenists seeking the support and patronage of the 
patriarch John Chrysostom of Constantinople. With the fall of 
his protector he had to take refuge elsewhere, and like other 
refugees he found his way to Rome. Whether he ever returned 
to the east is not known* When the Visigothic leader Alaric 
sacked Rome in 410, many prominent men fled to Provence: 
and it is possible that the flowering of monastic life in Provence 
and its surrounding islands from 410 onwards is connected with 
the circumstance that Provence seemed a haven for refugees. 
Cassian was in a monastic house, which he had founded in 
Marseilles, at least as early as 425 and probably for several years 
before that. There, as one of the rare persons in the west with 
expert and first-hand knowledge of the Egyptian monks, he was 
in demand to instruct, edify and inform the young Gallic 
monastic houses. Castor, Bishop of the little town of Apt forty 
miles north of Marseilles, was founding a monastery and asked 
Cassian to give it both practical arrangement and spiritual 
ideals, based upon the Egyptian models. The result was the 
Institutes, published about 425-426. These were followed by the 
Conferences, which purport to be the addresses of various ascetics, 

190 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN igi 

mainly hermits, whom Cassian interviewed during his stay in 
Egypt. Just as the Egyptians regarded the coenobium as the 
training school, for those who could endure, before the monk 
went out to the higher life of prayer possible in the desert 
solitudes, so the Institutes are designed (like the Rule of St 
Benedict) for the training school, and the Conferences for hermits 
or those who might be turning from the life in a community 
to the hermit life. 

How far the Conferences represent the actual words of the 
Egyptian abbots, in whose mouths Gassian puts the addresses, 
is still a matter of debate. Almost everyone allows that Cassian, 
who had been away from Egypt for a quarter of a century, 
touched them, gave them his own framework. Many scholars 
think that each Egyptian father talked upon the subject which 
Cassian says he talked, and substantially in the sense which 
Cassian ascribes to him. Others, with whom I agree, think 
that not even the subjects can safely be attributed to the indi- 
vidual authors whom he mentions, but that the substance of 
the teaching is certainly Egyptian teaching, seen through 
Cassian's later perspective. He certainly believed that he was 
transmitting the authentic doctrine of the Egyptian desert, and 
there is no adequate reason for supposing him to be mistaken. 

The Latin of Cassian is as far apart from the Latin of The 
Sayings of the Fathers as it well could be. The rugged, stark, 
often ungrammatical, vigorous staccato of the apophthegmatists 
gives way to the smooth flowing rhetorical periods by a master 
of fifth-century Latin prose. It is clear, its meaning unmistak- 
able: but its expression has the amplitude part cloudiness, 
part exuberance, part delight in patterns and rhythms 
acquired from the rhetorical schools. To put the apophtheg- 
matists into English you sometimes need to expand the laconic 
epigram. To put Cassian into English you need to remember 
that the epithets of the fifth century have less than their full 
value, that Cassian's contemporaries constantly used a super- 
lative, or two superlatives, where a simple epithet would have 
represented the meaning. To translate the jejune aphorisms of 
the apophthegmatists is like Abba John watering his dead stick 
until it burst into flower: to translate the urbane reiterations of 
Cassian, you need a moderate use of the pruning knife, to cut 
away some of the luxuriant foliage in order to see the fruit. 
Apart from the partial removal of a few superlatives or the ex- 
clusion of what Fowler calls "elegant variation," I have taken 
one other liberty. Occasionally Cassian reinforces his point 



IQ2 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

with a string of Scriptural quotations. Had he been writing in a 
modern manner, he would have transferred these quotations 
to a footnote, which is where they ought to be: for they inter- 
rupt the sense of what he is saying, and are armoury to protect 
his argument against critics precisely the function of the 
modern footnote. I have therefore transferred a small number 
of blocks of texts to footnotes; these footnotes are given in 
quotation marks and this will show the reader that these are in 
Cassian's original text. 

So popular was Cassian as reading matter in the medieval 
monasteries that the manuscript tradition is over-abundant,, 
and work is still needed upon it. But for most practical purposes 
the edition of M, Petschenig, published in the Vienna Corpus, 
volumes 13 and 17 (i 886-8) is excellent, and is certainly in- 
dispensable. I have followed his text, and departed from it only, 
I believe, at one point where his apparatus seemed to provide 
the more likely reading. 



The Conferences of Cassian 

THE TEXT 

CONFERENCES i-io 
Preface 

To the best of my slender ability, I have now fulfilled the 
promise which I made to bishop Castor in the preface to the 
Institutes which I wrote (with God's help) about the rules of the 
monks and the cures for the eight chief sins. I should much like 
to know what you and he think about the book after a sober 
examination of it: and whether, in putting into prose (for the 
first time, I believe) a discussion of a subject so profound and so 
sublime, I have succeeded in producing a work of value and 
interest to you and all the brothers in the community. 

Bishop Castor was a man who above all others longed for 
saintliness. And so, in his charity, and oblivious of the difficulty of 
the task and of my incompetence to fulfil it rightly, he required 
me to write in the same way these first ten Conferences of the 
best of all the fathers, the hermits who used to live in the desert 
of Scete. But he has died, and passed to be with Christ: and 
therefore I have thought it right to dedicate these Conferences 
to you two, Bishop Leontius and my brother Helladius. For one 
of you is Castor's brother, in blood-relationship, in the office of 
a bishop, and (above all) in love for sacred study, and so has 
the hereditary right to demand the payment of a debt incurred 
to Castor. The other has chosen the austere life of a hermit, not 
(like some) out of personal presumption, but following the law- 
ful tradition of ascetic doctrine, which he began to receive from 
the inspiration of God's Spirit almost before he began to learn 
it consciously: rather than search out his own way of life, he 
has chosen to receive it from the regular teaching of the fathers. 

Just as I have taken my little boat into harbour and decided 
not to write any more, I see an ocean opening out in front of 



194 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

me. It is evidently my duty that I should, however rashly, set 
down on paper something about the way of life and the teach- 
ing of those great Egyptian saints before it is forgotten. And my 
little boat has now to venture out among the perils of much 
deeper water than before: for life in a hermitage is a finer life 
than that in a monastic community, and the contemplation ^of 
God (which is the continual aim of the hermits) is a loftier life 
than the pursuit of the daily virtues which is the purpose of life 
in a monastic community. It is therefore your duty to help me 
with your prayers. I am going to treat this sacred subject as 
faithfully as I can: but I ask you to pray that my boat may not 
sink amid these deep waters through mere clumsiness or in- 
experience. 

I pass now from the outward and visible life of the monk (the 
subject of my earlier book) to the invisible life of the inner man; 
from the vocal prayers of the canonical office to the unceasing 
prayer which St Paul commanded. If anyone, through reading 
my earlier work, has won the allegorical name Jacob got for him- 
self by "supplanting" the sins of his flesh, he may now learn 
the rules of the perfect life and win (if I may so put it) the merit 
and the name of Israel (which means, the man who sees God) ; and 
he will do it by receiving the doctrines of the Fathers I am not 
inventing this teaching but simply passing on what I learnt 
and by contemplating the purity of God. 

God deemed me worthy to see them and learn from them and 
live with them. I ask you to pray that I may truly remember 
what they told me and may be given a ready tongue to tell it; 
that I may be enabled to pass it on with the same completeness, 
and in the same pious spirit, as I received it: and that I may be 
enabled to show you the men themselves, who are in a measure 
inseparable from their way of life, and to transmit their teaching 
by making them speak in the Latin language. 

I want to give the reader of these Conferences, as of the earlier 
book, an emphatic warning. If perhaps he thinks anything here 
impossible or very difficult because of his condition or his 
manner of life or habits, he should not measure it against the 
limits of his own powers, but against the worth and sanctity of 
the speakers. He should first consider their earnestness and 
determination truly they were dead to the life of this world 
and had cut every string which tied them to it, even their 
natural family feeling. Then he ought to remember the kind of 
place they lived in, how they had their hermitages scattered 
over a great desert and were far removed from any company 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 195 

of men: and so they found their senses quickened, and saw or 
uttered what perhaps will seem impossible to the ignorant and 
the uninitiated who know only their own ordinary manner of life. 

But if the reader wants to judge them rightly, and would 
test whether what they did is possible, let him without further 
delay resolve to adopt their purpose and their earnestness as 
his own. Then he will find that what once seemed beyond 
human capacity is not only possible but most pleasant. 

And now, without further preface, I come to their Confer- 
ences. 

CONFERENCE i 

First Conference of Abba Moses 

ON THE MONK'S GOAL 

1. I was staying in the desert of Scete, where are the hermits 
of highest repute and spiritual perfection. I had as my com- 
panion the holy Abba Germanus, who had been my fellow- 
warrior since the earliest days of my ascetic life, first in the com- 
munity at Bethlehem and afterwards in the desert; a friend so 
close, sharing so intimately the same aims, that people might 
say there was a single mind and a single spirit in our two bodies. 
Together we sought out Abba Moses: to find him among the 
other hermits it was like looking along a bed full of fragrant 
flowers until we found the flower which smelt the sweetest. As 
he was so eminent in the practice of virtue and in the art of 
contemplative prayer, we asked him with a deep compunc- 
tion of heart to give us words which would help us in our 
spiritual progress. We had heard of his inflexible rule never to 
give instruction in the spiritual life except to persons who sought 
it in faith and heartfelt contrition. For he was afraid that if he 
poured out the water of life indiscriminately to people who had 
no use for it or were hardly even thirsty, he would cast his 
pearls before swine and would be liable to the charge either of 
boasting about his prowess or of betraying his trust. 

In the end he consented to our importunities. And this is 
what he said: 

2. "All arts and sciences have some immediate goal or 
destination (scopes] ; and also an ultimate aim, a telos. The earnest 
student of each art willingly endures the hard work and peril 
and expense by looking towards the goal which he will ulti- 
mately achieve. The farmer in his ploughing suffers heat, or 
frost and ice, or rocklike soil, and turns the ground again and 
again to clear it of brambles and weeds and make it as soft and 



ig6 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

fine as grains of sand that is his immediate purpose, his 
scopes. His ultimate purpose is to gather a bumper harvest and 
so live without fear of starvation and grow wealthy. When his 
barn is fulfilled he uses some of the crop as manure and is 
prepared to lessen his present stock in the expectation of future 
harvest. Merchants are not afraid of storm and tempest because 
they are carried onward by the hope of gain. Ambitious soldiers 
think nothing of far journeys, hardships and risk of life in battle, 
because they have their eyes set upon the goal of power and 
place, and will endure anything to obtain it. 

The hermit, in the same way, has his immediate goal and 
his ultimate goal: and for this he endures every kind of labour 
tirelessly, even gratefully. For this he grows not weary of fasting, 
enjoys the fatigue of watching in the night, is not tired by the 
continual reading of the Scriptures and meditation upon them, 
bears even the naked and grinding poverty and loneliness of 
life in this desert. I have no doubt that this was the goal which 
has led you on to turn from your family and homeland and 
scorn the pleasures of this world, and to travel so far to find us, 
ordinary and ignorant men, living squalidly in this desert." 

"Tell me," he said, "what is the purpose which has brought 
you to bear all this cheerfully?' 5 

3. I tried not to answer. But when he persisted, I said that 
we bore all this for the sake of the kingdom of heaven, 

4. "Yes," said Moses, "that is indeed the ultimate goal. But 
first you ought to know the immediate goal for which we strive 
in order to make the ultimate goal possible." 

I said simply that I did not know. 

"I compared the aims of every art or science," said Moses, 
"and how each must have its immediate goal on which the 
mind may concentrate: and unless it does concentrate with 
care and perseverance, it cannot attain its ultimate goal. The 
farmer's ultimate goal is to live well with fertile crops, his 
immediate goal is to eradicate brambles and weeds from the 
soil, and he knows that this is the only way to be sure of his 
ultimate end. The trader has to amass goods for sale before he 
can amass riches: it is vain, to yearn for wealth without choosing 
the path which leads to it. Ambitious men have first to decide 
what profession they will follow so as to have some reasonable 
prospect of attaining the honours they desire. 

In the same way, the ultimate goal of our life is the kingdom 
of heaven. But we have to ask what the immediate goal is: for 
if we do not find it we shall exhaust ourselves in futile efforts. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN IQ7 

Travellers who miss their way are still tiring themselves though 
they are walking no nearer to their destination." 

At this remark we stood and gaped. The old man went on: 

"The ultimate goal of our way of life is, as I said, the kingdom 
of God, or kingdom of heaven. The immediate aim is purity of 
heart. For without purity of heart none can enter into that 
kingdom. We should fix our gaze on this target, and walk to- 
wards it in as straight a line as possible. If our thoughts wander 
away from it even a little, we should bring back our gaze to- 
wards it, and use it as a kind of test, which at once brings all 
our efforts back onto the one path. 

5. When expert archers want to display their prowess before 
a king, they try to shoot their arrows into little targets which 
have the prizes painted on them: they know they can only win 
the prize which is their real goal by shooting straight into the 
mark which is their immediate goal. But suppose that the target 
were carried out of sight. They would then have no means of 
knowing how unskilfully and crookedly they were shooting, but 
would be shooting their arrows at random into the air without 
any guide to accurate or inaccurate aim and without the pos- 
sibility of estimating what correction was needed. 

St Paul tells us that the end which we have set before us is 
eternal life: 'having your fruit unto holiness, and the end 
everlasting life.' 1 The scopes is purity of heart, which he rightly 
terms 'holiness,' without which eternal life cannot be won. It 
is as though he said, having your scopos in purity of heart, and 
your telos eternal life. And significantly he uses the very word 
scopes to describe it 'forgetting those things which are behind, 
and reaching forth unto those things which are before, I press 
forward toward the mark for the prize of the high calling of 
God/ 2 In Greek the words for 'press forward to the mark' are 
kata scopon dioko and really mean 'press forward according to 
the mark/ It is as if he said: 'With this aim, whereby I forget 
what is behind the sins of the old man I strive to attain to the 
prize of heaven,.' 

Then whatever can guide us towards purity of heart is to be 
followed with all our power: whatever draws us away from it 
is to be avoided as hurtful and worse. It is for this end to keep 
our hearts continually pure that we do and endure everything, 
that we spurn parents and home and position and wealth and 
comfort and every earthly pleasure. If we do not keep this mark 
continually before the eyes, all our travail will be futile waste 
* Rom. 6 :aa. 2 Phil. 3 : 13-14. 



ig8 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

that wins nothing, and will stir up in us a chaos of ideas instead 
of singlemindedness. Unless the mind has some fixed point to 
which it can keep coming back and to which it tries to fasten 
itself, it will flutter hither and thither according to the whim of 
the passing moment and follow whatever immediate and 
external impression is presented to it. 

6. This is the reason why some people, who have given away 
worldly wealth in gold or silver or lands, are afterwards agi- 
tated about a knife, a pencil, a pin or a pen. If they steadily 
contemplated purity of heart, they would never suffer, over 
these trivialities, the state of mind which they sought to avoid 
by giving away their property. Some people guard their books 
so closely that they refuse to let anyone else touch them or read 
them for a moment: and so they minister to themselves the 
irritation which is the death of the prayerful life, in those very 
times which ought to give them an opportunity for patience 
and charity. They have given up all their property for the love 
of Christ; and yet keep their old acquisitive attitude over little 
things and quickly become upset over them. Then they are 
as barren of fruit as those who, as St Paul said, lack charity. 
Prophesying in the spirit, he said: 'Though I give all my goods 
to feed the poor and though I give my body to be burned, and 
have not charity, it profiteth me nothing.' 3 

It is clear that you do not attain the perfect life simply by 
self-denial or simply by throwing away your money or your 
rank. There must go with it the charity which the apostle des- 
cribed, and which consists in purity of heart alone. For not to be 
envious, not to be puffed up, not to be angry, not to do wrong, 
not to seek one's own, not to rejoice in iniquity, not to think 
evil, and the rest what is this except the continual offering of 
a perfect and pure heart to God, a heart which is kept free from 
every earthly distraction? 

7. To this end everything is to be done. Solitude, watches in 
the night, manual labour, nakedness, reading and the other 
disciplines we know that their purpose is to free the heart from 
injury by bodily passions and to keep it free; they are to be 
the rungs of a ladder up which it may climb to perfect charity. 
If by accident some right and needful occupation prevents us 
from keeping these acts of discipline, we should not be guilty 
of gloom or annoyance for the aim of these acts is to drive 
away these faults. The loss you incur by being irritated out- 
weighs the gain of fasting; dislike of your brother cannot be 

3 1 Cor. 13:3. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 199 

counterbalanced by reading the Bible. These practices of fast- 
ing, watching, withdrawal to the hermitage, meditation on the 
Scriptures, are all subordinate means to your chief aim which 
is purity of heart, or charity, and we ought never to allow them 
to take precedence over charity. Charity will not suffer hurt if 
some necessary reason prevents us fulfilling our disciplinary 
rule. None of these practices are of any profit at all if the pur- 
pose for which they are undertaken is lost. 

A man diligently collects all the tools of his trade. He does 
not expect to sit in idleness and enjoy possession of the tools 
but to use them skilfully for the purpose for which they were 
designed. In the same way fasting, watching, meditation on 
Scripture, nakedness and poverty are not perfection but the 
means towards it; not the end of our discipline but the means to 
that end. The man who is content with these practices as the 
summum bonum and not as means, will use them in vain. He pos- 
sesses the tools of the trade but has no idea what they are for. 

Whatever can trouble our purity and peace of mind, however 
useful and necessary it seems to be, should be avoided as hurt- 
ful. This is the general rule by which we can avoid wandering 
off the right path and keep in a straight line towards our end. 

8. It should be our main effort, the immovable and steadfast 
purpose of the heart, to cleave with our mind to the things of 
God and to God himself. Whatever is not this, however im- 
portant, should be put second, or last, and judged to be hurtful. 
There is a lovely type of this mental attitude in the Gospel story 
of Martha and Mary. When Martha was performing her act of 
holy ministry in serving the Lord and his disciples, Mary was 
sitting at Jesus' feet, which in faith she had kissed and anointed, 
and was hanging upon his words as he taught the things of the 
spirit. The Lord praised Mary above Martha, because she had 
chosen the better part and that which should not be taken 
away from her. For when Martha was working away, in a truly 
religious spirit, and was busy about much serving, she saw that, 
unaided, she could not serve so many people, and asked the 
Lord that her sister might help her, saying: 'Carest thou not 
that my sister has left me to serve alone? bid her therefore that 
she help me.' She was calling Mary to no lowly task, but to an 
excellent work of ministry. Yet the Lord replied: 'Martha, 
Martha, thou art anxious and troubled about many things: we 
need few things, or even one thing. Mary has chosen the good 
part, which shall not be taken away from her.* 4 
4 Luke 10 :4O-2; a text with no mean manuscript authority to support it. 



20O WESTERN ASCETICISM 

The Lord, you see, placed the chief good in divine contem- 
plation. All the other virtues, however necessary and useful and 
good we deem them, must be placed on a lower plane because 
they are sought for the sake of this one thing. When the Lord 
said: 'Thou art anxious and troubled about many things, but 
we need few things or even one thing/ he was putting the sup- 
reme good, not in the pursuit of virtue, however excellent and 
fruitful, but in the pure and simple and singleminded contem- 
plation of himself. When he said that few things were needful, he 
means, that contemplation which begins with meditation upon 
a few holy subjects. From the contemplation of these few sub- 
jects, the soul in its progress mounts with God's help to one 
thing, the gazing upon God: the soul passes beyond saintly acts 
and ministries and attains the true knowledge of God and feeds 
upon his beauty. 'Mary therefore has chosen the good part, 
which shall not be taken away from her.' Mark the text. When 
he says: c Mary has chosen the good part/ he is silent about 
Martha and seems in no way to blame her. Yet in praising 
Mary, he declares the work of Martha to be lower. Again, when 
he says: 'which shall not be taken away from her/ he shows that 
Martha's part could be taken away from her. To minister to the 
body is a transitory work: to listen to his word is the work of 
eternity." 

9. Germanus and I were deeply disturbed at these words. 
"What/ 3 I said, "shall fasts and reading and works of mercy, 
of righteousness, and of kindness be taken away from us? 
Surely the Lord promises to these works the reward of the king- 
dom of heaven, when he says: 'Come ye blessed of my Father, 
inherit the kingdom prepared for you from the beginning of the 
world. For I was an hungered, and ye gave me to eat: I was 
thirsty and ye gave me to drink/ 5 and the rest? How shall we 
lose these things which open to the doers of them the gates of 
the kingdom of heaven?" 

10. "I did not say/' answered Moses, "that the reward for 
good deeds should be taken away. The Lord said: c Whosoever 
shall give to one of the least of these a cup of cold water only, 
in the name of a disciple, verily I say unto you, he shall not lose 
his reward.' 6 I say that the deed itself, which has to be done 
because of the needs or temptations of the body or the injustice 
of the world, will be taken away. The earnest practice of reading 
or of fasting is only useful to purify the heart and chastise the 
flesh, so long as 'the flesh lusteth against the spirit.* 7 Sometimes 

5 Matt. 25 :34-5. Matt. 10:42, ? Gal. 5:17. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 2OI 

we see that, even in this life, these works are 'taken away 3 men, 
exhausted with austerities or old age, are no longer able to 
perform them. All the more shall they cease in that future life, 
when c this corruptible shall have put on incorruption,' and the 
body which is now *a natural body' shall have risen 'a spiritual 
body' 8 , and the flesh has begun to be transformed so that it no 
longer lusts against the spirit. 

St Paul is plainly referring to this when he says: 'bodily 
exercise is profitable for a little: but godliness' (by which he 
surely means charity) 'is profitable for all things, having the 
promise of the life which now is and of the life to come.' 9 What 
is said to be profitable for a little, cannot be profitable for ever, 
and cannot (of itself) bring a man to the perfect life. 

The phrase Tor a little' might mean one of two things. It 
might mean c for a short time,' since these bodily exercises are 
not going to last as long as the man who practises them. Or it 
might mean 'only of little profit': corporal austerity brings 
the first beginnings of progress, but it does not beget that 
perfect charity which has the promise of this life and the life 
to come. 

We deem these works necessary because without them we 
cannot climb to charity. For what you call works of godliness 
and mercy are necessary for this life where inequality prevails 
among men. But we should not expect to do them unless we 
found the world full of the needy and destitute and infirm 
thanks to the wickedness of greedy men who have seized and 
kept for their use (though they do not use them) the goods 
which God created for all in common. So long as injustice 
prevails in the world, works of mercy are needed and will be 
useful to the man who practises them,, and his godliness and 
good intention will make him an heir of eternal fife. 

But in the world to come, when all men are equal, these 
works will not be needed. There everyone will pass from the 
multiplicity of different good works to the love of God and the 
contemplation of the things of God in an unceasing purity of 
heart. This is the goal which the hermits direct all their efforts 
to win, even in this world. This is why they study to win the 
true knowledge of God and to purify their minds. Though still 
in this corruptible flesh, they seek that state which they will 
find when they lay aside their corruption, and attain to the 
promise of our Lord and Saviour: 'Blessed are the pure in heart: 
for they shall see God.' 10 
8 I Cor. 15 :53 and 44, I Tim. 4:8. 1 Matt. 5 :8. 



2O2 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

11. It is no wonder that these works shall pass away, when 
St Paul asserts that even the loftier gifts of the spirit will pass 
away, and declares that charity alone will abide for ever. 
6 Whether there be prophecies they shall fail: whether there be 
tongues, they shall cease: whether there be knowledge, it shall 
vanish away 5 but 'charity never faileth.' 11 Every other gift is 
granted for our temporal needs and use and in the future king- 
dom will disappear; charity will continue uninterrupted. For 
charity is not only useful to us in this life: it will abide, yet more 
excellently, when we have put aside the burden of this flesh, 
and cleave in spotless purity to God." 

12. Germanus: "Is there any frail mortal who can be im- 
movable in contemplation, and never think about a guest 
arriving, or visiting the sick, or manual labour, or the need to 
show kindness to pilgrims and travellers? Must he not be 
interrupted by the need to eat? 

We should like to know how the mind is capable of clinging 
to God, whom men can neither see nor understand." 

13. Moses: "You are right. A frail mortal cannot contem- 
plate God in such a way that his mind is never drawn aside. 
What is important is knowing where we ought to concentrate 
our mental attention and how to direct the eyes of the soul. 
When the mind succeeds in this, it can be glad. When it fails 
and it fails as often as the mental attention is withdrawn from 
God it can be sorry and feel that this is a fall from the supreme 
good, and think that even a passing lapse in contemplating 
Christ is a sin like adultery. 

Whenever the gaze strays even a little, we should turn back 
the eyes of the heart into the straight line towards him. Every- 
thing depends upon the soul's detachment. If the devil has been 
driven out and sin no longer reigns, then the kingdom of God 
is founded in us. As it is written in the Gospel: The kingdom of 
God cometh not with observation, nor shall they say, Lo here, 
or Lo there: verily I say unto you, that the kingdom of God is 
within you.' 12 The only thing which can be c within us' is know- 
ledge of the truth or ignorance of it, and affection for righteous- 
ness or affection for sin, whereby we prepare our hearts to be a 
kingdom either of Christ or the devil. St Paul described the 
nature of this kingdom thus: Tor the kingdom of God is not 
meat and drink, but righteousness and peace and joy in the 
Holy Spirit. 3 13 If the kingdom of God is within us and the king- 
dom of God is righteousness and peace and joy, then the man 
11 I Gor. 13:8 smd 10. 12 Luke 17:20-1. 13 Rom. 14; 17. 



THE CONFERENCES OF GASSIAN 2O3 

who abides in, these is surely within the kingdom of God; and 
the man who abides in unrighteousness, and conflict, and the 
melancholy that kills the life of the spirit, is already a citizen of 
the devil's kingdom, of hell and of death. These are the signs 
whether it is God's kingdom or the devil's. 

If we lift up pur mind's eye to the condition of heavenly and 
supernatural virtues which are truly in the kingdom of God, 
how shall we imagine it to be anything but a state of continual 
joy? What is so natural in true blessedness as unshakable peace 
of mind and happiness? This is not a mere guess. You have the 
sure authority of the Lord when he disclosed the nature of that 
heavenly kingdom, 'Behold I make a new heaven and a new 
earth: and the former things shall not be remembered nor come 
into the heart. But ye shall be glad and rejoice for ever in my 
creation.' And again: e joy and gladness shall be found therein: 
thanksgiving and the voice of praise, and there shall be month 
after month, and sabbath after sabbath.' And again: 'They shall 
have joy and gladness, sorrow and sighing shall flee away.' And, 
still more clearly, listen to what the Lord himself says of Jeru^ 
salem: C I will make thine officers peace, and thine overseers 
righteousness. Violence shall no more be heard in thy land, nor 
desolation nor destruction within thy borders. Salvation shall 
possess thy walls, and praise shall possess thy gates. The sun 
shall be no more thy light by day, neither shall the brightness 
of the moon give light to thee: but the Lord shall be thine ever- 
lasting light, and thy God thy glory. Thy sun shall no more go 
down, neither shall thy moon withdraw itself: but the Lord 
shall be thine everlasting light, and the days of thy mourning 
shall be ended.' 14 

St Paul does not say simply and without qualification that 
all joy is the kingdom of God, but selectively and specially, joy 
in the Holy Spirit. He knew that there was another kind of joy, 
a joy to be detested. The Scripture refers to this kind of joy in 
texts like 'The world shall rejoice' or 'Woe unto you that laugh, 
for you shall mourn.' 

The kingdom of heaven, then, may be understood in three 
ways. First, the heavens shall reign, which means the rule of the 
saints (as in texts like 'Be thou over five cities, and thou over ten' : 
or the word to the disciples c Ye shall sit upon twelve thrones 
judging the twelve tribes of Israel') : second, that Christ begins 
to reign over the heavens when all creation is subject to God 

ulsa. 65:17-18; 51:3; 66:23; 35 :I o; 60:17-20. 



2O4 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

and he becomes all in all: or third, that the saints shall reign in 
heaven with the Lord* 15 

14. Everyone knows that on earth he shares the ministry 
which the Lord shared during his earthly life. And he doubts 
not that in. the life to come, he will be a companion of the Lord 
whose servant and friend he has in this life chosen to be. The 
Lord himself said: c lf anyone serve me, let him follow me: and 
where I am, there shall my servant also be. 9 16 

A man gains the kingdom of the devil by consenting to sin, 
the kingdom of God by practising goodness in purity of heart 
and in knowledge of the things of the spirit. Wherever the king- 
dom of God is, is life eternal: wherever the kingdom of the devil 
is, is death and hell. 

If a man is in death and hell, he cannot praise the Lord: the 
prophet spake thus: 'The dead shall not praise thee, O Lord: nor 
shall those who go down into hell' (he means, the hell of sin). 
'But we are alive 5 (he means, alive not to sin nor this world, but 
to God) 'and shall bless the Lord from this time forth for ever- 
more. For in death no man remembereth God: and who shall 
confess the Lord in hell?' 17 (again he means the hell of sin). No 
one not even though he call himself a Christian or a monk a 
thousand times over, confesses God while he is sinning, no one 
remembers God while he allows what the Lord hates: it is like 
pretending he is a faithful servant while he takes no notice of 
his master's commands. 

St Paul says of a widow: 'She that giveth herself to pleasure 
is dead while she liveth': 18 and this is the kind of death he 
means. Many men whose bodies are alive are dead and in hell 
and cannot praise God. And many whose bodies are dead, bless 
and praise God together in the spirit 'O ye spirits and souls 
of the righteous, bless ye the Lord,' and 'let every spirit praise 
the Lord. 5 19 In the Apocalypse the souls of the martyrs are 
described as praying to God as well as praising him. In the 
Gospel the Lord said plainly to the Sadducees: 'Have you not 
read the word which God had spoken to you, "I am the God of 
Abraham and the God of Isaac and the God of Jacob? He is the 
God not of the dead but of the living." ' All men live to him. 
And St Paul says: 'God is not ashamed to be called their God: 
for he hath prepared for them a city.' After they have parted 
from their body they can still act and feel, as is evident from the 

is John 16:20; Luke 6:25; Luke 19:17 and 19; Matt. 19:28. 
isjohn 12:26. i? Ps. 115:17-18; 6:5. is I Tim. 5:6. 

i* Dan. 3 :86 LXX; Ps. 150:6. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 205 

parable of Dives and Lazarus, where the poor man went to 
Abraham's bosom, the place of bliss, and the other was con- 
sumed with the agonizing heat of everlasting fire. 

Remember what he said to the thief on the cross: 'Today 
shalt thou be with me in Paradise. 9 20 Surely this means, not 
only that the original understandings remain in souls, but also 
that they enjoy a state proportionate to the goodness or other- 
wise of their deeds? The Lord would never have promised him 
this if he had known that his soul would after its separation from 
the body lose all power of perception or be annihilated. It was 
not his flesh, but his soul, which was to enter Paradise with 
Christ. The heretics have suggested an ungodly punctuation of 
the sentence which we should at all costs disallow and detest. 
Because they do not believe that Christ could be in Paradise on 
the same day on which he descended into hell, they put the 
comma after the word 'today,' and read 'Verily I say unto thee 
today, Thou shalt be with me in Paradise. 3 The aim of this 
punctuation is to suggest that the promise was not fulfilled at 
once, but that it will be fulfilled in the general resurrection. 
These heretics have appealed to a text which they have mis- 
understood the word which he spoke to the Jews who believed 
that he was tied and bound like themselves in the coils of human 
frailty, 'No one hath ascended into heaven, but he who came 
down from heaven, even the Son of man who is in heaven.' 21 

By this text to the penitent thief he shows that the souls of the 
dead do not lose their senses or their affections like hope and 
melancholy, joy and fear, and that they begin to experience a 
foretaste of what they will receive in the Last Judgement: that 
they are not annihilated as some infidels think, but they enjoy 
a fuller life and praise God more ardently. 

Put aside Scriptural evidence for a moment, and consider the 
matter a little by the light, admittedly dim, of human reason. 
Must not the mind be worse than silly nay, worse than de- 
ranged which can even think it possible for the most precious 
part of human nature, that part which, St Paul tells us, is 
formed in the image of God, to lose consciousness in the moment 
when it puts aside the burden of mortal flesh? This is the part 
of the human being which contains the whole power of the 
reasoning faculty, the part which enables the dumb and un- 
perceptive material flesh to perceive and perceive reasonably. 
It follows logically that when the mind has put off the flesh 
which blunts its faculties, it will recreate into fresh strength the 
20 Matt. 22 131-2; Heb. 1 1 : 16; Luke 23 143. 21 John 3 : 13. 



2O6 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

intellectual faculties and, so far from losing them, will find them 
purer and more acute. 

St Paul was so vividly aware of this truth that he wished to 
depart from the flesh and thereby come into closer unity with 
his Lord: *I have a desire to be dissolved and to be with Christ, 
which is far better; for while we are in the body we are absent 
from the Lord.' And therefore c We are bold and have our desire 
always to be absent from the body, and present with the Lord. 
Wherefore also we strive, whether absent or present, to be 
pleasing to him.' He believed with an absolute and confident 
faith that being in the body meant absence from Christ and de- 
parture from the body brought presence with Christ. He spoke 
again, still more openly, about this fuller life of souls in the 
text: 'But ye are come to Mount Sion, and the city of the living 
God, the heavenly Jerusalem, and to an innumerable company 
of angels, and the church of the first born, who are written in 
heaven, and the spirits of just men made perfect.' And again: 
'We have had our earthly fathers and masters, and we revered 
them; shall we not much more be subject to the Father of 
spirits and live?' 22 

15. In many ways we come to contemplate God. We know 
him in worshipping his very being which we cannot fathom, 
the vision which is yet hidden, though it is promised, and for 
which we may hope. We know him in the majesty of his crea- 
tion, in regarding his justice, in apprehending the help we re- 
ceive for our daily lives. We contemplate him when we see what 
he has wrought with his saints in every generation: when we 
feel awe at the mighty power which rules creation, the un- 
measurable knowledge of his eye which sees into the secrets of 
every heart; when we remember that he has counted the 
grains of sand upon the shore and the waves upon the sea and 
the raindrops, that he sees every day and hour through all the 
centuries past and future: when we remember his mercy un- 
imaginable seeing countless sins committed every moment 
and yet bearing them with inexhaustible long-suffering; when 
we contemplate that he has called us by reason of no merit 
which he found in us but simply of his free grace: when we see 
so many opportunities of salvation offered to those whom he is 
going to adopt as his sons: how he caused us to be born in cir- 
cumstances where we might from our cradles receive his grace 
and the knowledge of his law: how he is working to overcome 
the enemy in us, simply for the pleasure of his goodness, and is 
22 Phil. 1 123; II Cor. 5:6; Heb. 12 :s?2-3 and 9. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 

rewarding us with everlasting blessedness: and, finally, how for 
our salvation he was incarnate and made man, and has spread 
his wonderful mysteries among all nations. There are countless 
other contemplations of this kind, which arise in our perceptions 
in proportion to our holiness of life and our purity of heart 
and through which, if our eyes are clean, we see and grasp God. 
No man in whom anything of earthly passion remains can keep 
the vision continually. Thou canst not see my face' said the 
Lord Tor no man shall see me and live' 23 live to this world 
and its desires." 

1 6. Germanus: "How is it that idle thoughts creep into our 
minds when we do not want them or are unaware of them, so 
that it is quite difficult even to understand them, let alone 
drive them away? Is it possible for a mind to avoid delusions 
like this?" 

17. Moses: "Thoughts inevitably besiege the mind. But any 
earnest person has the power to accept or reject them. Their 
origin is in some ways outside ourselves, but whether to choose 
them or not lies within us. 24 But because I said it was impossible 
for thoughts not to come to the mind, you must not put all the 
blame upon the spirits who assault our integrity. Otherwise the 
will of man would not be free, and we could make no effort for 
our own improvement. To a great extent we have the capacity 
to better the sort of thoughts we receive, to let holy thoughts or 
secular thoughts grow into our minds. This is the purpose of 
reading the Bible often and meditating upon it always, to attain 
a higher state of recollectedness: this is the purpose of singing 
psalms often, so that feelings of repentance may be continually 
elicited: this is the purpose of constancy in watchings or fasts or 
prayer, so that the mind, in its weakened body, may care nothing 
for the world but may contemplate the things of heaven. If we 
neglect these, the mind will surely creep back towards squalid 
sin and fall. 

1 8. This movement of the heart may suitably be compared 
to a mill wheel spinning round under power from a waterfall. 
The wheel must revolve so long as the water flows. But the mill 
owner can decide whether to grind wheat or barley or darnel 
and the wheel will crush whatever he chooses. 

So the mind cannot but move hither and thither under the 
impetus of external circumstances and the thoughts which pour 

23 Ex. 33:20. 

24 Reprobatio vel electio lies in our power possibly a sentence glancing at 
St Augustine's theology of grace. 



208 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

in upon it like a torrent. But which thoughts to reject or accept, 
an earnest and careful mind will determine. If we are continu- 
ally meditating upon Holy Scripture and lifting up the mind to 
desire a perfect fife and to hope for a future blessedness, the 
mind cannot help receiving, and dwelling upon, the thoughts of 
the spiritual which thereby arise. If sloth and carelessness 
dominate us, and we spend our time in sinful and idle gossip or 
are busied unnecessarily with the cares of the world, a variety 
of tares will infallibly spring up and minister temptations harm- 
ful to the heart. As our Lord and Saviour said, where our 
treasure is of effort and intention there will our heart 
abide. 25 

19. It is important to distinguish three sources of our 
thoughts: God, the devil, ourselves. 

Thoughts are of God when he illuminates our minds with his 
Holy Spirit, helping us upon our road: or when for our salvation 
he chastens us, and casts us into a mood of repentance that we 
have failed and been idle: or when he opens to us the mysteries 
of heaven, and turns us to choose decisively to amend our lives. 26 

Thoughts are of the devil, when he tries to make us fall by 
holding before us the pleasure of sin; by making bad appear 
good, or transforming himself into an angel of light. 27 

Thoughts are of ourselves when, as normally, we remember 
what we are doing, or have done, or have been told. 28 

25 Gf. Matt. 6:21. 

2 "Examples from the Bible: When Kong Ahasuerus was chastened by the 
Lord, he was stirred to ask for the books of the annals, and so remembered 
the services of Mordecai, rewarded him with the highest rank, and re- 
voked his bloody order to kill the Jews, The prophet says: 'I will hearken 
what the Lord God shall speak within me* (Ps. 85 : 8); another prophet 
says: 'An angel uttered, speaking within me' (Zech. i : 14); the Son of 
God promised that he will come with his Father and dwell among us, 
(cf. John 14:23): 'It is not you that speak, but the spirit of your Father 
who speaks within you 9 (Matt. 10 : 20) ; and St Paul: 'You seek a proof of 
Christ, who speaks in me* (II Cor. 13 :3)." 

27 "The Evangelist notices it: 'And after supper was ended, when the devil 
had already put it into the heart of Judas Iscariot, Simon's son, to betray 
the Lord'; and 'after the sop, Satan entered with him 1 (John 13:2 and 27) . 
Peter said to Ananias: 'Satan has tempted thee in thy heart, to lie to the 
Holy Spirit 9 (Acts 5:3). Compare what we read much earlier in the 
Gospel, in Eccl. (10:4): 'If the spirit ascend upon thee with power, leave 
not thy place.' (This description of Ecclesiastes as in evangelio caused 
much perturbation to the copyists.) In the third book of Kings, it is said 
to God against Ahab in the character of an unclean spirit 'I will go 
forth and will be a lying spirit in the mouth of all his prophets' (I Kings 
22:22)." 

28 "Examples: David said: *I thought upon the ancient days, and had in 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 2Og 

20. We ought always to remember that thoughts may arise 
in these three different ways, and try to determine discreetly 
the source and the author of the thoughts we find. This judge- 
ment upon their author enables us to consider how we ought to 
behave towards them, and so become, what the Lord com- 
manded us to be, 'good money-changers. 3 29 The highest skill of 
a money-changer consists partly in testing when the gold coin 
is unadulterated and, as they commonly say, e of true alloy/ 
and when it is not sufficiently purified by the fire; and partly 
in not being deceived by a cheap brass penny if it is fabricated 
to glitter like gold. They have to recognize coins stamped with 
the heads of usurpers; and in spite of the greater difficulty, to 
determine which coins bear the head of the legal emperor and 
yet have been illegally minted: and finally, they have to use 
scales to discover whether the legal coins have lost anything of 
their proper weight. 

The Gospel text, by using this simile, tells us what we ought 
to do in the life of the spirit. 

First, whatever doctrine enters the heart, we have to examine 
it to see whether it is of God and purified in the Holy Spirit's 
fire, or whether it belongs to the false religion of the Jews or 
arises from the intellectual pride of a secular philosophy and is 
making a mere outward show of piety. We must fulfil the pre- 
cept of the apostle: 'Believe not every spirit, but prove the spirits 
whether they are of God.' 30 

This first test is failed by men who become monks and then 
are drawn by the grace of style, or by philosophical teachings 
which have an apparent meaning consonant with religion and 
attractive to religious men, like cheap brass coins manufactured 
to resemble gold and so impoverishing their cheated owners for 
ever: they entice them away again to the world's clangour or to 
the bombast of heretical thought. We read in the book ofjoshua 
that this happened to Achor, who coveted and stole a golden 
weight from the camp of the Philistines, and was smitten with a 
curse and condemned to suffer an eternal death. 

mind the years of old, and I meditated, by night I exercised myself with 
my heart, and searched out my spirit' (Ps. 77:6-7, LXX). Again, 'The 
Lord knoweth the thoughts of man, that they are but vain.' (Ps. 94 : 1 1) : 
and 'the thoughts of the righteous are judgements' (Prov. 12 15). In the 
Gospel the Lord said to the Pharisees: 'Why do you think evil in your 
hearts?' (Matt. 9:4)." 

29 A saying found nowhere in the Gospels, but commonly reported among 
the early Fathers. 

30 I John 4: i. 



2IO WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Secondly, we should take care that no faulty interpretation, 
mixed with the pure gold of Scripture, should delude us about 
the value of the money. Wily Satan tried to impose thus upon 
our Lord and Saviour Hke any ordinary man. With an evil 
motive, he interpreted a text about the guardian angels, which 
applies generally to all men, as though it possessed a special 
application to him who needed no guardian angels: Tor he 
shall give his angels charge concerning thee, to keep thee in all 
thy ways: and in their hands they shall bear thee up, lest at any 
time thou dash thy foot against a stone. 3 31 By some skilful as- 
sumption he twists and turns the precious text of Scripture into 
a meaning harmful and contrary to the true meaning, like a coin 
which seems to be gold but is stamped with the usurper's head. 

Sometimes he tries to cheat us with counterfeits, by sug- 
gesting that we ought to undertake some good work a work 
which apparently leads towards virtue, but which would not be 
approved by our elders and in fact leads to sin. Sometimes he 
suggests excessive or impossible fasts, too long vigils, too many 
prayers, unsuitable reading, and so brings us to a bad end. 
Sometimes he persuades us to go visiting for good and religious 
purposes, and so extracts us from our spirit-filled cloisters and 
our quiet and friendly retirement. Or he persuades us to under- 
take the charge of nuns or of pauper women, and so entangles 
us in the anxieties which destroy a spiritual life. Sometimes on 
a plea of building the faith of many and winning souls for 
religion, he incites us to want to be ordained, and so snatches 
us from the humility and the discipline of our way of life. 

All these courses of action deceive the unwary by appearing 
to be merciful and pious; they are contrary to our salvation and 
our profession. They are like coins which imitate the coins of 
the true emperor, but have not been coined by the legal mint. 
Though at first they seem full of piety, they have not been 
coined by approved and Catholic Fathers, but have been manu- 
factured in secret and bring loss to the ignoramuses who accept 
them unawares. However useful and needful they seem to be at 
the moment, later they begin to undermine the solidity of our 
religious profession and to weaken (so to say) the whole body 
of our purpose. Then it is best that they be amputated like a 
right hand or foot, which we need, yet which causes us to 
stumble. Better it is to leave behind one limb if by so doing we 
may keep the other parts of the body healthy and active, and so 
be able to limp into the kingdom of heaven, than to try to take 
31 Matt. 4:6. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 211 

the whole body with us and stumble on the way. To be parted 
from our strict rule may lead to a loss which can never be com- 
pensated by future results and which would cause all the best 
fruits of our labour to be destroyed in hell-fire. 32 

21. Not long ago we heard that Abba John, who lives at 
Lycopolis, was deluded in this way. He had put off taking food 
for two days and had exhausted his body. And when at last he 
sat down to eat, the devil came to him in the shape of a hideous 
negro, and fell at his feet saying: 'Forgive me for making you 
undertake this labour.' John, who possessed a perfect judgement, 
understood that on the pretext of an abstinence unsuitably 
practised, the devil had cheated him and forced him into a 
useless fatigue of body, and worse, a fatigue which would harm 
the spirit. Here he was cheated by a forged coin: he respected 
the face of the true emperor imprinted upon it, but failed to 
examine carefully enough whether it was legally struck. 

The final duty of a good money-changer is to check the 
weight. Whenever we find a particular course of action sug- 
gested, we weigh it, with a judgement as careful and as balanced 
as possible, to determine whether it is a course of common 
honesty, whether it can be done soberly and in the fear of God, 
whether it is the course of integrity; or whether it is short weight 
like a dud coin, a trivial piece of ostentation or conceit or love 
of novelty. We weigh it in the public scales, that is, test it by the 
acts and teachings of the apostles and prophets: and then either 
keep it as true and genuine and authorized by those authorities, 
or else carefully throw it away as debased and of an inadequate 
and unauthorized weight. 

22. We need, then, the power of discrimination for four pur- 
poses: 

First, to know whether the metal is genuine or painted. 

Secondly, to reject as forgeries (because bearing the illegally 
stamped head of the legal emperor) ideas which falsely suggest 
works of piety. 

Thirdly, to detect the coins which are stamped with the 
usurper's head, the perversion of the precious gold of Scripture 
by untrue and heretical interpretations. 

32 "Proverbs expresses this sort of illusion powerfully: 'There are ways which 
seem to be right to a man, but their latter end will come into the depths 
of hell/ and 'An evil man is harmful when he attaches himself to a good 
man' which means that the devil deceives when he puts on a cloak of 
sanctity. 'But he hates the sound of the watchman/ which means the 
power of discretion which comes from the advice of the Elders. (Prov. 
i6:25 3 LXX; ii:i 



212 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Fourthly, to reject the coins which are light-weight, corroded 
by vanity, coins which cannot pass the test when weighed in the 
scales of the fathers. 

Without this discrimination we might lose the reward of all 
our labour, by disobeying the command which our Lord warned 
us to do all we could to observe 'Lay not up for yourselves 
treasure on the earth, where rust and moth corrupt, and where 
thieves break through and steal.' 33 To do anything with the 
aim of increasing our reputation is to lay up treasure on earth; 
to hide it, and bury it where demons will eat it, vanity will 
corrode it like rust, pride will ruin it like moths: and the man 
who hid it will gain nothing from it. 

We should ever examine the inner sanctuary of the heart, 
and track down whatever comes into it perhaps a snake or 
lion has crept into the mental fastness through the undergrowth 
and has left a spoor which other beasts could follow, if we were 
heedless. It is as though we were always to be ploughing up the 
ground of the heart. The plough is the constant recollection of 
the Lord's cross: and by its means we shall exterminate the rats 
and vipers which have made their habitations in our field." 

23. Seeing our surprise and earnestness at his words, he 
stopped his discourse out of respect and was silent for a little. 
Then he added: "Your eagerness has provoked me to talk at 
length, my sons; it struck a spark which kindled me into flame. 
I see that you thirst for the teaching which leads to a perfect 
life. I still want to say a little more about the virtue of a bal- 
anced judgement, 'discretion,' a grace which guards the keep in 
the Castle of All Virtues, and to give you practical examples of 
its value and the opinions of the old fathers about it. I remember 
how often people have importuned me, even to tears, to talk 
on this subject, and how although I longed to satisfy them, I 
could not I felt nothing, had nothing to say, and could not 
even send them away with a little word of comfort. This is a 
clear sign that the Lord gives a man grace of speech in pro- 
portion to the sincerity with which his audience wishes to hear 
him. 

Only a little of the night remains, not enough to finish the 
subject. Let us therefore go to rest* If we do not take a little 
rest now we shall later have to sleep all night long. Let us keep 
the remainder of our talk for another day or night. The best 
counsellors on the subject of 'discretion,' ought to start by 
displaying the virtue in their own conduct and not fall into its 
33 Matt. 6:19. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 213 

opposite by talking too long, and so contradicting what they 
preach by their practice. Though I still mean to talk about the 
virtue of 'discretion,' so far as the Lord gives me power, it will 
be a fundamental advantage if I am not so busy praising the 
excellence of moderation that I go on talking immoderately." 



So Moses put an end to the Conference, though we were still 
greedy for more. He encouraged us to sleep for a short time, 
suggesting that we should lie down on the mats on which we 
were sitting and use our bundles for pillows. These bundles are 
made of thick papyrus leaves evenly tied together into long, 
slender bales six feet in length. Sometimes the brothers use 
them at the daily service instead of a low stool, sometimes as 
pillows, for they are quite soft and comfortable. They are 
thought particularly suitable for use by the monks because, 
though they are reasonably soft, they are cheap and easy to 
make: papyrus grows everywhere on the banks of the Nile, and 
the material is flexible and easily utilized. 

We obeyed the old man's command to go to sleep though we 
thought it tiresome, for we were still excited and delighted by 
his conference, and were looking forward to continue the talk. 



[The next morning Moses resumed his talk. He described 
"discretion" as the greatest gift of God's grace. St Antony had 
taught that it was the mistress of virtues because without it the 
virtues could end in ruin. Discretion teaches the monk to avoid 
excess on either hand and ever to walk the king's highway. 
Herein lies the wisdom without which the inward house cannot 
be built. Discretion is the mother of virtues, as well as their 
guardian and regulator. 

Moses gave examples of destruction through lack of dis- 
cretion too rigorous solitude, too rigorous abstinence, too 
much faith in visions. 

Germanus asked how to gain discretion, and so become good 
"money-changers." 

Moses replied that true discretion is gained by true humility. 
And the first proof of humility is to reserve everything (even the 
thoughts) to the judgement of the elders. A wrong thought is 
enfeebled the moment it is confessed. There is nothing so liable 
to cause a fall as leaving the advice of the elders and experi- 
menting with untried methods. 



1214 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Discretion is to be found, not in all old men, but in those 
old men known to have lived a religious life when young. 

Practically, Moses insisted upon (i) the importance of dis- 
closing thoughts to the Elders and receiving discretion from 
them, and (2) the need for moderation in fasting and vigils, 
excessive abstinence being as weakening to the soul as no 
abstinence.] 

CONFERENCE 9 

The First Conference of Abba Isaac 

ON PRAYER 

1. If the Lord gives his blessing, these Conferences of Abba 
Isaac will keep the promise to write about unceasing prayer, 
which I made in the second book of the Institutes. When I have 
completed these, I believe I shall have fulfilled the duty which 
Bishop Castor of blessed memory laid upon me, as well as your 
request, Bishop Leontius and brother Helladius. First, you will 
forgive the length of the book. I tried to compress and to omit 
much, but still it is longer than I planned. That is why I leave 
out much of blessed Isaac's talk about various monastic teach- 
ings and proceed to the latter part of his discourse. 

2. Isaac: fe Every monJk (who looks for the perfect way) aims 
at uninterrupted prayerfulness. As far as is possible to a frail 
man, he struggles for imperturbable peace and purity of mind. 
This is the reason why we try so unwearyingly to practise the 
different disciplines of the body and the spirit. The discipline 
of the body and spirit on the one side, and unceasing prayer- 
fulness on the other, cannot help having a mutual effect upon 
each other. The keystone in the arch of all virtues is perfect 
prayer, and without this keystone the archway becomes rickety 
and insecure. Conversely, without the virtues no one can attain 
the continual serenity of prayerfulness which I am discussing. 
Therefore, I cannot rightly and shortly treat of the effect and 
chief object of prayer (which is perfected in the truly virtuous 
life), unless first I treat systematically the way of avoiding sin 
and attaining goodness. As the Gospel parable teaches, the man 
who is going to build a tower first takes care to estimate and 
assemble his materials. But it is impossible to build a fine tower 
upon this prepared material unless the ground is cleared of 
rotten or dead rubbish and the foundations are built in firm 
(or 'lively' as they say) soil or on rock. So it is in the realm of the 
spirit. To build a tower of the spirit, you must clear the soul of 
its sins and passions, and build firm foundations of simplicity 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 215 

and humility upon the Gospel: this is the only way the tower 
can rise unshakable, as high as heaven. Then, though the 
tempests of passion be poured down upon it, though the floods 
of persecution beat upon it like battering-rams, though the 
storm of hostile spirits blows upon it, it shall still stand, and 
stand undamaged. 

3, No one can offer prayer of a proper intensity and sincerity, 
unless he is seeking to live thus: first, there must be no anxiety 
about the bodily needs not only no worry about a piece of busi- 
ness, but not even the recollection of it: no detraction: no gossip: 
above all, no anger nor wrongful sorrow, for these cannot 
but disturb the spirit: no lust of the flesh: no love of money. 

By clearing the ground weeding out these and other public 
sins a man makes his life pure, and attains the state of sim- 
plicity and innocence. Then he must lay a foundation deep 
enough to support a tower that will reach to heaven: and the 
only foundation deep and strong enough is humility. 

The lower storeys of the building are the other virtues. The 
soul should be kept from wandering abroad, and then, little by 
little, will begin to lift its eyes to contemplate God. 

Whatever the mind has been thinking about before it prays 
will certainly come to it while it is praying. Therefore, before 
we begin to pray, we ought to be trying to be the kind of people 
whom we wish God to find when we pray. The mind is condi- 
tioned by its recent state. In prayer, the mind remembers recent 
acts or thoughts or experiences, sees them dancing before it like 
ghosts. And this annoys us, or depresses us, or reminds us of 
past lust or past worry, or makes us (I am ashamed to say) 
laugh like fools at some absurd joke or circumstance, or go over 
again some recent conversation. Whatever we do not want to 
creep into our time of prayer, we must try to keep out of the 
heart when we are not praying. 

St Paul's words were: Tray without ceasing, 3 and c ln every 
place lifting up pure hands without wrath or controversy.' 34 
To obey this is impossible, unless the mind is purified from sin, 
is given to virtue as its natural good, and is continually 
nourished by the contemplation of God. 

4, There is a good comparison between the soul and a deli- 
cate little feather. If a feather has not been touched by damp, it 
is so light that the slightest breath of wind can puff it high into 
the air. But if even a little damp has weighed it down, it cannot 
float, and falls straight to the ground. In the same way the 
34 I Thess. 5:17;! Tim. a :8. 



2l6 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

mind 3 if not burdened by sin and the cares of daily life and evil 
passion, has a natural purity which lifts it from earth to heaven 
at the least breath of a meditation upon the invisible things of 
the spirit. The Lord's command is sufficient warning Take 
heed that your hearts be not weighed down by surfeiting and 
drunkenness and the cares of this world.' 35 So if we want our 
prayers to reach the sky and beyond the sky, we must make sure 
that the mind is so unburdened by the weights of sin and pas- 
sion as to be restored to its natural buoyancy. Then the prayer 
will rise to God. 

5. Yet we should notice the weights of the mind which the 
Lord selected. He did not mention adultery, fornication, 
murder, blasphemy, theft, which everyone knows to be damn- 
able sins. He mentioned 'surfeiting and drunkenness and the 
cares of this world 5 : faults which worldly men do not take 
trouble to avoid, nor consider damnable, and which (shameful 
though it is) some people who call themselves monks think 
harmless or profitable. 

Though these three sins, literally committed, weigh down the 
soul to the earthy, and separate it from God, they are easily 
avoidable: especially by people like ourselves who are a long way 
from ordinary life and have absolutely no opportunity to engage 
in literal overeating or drunkenness or worldly business. But 
even though we have given away all our property; even though 
we have not feasted, have not drunk wine; even though we have 
been living in a hermit's cell there is another kind of over- 
eating and drinking and anxiety about the world, a spiritual 
kind which is just as dangerous, is harder to avoid, and which 
frequently traps us. 36 The heart soiled with sin and passion will 
be a heart weighted by this drunkenness of the spirit. And anxi- 
eties can still afflict us, even though we are not engaged in 
worldly business. That is proved by the elders' rule that any 
food which is more than 'unavoidable, necessary, and ordinary' 
diet must be regarded as 'worldly anxiety.' 

For example: suppose that a job with a wage of a shilling 

35 Luke 21:34. 

36 "Cf. the prophet (Joel 1 15, LXX) 'Awake, ye that are drunk, but not 
with wine': and another, 'Be astonished and wonder and stagger: be 
drunk, and not with wine: be moved, and not with drunkenness* (Isa. 
29 :g) : so the wine of this 'drunkenness' must be what the prophet calls 
'the fury of dragons': see the roots from which this vine is growing. 'From 
the vineyard of Sodom is their vine, and their branches of Gomorrah': 
for the fruit and seed, of the text 'their grape is a grape of gall, theirs is a 
cluster of bitterness' (Deut. 32 :$$ and 32, LXX)." 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 2iy 

would satisfy our needs, and we try to work longer hours for two 
or three shillings: or suppose that two tunics are sufficient, one 
for the night and one for the day, yet we become owners of 
three or four; or suppose a hut of one or two rooms would be 
adequate, yet we build four or five rooms, and these larger and 
better decorated than we need then we are moved by secular 
pleasure and desire, and are letting worldly passion reign, so far 
as is possible for people in our situation. 

6. We have practical proof that this happens by the prompt- 
ing of devils. One day an elder of repute was passing by the cell 
of a brother who "was suffering from this disease of the soul and 
used to sweat to build and repair buildings which he did not 
need. From a distance the elder watched him breaking up a 
rock with a heavy hammer. And he saw a negro standing 
beside him, putting his hands on the hammer and inciting him 
to work harder. For a long time the elder stood there, marvel- 
ling at the terrible appearances of the demon, astonished that 
the monk could thus be deceived. For when the monk was 
exceeding weary and wanted to stop work and rest, he was in- 
cited by the demon to pick up his hammer again and go on. 
And he was so buoyed up that he did not feel the harm which 
this overwork was doing him. In the end the elder, disturbed by 
this horrible, satanic, jest, turned aside to the monk's cell, 
greeted him, and asked: 'What are you doing, my brother?' He 
replied: 'We are working at this exceedingly hard rock, which 
we can hardly break at all.' The elder said: 'You are right in 
saying we can't. You were not alone when you hit it, but an un- 
seen person was standing by you, driving you on to hit harder.' 

In this way it is no proof that our hearts are not plagued with 
ambition, if we abstain from worldly occupations in which we 
could not engage even if we wanted; nor if we despise what 
would, if we achieved them, render us notorious among worldly 
men as well as religious men: but only if we eschew everything 
which ministers to our own power, even when it seems to be 
clothed in a garment of right. 

Truly these things which seem trivial, or which we see other 
monks allow without a qualm, weigh the mind down more in 
proportion than the bigger things which normally and in their 
measure intoxicate the senses of worldly men. For they prevent 
the monk from leaving the earthly mind behind and concen- 
trating his due attention upon God: and even a little parting 
from that supreme good must be regarded as an approach to 
destruction. 



2l8 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

When the mind is freed from lust, established in tranquillity, 
and does not waver in its intention towards the one supreme 
good, the monk will fulfil the precept of St Paul, Pray without 
ceasing,' and c ln every place lifting up holy hands without 
wrath and controversy/ 37 By purity of heart (so to say) the 
mind is abstracted from earthly feelings and is re-formed in the 
likeness of an angelic spirit. Then, whatever thought the mind 
receives, whatever it considers, whatever it does, will be a 
prayer of true purity and sincerity." 

7. Germanus: "I would I could keep the thoughts of the 
things of the spirit as easily as I can conceive their first begin- 
nings! I conceive them in my heart through remembering the 
Scripture or through recollecting spiritual acts or through an 
intuition of the heavenly mysteries; and then they vanish all too 
soon; though how, I do not know. And when the mind has 
found some other opportunity of spiritual experience, other 
thoughts crowd in upon us and scatter the thoughts we had 
grasped. The mind has no perseverance, no stable control of its 
thoughts; even when it does seem to retain them for a while, I 
believe it happens unintentionally. And if the retention of a 
thought is not in my power, why should I think the origin of 
that thought to be so? 

But this is a digression. We ought to keep to the plan of your 
discourse, in order not to delay any further your exposition of 
the nature of prayer. Leaving this question to its proper place, I 
ask you to tell us at once the nature of prayer, particularly in 
the light of St PauPs command to 'pray without ceasing/ By 
'nature of prayer/ I would like first to know what sort of prayer 
it is that ought always to be offered: and secondly, how we can 
offer this prayer whatever it is. Your explanation confirms our 
ordinary experience that this cannot be done by any light pur- 
pose of heart. For you have defined the goal of the monks, the 
summit of his moral ascent, to consist in perfect prayer." 

8. Isaac: "I imagine that no variety of prayer can be appre- 
hended fully without great purity of heart and soul, and the 
illumination of the Holy Spirit. There are as many kinds of 
prayer as there are different states of soul, as many kinds of 
prayer as there are souls. Although I know that my dull heart 
prevents me from experiencing all kinds of prayer, yet so far as 
my slender experience allows, I shall try to go through them in 
order. 

According to the progress of the mind in purity, the state in 
37lThess. 5:17; I Tim. 2:8. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 2IQ 

which its response to circumstance and its own effort have 
placed it, its prayers will vary from moment to moment. It is 
therefore certain that no one can go on sending up a prayer 
which never changes. A man prays in one way when he is lively; 
in another when he is weighed down with melancholy or des- 
pair; another when he is heartened by success; another when he 
seeks absolution; another when he asks for increase of grace or a 
special virtue or the removal of a special sin; another when, he 
is stricken with fear at the prospect of hell and the judgement to 
come; another when he is longing for the future good; another 
in need and danger; another in peace and serenity; another 
when he is enlightened by some revelation of heavenly mys- 
teries; another when he is oppressed by sensations of dryness and 
barrenness. 

9. I have spoken on the states of prayer, not as much as the 
subject needs, but as much as the time and my scant abilities 
warrant. Now I am faced with a greater difficulty: to expound 
the four kinds of prayer which St Paul mentioned: *I exhort 
therefore first of all that supplications, prayers, intercessions, 
thanksgivings, be made.' 38 We cannot suppose that St Paul 
made this fourfold distinction without good reason. 

First we must investigate what he meant by the different 
words he used, supplication, prayer, intercession, thanksgiving. Then 
we must ask, are they to be used simultaneously? Do they enter 
into every prayer which is offered, or are they to be offered in 
turn? If in turn, are they to be offered by the same man at 
different times, or should one man offer supplications, another 
prayers, another intercessions, another thanksgivings, in accord- 
ance with his state of life and spiritual progress? 

10. First, then, I must consider the meaning of the words, 
and the difference between them: secondly, whether they are to 
be offered separately or simultaneously: thirdly, whether St 
Paul arranged this order with a view to teaching the hearer 
something further, or whether he put them in this order without 
a particular reason. This last suggestion seems to me obviously 
absurd. I cannot believe that the Holy Spirit uttered anything 
through the apostle without meaning something by it. 

So I begin in the order I have said, and trust in the Lord's 
help. 

1 1 . C I exhort therefore first of all that supplications be made.' 
'Supplication' is a beseeching or petition for sins. In it a person, 
repentant for his present or past sins, asks for pardon. 

38 1 Tim. a: i. 



22O WESTERN ASCETICISM 

12. 'Prayers' arc those by which we offer a vow to God. In 
Greek it is called Euche, which is the synonym of vow.* 9 

We pray in this way, when we renounce the world and vow 
to mortify every act and earthly relation and to serve God with 
the whole heart. We pray, when we promise to despise secular 
honours and wealth, and follow the Lord with contrite heart 
and poverty of spirit. We pray, when we promise to be chaste in 
body, and to suffer unwearyingly; or when we vow to tear from 
the heart the roots of anger or the sorrow that brings spiritual 
death. If we are guilty of sloth, if we fall again to our old sins, 
we shall be before the judgement seat about our prayers and 
vows, and it will be said of us c lt is better not to vow, than to 
vow and not to pay' : or, as it is in Greek 'It is better for thee not 
to pray, than to pray and not to pay.' 

13. The third kind, intercession, is customarily offered, in 
moments of fervour, for other men and women our family, the 
peace of the world. To use St Paul's words, we pray Tor all men, 
for kings, and all in authority.' 40 

14. The fourth kind, thanksgiving, is when the mind recol- 
lects what God has done or is doing, or looks forward to the good 
which he has prepared for them that love him, and so offers its 
gratitude in an indescribable transport of spirit. Sometimes it 
offers still deeper prayers of this sort; when the soul contem- 
plates in singleness of heart the reward of the saints and so is 
moved in its happiness to pour forth a wordless thanksgiving. 

15. From each of these four kinds rise other opportunities of 
richer prayer. Whether the prayer is expressing repentance, or 
is pledging the heart in the confident trust of a pure conscience, 
or is expressing the intercessions which spring from a charitable 
heart, or is rendering thanks in the sight of the great and loving 
gifts of God we have known prayers dart up like sparks from 
a fire. It is therefore clear that all men need to use all four 
kinds. The same person according to his diversity of affective 
states will use prayers of repentance or offering or intercession 
or thanksgiving. 

Nevertheless, the first kind seems particularly suitable to 
beginners, who are still smarting under the recollection of their 
sins. The second kind seems particularly suitable to people who 

39 "Where we read in Greek Tas euchas mou Toi Kynoi apodoso; in Latin we 
read: 'I will pay my vows unto the Lord.' Gf. the text of Eccl. 5 : 3-4, 'If 
thou vowest a vow unto the Lord, do not delay to pay it' which is written 
in Greek, *if thou prayest a prayer unto the Lord, do not delay to pay 

40 I Tim. 2 : 1-2. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 221 

have already attained a certain progress towards goodness. 
Intercession seems particularly suitable to people who are ful- 
filling the pledges of self-offering which they made, see the 
frailty of others, and are moved by charity to intercede for 
them. Thanksgiving seems particularly suitable for those who 
have torn out of their hearts the sins which pricked their con- 
science and are at last free from fear of falling again: and then, 
recollecting the generosity and the mercy of the Lord, past or 
present or future, are rapt away into that spark-like prayer 
which no mortal can understand or describe. 

Yet sometimes the mind which is advancing to the true state 
of purity and has begun to be rooted in it, can conceive all these 
kinds of prayer in a single action; it cannot be understood, but 
may be compared to the leaping of a flame. It consists of a 
powerful and wordless pouring forth of prayer to God, which the 
spirit, with groanings that cannot be uttered, sends up though 
not conscious of its content. In that moment it conceives and 
puts forth what no one can describe, and which the mind apart 
from that moment cannot remember. 

So it happens that, whatever state of life a man has reached, 
he sometimes can offer pure and devout prayer. Even in the 
lowliest place where a man is repenting from fear of punishment 
and the judgement to come, his 'supplications' can enrich him 
with the same ardour of spirit as the man who has attained to 
purity of heart, gazes upon God's blessing, and is filled with an 
ineffable happiness. As the Lord said, he begins to love the more, 
who knows he has been forgiven the more. 41 

1 6. Yet, in progress towards goodness, we ought to aim at 
those kinds of prayer which are offered from the vision of future 
good or from charity or at least (to speak in a way more 
appropriate for beginners) which are directed to acquiring a 
virtue or eradicating a sin. We cannot attain the higher kinds 
of prayer unless our mind has little by little been elevated by an 
advance in the sort of petition which it offers. 

17. The Lord himself deigned to be the author, by his 
example, of these four kinds of prayer in this, too, is fulfilled 
the text: 'the things which Jesus began both to do and teach/ 
He used supplication when he said: 'Father, if it be possible, let 
this cup pass from me 9 : or, as is sung in his person by the 
Psalmist: 'My God my God look upon me; why hast thou for- 
saken me? 5 and texts like these. He used prayer when he said: 'I 
have magnified thee upon the earth, I have finished the work 
4i Gf. Luke 7 147. 



222 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

which thou gavest me to do': and Tor their sakes I sanctify 
myself, that they also may be sanctified in the truth. 9 He used 
intercession when he said: 'Father, those whom thou hast given 
me, I will that they also may be with me, that they may see my 
glory which thou hast given me 9 : and Tather, forgive them, for 
they know not what they do. 9 He used thanksgiving when he said: 
C I confess to thee, Father, Lord of heaven and earth, that thou 
hast hid these things from the wise and prudent, and hast re- 
vealed them unto babes. Even so, Father: for so it seemed 
good in thy sight 9 : and Tather, I thank thee that thou hast 
heard me. But I knew that thou hearest me always. 9 42 

Although he used these four kinds separately and at different 
times, accommodating himself to the measure that we under- 
stand, he showed that in a perfect prayer they can be offered 
simultaneously; in the long prayer which he offered and which 
we read at the end of St John's Gospel. The text is too long to 
insert here: but the careful reader will find this to be so. St 
Paul in the Epi$tle to the Philippians said the same, though 
slightly changing the arrangement, and showed that they ought 
sometimes to be offered altogether in one ardent offering 'In 
everything by prayer and supplication with thanksgiving, let 
your requests be made known to God. 9 43 Here he particularly 
wanted to teach us that even in prayers of penitence and self- 
offering, thanksgiving should not be absent. 

1 8. Out of these four kinds of prayer rises the loftier state of 
prayer, formed by the contemplation of God alone and by a 
charity that burns like fire. Here the mind throws itself into love 
for God and converses familiarly with him as with its own 
Father. The first words of the Lord's Prayer, 'Our Father 5 teach 
us to strive for this state. When we confess the God and Lord of 
all Creation to be our Father, we confess that we have been 
called from a state of slavery to the state of adopted sons. 

'Who art in heaven': we pray that we may shrink from the 
earthly life, in which we live as pilgrims, and which divides us 
so far frpm our Father, and may long for that country where we 
know him to dwell; that we may avoid everything unworthy of 
our sonship, everything that might deprive us of our inheritance 
and make us liable to his severity. In this loving state of son- 
ship, we shall direct our minds to our Father's glory instead of 
our own interests; thus: 

42 Acts 1:1; Matt. 26:39; Ps. 29:1; John 17:4, 19 and 24; Luke 23:34; 

Matt. 1 1 : 25-6; John 1 1 14 1-2. 
Phil. 4:6. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 223 

'Hallowed be thy name' : we declare that our desire and our 
joy is his glory: and in this we imitate our Lord who said: e He 
who speaketh for himself, seeketh his own glory. But he who 
seeketh the glory of him who sent him, the same is true and there 
is no unrighteousness in him. 9 44 This was St Paul the chosen 
vessel's feeling when he wished that he could be accursed of 
Christ if only Christ's family might be multiplied, and the 
people of Israel be saved to God's glory. The man who knows 
that death is not the end is confident in his wish to die for Christ. 
Again, c We rejoice when we are weak but ye are strong.' 45 It 
is no wonder if St Paul, for the glory of Christ and the conversion 
of his brother-Jews and of the Gentiles, should want to be 
accursed of Christ, when even the prophet Micah wanted to 
be a liar and to lose the inspiration of the Holy Spirit if the Jews 
could escape the punishment and destruction which he had 
prophesied 'Would that I were not a man that hath the Spirit, 
and that I rather spoke a lie.' And there was the case of the 
lawgiver, Moses, who did not refuse to perish with his brothers 
who were doomed to die, but said: e l beseech thee, O Lord, 
this people hath sinned a heinous sin; either forgive them this 
trespass, or, if thou do not, blot me out of thy book which thou 
hast written.' 46 

'Hallowed be thy name' may appropriately be taken thus: 
the hallowing of God is our own sanctity. So when we pray this 
prayer, we are saying: 'Make me the kind of person worthy to 
understand and take thy great holiness to myself; make my 
spiritual life such that in it thou canst be seen to be hallowed/ 
This is what happens when men 'see our good works and glorify 
our Father who is in heaven.' 47 

19. 'Thy kingdom come' the second petition of a pure 
heart, that the Father's kingdom may come at once. There is a 
present kingdom, where now Christ reigns with his saints: and 
in us this comes to pass when we eradicate wickedness and cast 
the devil's rule from our hearts, and God begins to rule in us, in 
fragrant goodness, in chastity instead of adultery, in serenity 
instead of rage, in humility instead of pride. And there is a future 
kingdom, which is promised in due time to all the perfect, to all 
the children of God, when Christ shall tell them: e Come, ye 
blessed of my Father, inherit the kingdom prepared for you from 
the beginning of the. world.' To this kingdom the soul turns its 
gaze and its desires, and prays 'Thy kingdom come.' By the 

44 John 7 : 18. 45 II Cor. 13:9. 

46 Micah 2 : 1 1 ; Ex. 32 : 3 1-2. 4 ? Matt. 5:16. 



224 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

witness of its conscience, the soul knows that when he sha] 
appear, it will share his glory. No guilty person would dare t< 
want or pray 'Thy kingdom come 5 : for no guilty person woul< 
want to face the tribunal of the Judge, knowing that at hi 
coining he would receive prompt and condign punishmen 
instead of reward. 

20. 'Thy will be done on earth, as it is in heaven' : a petition 
of sons. There can be no greater prayer than the prayer tha 
earth may be like heaven. To pray "Thy will be done in earth 
as it is in heaven' is to pray that men may be like angels, tha 
as angels fulfil God's will in heaven, men may fulfil his will 
instead of their own, on earth. No one can say this sincerel 
except one who believes that every circumstance, favourable o 
unfavourable, is designed by God's providence for his good, ant 
that he thinks and cares more for the good of his people an< 
their salvation than we do for ourselves. It may be understoo< 
thus: the will of God is the salvation of all men, according t 
that text of St Paul: 'who willeth all men to be saved and t< 
come to the knowledge of the truth.' 48 It is of this saving wil 
that Isaiah speaks in the name of God the Father, 'And all nr 
will shall be done.' When we pray: 'Thy will be done in earth 
as it is in heaven,' we are praying in other words that all th 
dwellers upon earth may be saved, like the citizens of heaven 
through the knowledge of thee, our Father. 

21. 'Give us this day our bread/ which is emoucrto?, whicl 
means 'supersubstantiaP : bread which another evangelist call 
'daily.' 49 Super substantial means that its quality is noble beyon< 
other substances, that its magnificence and holiness exceed tha 

48 I Tim. 2:4. 

4 $ Jerome inconsistently translated kiriovcrios by supersubstantialis in Matthe\ 
and by qitotidianus in Luke. This piece of inconsistency was due no doubt t 
the same spiritualizing tendency which made Origen deny that the brea< 
intended could be material bread: and it led to surprising consequence 
in the West, when the identity of the Greek word was forgotten an< 
people believed the difference represented a real difference between th 
evangelists. Thus there was a discrepancy throughout the Middle Age 
between the fact that m the offices the Lord 1 j Prayer was said accord in; 
to the Matthaean version, but with the apparently Lucan won 
quotidianus (for the offices preserved the wording existing before S 
Jerome), and the fact that the Vulgate text of Matthew had super 
substantiate . Nevertheless, the mistaken word of Jerome was never in 
serted into the offices, except by the logically minded Peter Abelard, wh< 
ordered Heloise and her convent to use the whole Matthaean form an< 
not mix Matthew's text with the apparently * 'Lucan*' word, St Bernan 
objected to these proceedings. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 225 

of other creatures. Daily means that without it we cannot live a 
spiritual life for a single day. 

The word e this day' shows that we must receive it daily, that 
yesterday's supply is inadequate: the word suggests that we 
should offer this prayer at all times. There is no day on which 
we do not need to strengthen the heart of the inner man. 

Perhaps the word 'this day' can be understood of c this life': 
while we are mortal men, give us this bread. Though we know 
that it is given to those who shall hereafter deserve it from thee, 
we ask thee to grant it to us 'this day' unless a man has 
deserved to receive it in this life, he shall never partake of it in 
the life to come. 

22. 'Forgive us our debts, as we also forgive our debtors.' 

Unspeakable mercy of God! He has given us a form of prayer, 
has taught us a way of moral life acceptable to himself: has 
given with the form the command to pray always, and so is 
eradicating the roots of anger and sorrow: and, above all this, 
to men who pray he has provided an opportunity, and revealed 
a way by which they may move God to pronounce a merciful 
judgement upon them. You might say that he has given a 
power to make the judge's sentence lenient, because by for- 
giving others their offences we can draw him to forgive ours 
'Forgive us, as we also have forgiven.' 50 And so with the con- 
fidence of faith a man may ask pardon with this prayer if he 
has been merciful to his own debtors rather than the debtors of 
his Lord. 

Some of us, regrettably, are inclined to be serene and merci- 
ful about sins, however grave, committed by others against 
God, and inexorable debt-collectors when others commit 
trifling wrongs against ourselves. The man who from his heart 
forgives not his brother who has offended, by this prayer calls 
down, not forgiveness, but judgement, and out of his own mouth 
asks to incur severer punishment: saying: 'Forgive me as I also 
have forgiven.' If his request is answered, surely he will be 
treated after his example, with an implacable sentence. If we 
want to be judged with mercy, we must be merciful to those who 
have sinned against us. Only so much will be forgiven to us, as 
we have forgiven those who have injured us, however wickedly 
they have injured us. 

There are some people who are so dreadfully aware of this 
that they silently omit the clause whenever the Lord's Prayer is 
recited congregationally in church: afraid that they are binding 
so Reading dimisimus rather than the dimittimus of several MSS. and Gibson. 



226 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

instead of excusing themselves. They do not understand ho 
fruitless is the attempt, with quibbles like these, to make it 
Judge of all men lenient. He has willed to reveal to men wh 
pray to him the way in which he will judge. Because he wil 
not to be harsh and inexorable towards them, he has declare 
his plan of judgement, that we must judge our brother, if t 
sins against us, in just the way in which we wish him to judg 
us. 'He shall have judgement without mercy on him who hat 
shown no mercy.' 51 

23. 'And lead us not into temptation.' About the meaning < 
this clause there is much discussion. If we pray not to be allowe 
to be tempted, how shall we have any power of resistance? Thei 
is a text: 'Everyone who is not tempted is not proved 5 : an 
'Blessed is the man that endureth temptation.' 52 The claus 
'Lead us not into temptation,' therefore does not mean 'Do nc 
allow us to be tempted,' but, 'do not allow us to fall when w 
are tempted.' Job was tempted, but was not 'led into tempts 
tion': for he did not call God foolish, nor did he consent to th 
blasphemy to which the devil sought to lure him. Abraham w 
tempted, Joseph was tempted, but neither was 'led into tempts 
tion' because neither gave way to the tempter. 

So finally, 'deliver us from the evil one' : let us not be tempte 
of the devil above our capacity, but with the temptation mak 
'a way of escape that we may be able to bear it.' 53 

24. You see the method and pattern of prayer put before u 
by the judge to whom we pray. It contains no request for richer 
no thought of honours, no petition for power, no mention c 
physical health or length of life. The author of eternity woul< 
have us ask nothing ephemeral, nothing paltry, nothing trans 
ient. He who neglects these petitions for eternity and prefers t 
ask for the evanescent, insults the generous majesty of God 
meanness in prayer offends the judge instead of propitiatin, 
him. 

25. The Lord's Prayer, given to us with his authority, seem 
to include the very pattern of a perfect prayer. Yet it carric 
those who use it to the higher state of prayer which I mentions 
before, to that spark-like and ineffable prayer which very fe\ 
men know by experience. It transcends the senses; is marked b 
no vocal expression, whether silent or aloud; but the mind 
illuminated by an outflowing of light from heaven, does no 
define it in the narrow limit of human language. With the sense 
unified, it pours forth prayers, almost with violence, as a sprinj 
5i James 2 : 13. 52 Ecclesiasticus 34 ; 10; James i : 12. 53 1 Con 10 : i 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 227 

pours forth fresh water, and in a second's time darts up a 
prayer of such richness that afterwards the mind, returned to 
normality, cannot easily describe it. This state of prayer our 
Lord typified in those pattern prayers which he is said to have 
offered in silent retreat upon the mountain, and when (though 
here he gave an example impossible to imitate) in an agony of 
prayer he let drops of blood fall upon the ground. 

26. Can anyone, however experienced, explain adequately 
the origins and causes and diversities of compunction in spirit, 
which strikes the spark in the mind and elevates it to prayer of 
fervent purity? I will now give a few examples of these occasions 
of compunction, so far as I can by God's aid remember them at 
the moment. 

Sometimes the verse of a psalm which we are singing sets off 
the spark. Sometimes the beauty of the cantor's voice rouses the 
dull mind to a concentrated prayer. I know that the clarity and 
solemnity of the reader of the psalms can contribute to the fer- 
vour of the congregation. Often the address or conference of 
some holy man has been fruitful in stirring the affections of the 
hearers. I have known myself snatched away into true compunc- 
tion of spirit by the death of a brother monk or of a dear friend 
or relative. Sometimes the memory of my own half-heartedness 
and carelessness has elevated my soul. No doubt there are 
countless occasions of this sort, which can rouse the mind, 
through God's grace, from its drowsiness and half-heartedness. 

27. It is just as difficult to describe how these compunctions 
arise from the inner sanctuary of the soul. Sometimes it happens 
because the soul is filled with an indescribable joy and cannot 
help breaking out into ejaculations, and even the occupant of 
the next cell feels the power of the happiness in the heart. 
Sometimes the mind withdraws into a kind of secret abyss of 
silence, sudden illumination leaves it speechless, the awe- 
struck spirit locks its feelings within or loses feeling altogether, 
and pours out its longings to God in groanings that cannot be 
uttered. Sometimes a compunction of grief overwhelms it, and 
the only way to express it is by a release of tears." 

28. Germanus: "I have very little experience, but even I 
have experienced something of this compunction of spirit. 
Sometimes tears will rise when I remember my sins, and then I 
am visited by the Lord and refreshed by the unspeakable joy 
which you have described: and the joy, by its very power, has 
given me the assurance not to despair of forgiveness. I believe 
there is no loftier state of prayer than this. But the trouble is that 



228 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

it cannot be created when we choose. Sometimes, when I am 
struggling as hard as I can to excite a compunction of penitence, 
and I have decided to imagine my sins, I fail altogether in the 
effort: my eyes remain as dry as a flint and I cannot squeeze 
a drop of moisture out of them. When I am granted tears, I am 
happy. But when I cannot call them at will, I am cast down." 

29. Isaac: "Not all varieties of weeping are evoked by the 
same feeling. There is a weeping because the heart is pricked 
by sin. 54 There is a weeping which springs from contemplating 
eternal good and longing for future light, and tears of joy and 
desire cannot help but break out; as the soul is athirst for the 
mighty living God, saying: 'When shall I come to appear before 
the presence of God? My tears have been my meat day and 
night.' 55 There is a weeping which rises, not from the con- 
sciousness of mortal sin, but still from the fear of hell and the 
terrible judgement; and the soul makes its own the prophetic 
prayer: 'Enter not into judgement with thy servant: for in thy 
sight shall no man living be justified.' There is a weeping 
caused, not by self-knowledge, but by awareness of others' sins 
and their lack of repentance. So Samuel is said to have wept for 
Saul; and the Lord in the Gospel, and Jeremiah before him, are 
described as weeping for the city of Jerusalem, *O that my head 
were water and mine eyes a fountain of tears! And I will weep 
day and night for the slain of the daughter of my people.' And 
then there are the tears of the zoist psalm: e l have eaten ashes 
for my bread and mingled my cup with weeping.' This was not 
caused by the same feelings as those of the penitent in Psalm 6, 
but arose from the anxieties, poverty and suffering of this life, 
the common lot of the righteous in the world. 56 

30. You can squeeze tears out of dry eyes and with a hard 
heart, but this is quite a different kind of weeping. I do not 
believe that this sort of weeping is altogether without profit, for 
the intention is good, especially in people who have not yet been 

54 "As in the texts: C I have laboured in my groanings, every night I will 
wash my bed; I will water my couch with my tears' (Ps. 6:6); and 'let 
tears run down like a torrent day and night: give thyself no rest, and let 
not the apple of thine eye cease' (Lam. 2 : 18)." 

55 "And 'Woe is me that my sojourning is prolonged': 'Too long hath my 
soul been a sojourner' (Ps. 42 13-4; 120:5, LXX; 143 :s)." 

5$ "This is shown by the title as well as the text, for the title reads: 'A prayer 
of the poor, when he was in distress, and poured forth his prayer to God.* 
It is clear that the psalm is placed in the mouth of one of those poor men 
of whom the Gospel speaks: 'Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is the 
kingdom of heaven' (Matt. 5:3; cf. Jer. 9:1; Ps. 102:9)." 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 

able to reach perfect knowledge or to be thoroughly purified of 
past and present sin. But in people who have already progressed 
so far that they love goodness, this kind of weeping never ought 
to be extracted unnaturally. Even if it succeeds, it cannot rival 
spontaneous weeping as an occasion of elevated prayer. It is 
more likely by the failure of the effort to depress the soul and 
drive it away from that intention towards heaven in which the 
prayerful and reverent mind ought to be stable. It will force 
the soul to relax its concentration and instead go feebly after 
a weeping which is forced and futile. 

31. To teach you the feeling of true prayer, I will give you, 
not my opinion, but that of St Antony. I have known him 
sometimes so long at his prayers that the sun rose before he had 
finished. And I would hear him, still in a rapture of spirit, cry 
out to the sun: 'Why do you hinder me? The rising of your light 
draws my mind away from the true light.' And St Antony also 
uttered this heavenly, inspired, saying on the end of prayer: 
'That prayer is not perfect in which the monk understands 
himself and the words which he is praying.' 

I hardly dare to add anything from my own slender experi- 
ence. But so far as I can I will now point out how you can tell 
whether a prayer is one which the Lord hears. 

32. If we pray unhesitatingly, without any touch of hopeless- 
ness to weaken the confident faith of the petitioner if in the 
act of earnest prayer we feel ourselves to have obtained our 
request we should not doubt that our prayers have effectively 
reached God. A man will deserve to be heard in proportion as 
he believes that God is looking upon him and that God can 
grant his prayer. It is impossible to minimize the Lord's declara- 
tion c Whatsoever ye ask when ye pray, believe that ye shall 
receive, and it shall come to you.'" 57 

33. Germanus: "I am sure that this confident faith in being 
heard springs from a clear conscience. But sin yet pricks my 
heart; I have no merit to plead for me. How can I have this 
faith so confident as to presume that my prayers will be heard?" 

34. Isaac: "The Gospels and the prophets teach us that 
prayers are heard for different reasons according to the different 
condition of the praying souls. 

The Lord declares first, that if two agree, their prayer will 
be heard: 'If two of you shall agree upon earth touching any- 
thing for which they shall ask, it shall be done for them of my 
Father which is in heaven.' 
5 ? Mark n 124. 



23O WESTERN ASCETICISM 

He declares, secondly, that prayer in fulness of faith (which 
he compared to a grain of mustard seed) is heard. 'If ye have 
faith as a grain of mustard seed, ye shall say unto this mountain, 
Be thou removed, and it shall be removed; and nothing shall be 
impossible to you. 5 

Again, persevering prayers, which the Lord called im- 
portunity, will be heard. c Verily I say unto you, that if not be- 
cause of his friendship, yet because of his importunity he will 
rise and give him as much as he needs.' 

Again, almsgiving will be heard. 'Shut up alms in the heart 
of the poor, and it shall pray for thee in the time of tribulation.' 

A reformed life, or works of mercy, will be heard. 'Loose the 
bands of wickedness, undo the bundles that weigh down,' and 
(after a few words which castigate the uselessness of a sterile 
fast) 'Then thou shalt call and the Lord shall hear thee; thou 
shalt cry, and he shall say, Here am I.' 

Sometimes, the sufferer's prayer of agony is heard. 'When I 
was in trouble I called unto the Lord, and he heard me,' and 
'Afflict not the stranger, for if he crieth unto me, I will hear him, 
for I am merciful.' 58 

You see how many different ways prayer may be made so that 
it is heard. A hopeless conscience should make no one despair of 
being granted requests for a good which is saving to eternity. 
And as I look at our plight I grant that we possess none of the 
virtues the right agreement between two people, faith like a 
grain of mustard seed, the works of charity which the prophet 
deserves yet cannot we have that importunity which he sup- 
plies to all who want it? And to mere importunity he has 
promised that he will answer. 

We must pray, then, without faithlessness and believe that 
merely by keeping at our prayer we shall be granted what we 
have asked in accordance with God's will. Wanting to grant us 
the everlasting good of heaven, the Lord encourages us to con- 
strain him by our importunity. He does not scorn nor reject the 
importunate, but welcomes and praises them, and with his 
generosity promises to give them what they hopefully persevere 
to win. 'Ask, and ye shall receive: seek, and ye shall find: knock, 
and it shall be opened unto you. For everyone that asketh re- 
ceiveth, and he that seeketh findeth, and to him that knocketh 
it shall be opened.' And 'all things, whatsoever ye shall ask in 
prayer, believing, ye shall receive,' and 'nothing shall be impos- 

58 Matt. 18 : 19 and 17 :so; Luke 1 1 :8; Ecclesiasticus 29 : 15; Isa. 58 :6 and 
9; Ps. 120: i; Ex. 22:21 and 27. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 231 

sible to you.' 59 So even if all the other grounds for confidence 
are lacking, at least we can rouse our importunities; for anyone, 
without either merit or difficulty, can do this. 

The man who prays must not doubt that he will certainly not 
be heard so long as he doubts whether he is heard. The example 
of blessed Daniel, whose prayer was answered twenty-one days 
after he began to pray, teaches us how unwearyingly we must 
petition the Lord. If we think the answer is slow in coming, we 
should not cease from the intention with which we began. It is 
possible that the Lord is postponing his gracious reply for some 
useful reason, or that the angel who was bringing us God's gift 
was delayed by the devil's resistance after he left the Almighty's 
presence. Certainly the angel cannot bring the gift if he finds 
that we have stopped wanting it. This could surely have hap- 
pened to Daniel unless he had persevered so courageously to 
the twenty-first day. 

A sense of hopelessness must not weaken our confident faith, 
even when we imagine that our request has been refused. Let us 
wholeheartedly accept the Lord's promise: 'All things, whatso- 
ever ye shall ask in prayer, believing, ye shall receive.' We 
should consider the text of the evangelist, St John, where he 
removes all doubt about the matter: 'This is the confidence 
which we have in him, that whatsoever we ask according to his 
will, he heareth us.' 60 He commands us to have this full un- 
hesitating confidence in requests which suit not our own con- 
venience and comfort, but the Lord's will. The Lord's Prayer 
teaches us to include this in our prayers 'Thy will be done' 
Thy will, not our will. 

Remember the words of St Paul: 'We know not what to pray 
for as we ought.' 61 Hence we understand that sometimes we ask 
for a thing which would militate against our salvation; and that 
our request is refused by one who perceives our good more 
accurately and truly than we do ourselves. This was clearly 
what happened to St Paul when he prayed to be freed from 
Satan's messenger, who was permitted by the Lord to buffet him 
for his good: Tor which I besought the Lord thrice that he 
might depart from me. And he said unto me a My grace is suf- 
ficient for thee, for strength is made perfect in weakness.' 62 
Even our Lord felt this in his human person (here giving us an 
example in prayer as in all eke) when he prayed, 'Father, if it 
be possible, let this cup pass from me: nevertheless, not as I will 

59 Luke ii :g-io; Matt. 21 :22; 17:20. 60 I John 5:1 

61 Rom. 8:26. 62 II Cor. 12 



232 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

but as thou wilt' 63 though his will was certainly not discordant 
with his Father's will. Tor he had come to save what was lost, 
and to give his life a ransom for many/ and 'No man taketh my 
life from me, but I lay it down of myself. I have power to lay it 
down, and I have power to take it again.' 64 The will of the 
Father and the will of the Son is everywhere one. 

Instructed by this example of our Lord, we ought to end every 
prayer with the proviso: 'Nevertheless, not as I will, but as thou 
wilt. 9 



Everyone is aware that the person who is praying with con- 
centration cannot observe the three profound inclinations which 
are usual at the end of the office in monastic congregations. 65 

35. Above all we ought to observe the teaching of the Gospel, 
to enter into our closet, and shut the door, and then pray to our 
Father. This has a spiritual meaning. We pray 'in the closet' 
when we have driven from the heart the turmoil of thoughts and 
cares, and are offering our prayers like friends whispering inti- 
mately. 'The shut door' means that we are praying silently, to 
him who searches the heart and not the lips. 'In secret' means 
that with a concentrated heart and mind we display our peti- 
tion to God alone, and no devilish enemy can discover what we 
are asking. 

So we ought to pray in deep silence. This is partly to avoid 
disturbing monks, praying nearby, with murmur or noise; but 
partly to prevent the demons, who are especially alert to pounce 
on people at their prayers, from knowing our intention. In this 

fi 3 Matt. 26:39. For the Ghristology, see Gibson's note ad toe. 

*4 "He speaks again in Psalm 38 (40 :8) through the mouth of the blessed 
David, of the absolute unity between his Father's will and his own: 'To 
do thy will, O my God, I have willed.* We read of the Father, 'God so 
loved the world that he gave his only-begotten Son': and we read of the 
Son, 'Who spared not his own Son, but gave him for our sins*: we read of 
the one 'Who spared not his Son, but gave him for us all.' and of the other, 
'He was offered because he willed it himself.' (Matt. 18 : n and 20 :28; 
John 10:18; John 3:16; Gal. 1:4; Rom. 8:32; Isa. 53:7, Latin,) Even 
in the mystery of the Lord's resurrection we are taught of the harmony in 
God's working. St Paul declares that the Father raised his body from the 
dead; the Son prophesied that he would raise the temple of his body, 
'Destroy this temple, and in three days I will raise it up* (Gal. i : i ; 
John 2: 19)." 

*s This tailpiece is so curious that the Roman edition of 1588 added an 
extra negative to provide the contrary sense. None of the best manu- 
scripts supports the extra negative, and it is worse sense than the original, 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 233 

way we shall obey the command: 'Keep the doors of thy mouth 
from her who sleepeth in thy bosom.' 66 

36. Hence we should pray often but shortly. If we dawdle 
about our prayers, the subtle enemy might be able to sow a seed 
in our heart. 

The true sacrifice to God is a contrite spirit: the saving 
offerings and libations are the sacrifices of righteousness and 
praise. The true, acceptable, victims and burnt offerings are 
those offered by a contrite and humble heart. And if we practise 
this discipline and concentration of spirit which I have des- 
cribed, we shall be able effectually to sing: 'Let my prayer be set 
forth in thy sight as the incense: let the lifting up of my hands be 
an evening sacrifice. 9 67 



Dusk reminds me that we ought to join in our evening 
devotions. In spite of my meagre experience I seem to have 
discoursed for a long time, however brief it has been in pro- 
portion to the profundity and difficulty of the material." 

He ended. We felt awe and wanted him to continue. But after 
we had celebrated Vespers, we received his promise that at 
dawn he would treat the subject further; and so in happiness at 
what we had learnt and at his promise of more, we returned to 
our cells to lie down for a little sleep. We felt that we had been 
shown the excellence of prayer, but that we had yet to learn 
fully the method and the power by which we could acquire or 
preserve the state of unceasing prayerfulness. 

CONFERENCE 10 
The Second Conference of Abba Isaac 

ON PRAYER 

1. I have tried, however unskilfully, to describe with God's 
help the sublime customs of the hermits. The order of my 
discourse now forces me to insert a passage which may seem like 
a pimple on a lovely body. Yet I have no doubt that less edu- 
cated readers will learn much from it about the image of 
Almighty God which Genesis describes. So I insert it with a view 
to a better understanding of a great doctrine which cannot be 
misapprehended without blasphemy and heresy. 

2. The clergy of Egypt observe the feast of Epiphany as the 
time of our Lord's birth as well as the time of his baptism, and, 
<*< Micah 7:5. 67 Ps. 141 :z. 



234 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

unlike the western Church with its two separate festivals, keep 
both commemorations upon the same day. They keep a custom 
of immemorial antiquity that after Epiphany the Bishop of 
Alexandria sends a letter to every church and monastery in 
Egypt declaring the dates for the beginning of Lent and Easter 
Day. 

A few days after the first conference with Abba Isaac, 
arrived the customary festal letter from Bishop Theophilus of 
Alexandria. 68 Besides declaring the date of Easter, he included 
in the letter a long refutation of the absurd heresy of the 
Anthropomorphites. Nearly all the monks in Egypt, being un- 
educated and therefore holding wrong ideas, received this with 
bitterness and hostility: and a large majority of elders from all 
the ascetic brotherhood decreed that the bishop was guilty of a 
grave and hateful heresy, because (by denying that Almighty 
God was formed in the fashion of a man, when Scripture bears 
clear witness that Adam was created in his image) he seemed to 
be attacking the text of Holy Scripture, Even the hermits in the 
desert of Scete, who were more educated and more spiritually 
advanced than any other Egyptian monks, rejected the letter of 
Theophilus. The priests who were presiding over three of the 
four churches in Scete would not allow the letter to be read at 
their meetings: and the only exception was Abba Paphnutius, 
who was the priest of my own congregation. 

3. Among those caught by the error was a monk named 
Sarapion, who had for many years lived a life of strict discipline 
and had achieved the leading of a truly good life. Almost first 
among monks in merit and in years in the desert, equally he was 
almost first in his ignorant prejudice against orthodox believers. 
The saintly priest, Paphnutius, used many exhortations to bring 
him back to the true belief, but unsuccessfully. To Sarapion the 
view seemed a novelty, not found in tradition. 

It chanced that a deacon of great learning, named Photinus, 
arrived from Cappadocia with the object of visiting the brothers 
in Scete. Paphnutius gave him a warm welcome. And to support 
the doctrine contained in the letter of Bishop Theophilus, he led 
Photinus into the middle of the congregation, and in, the pre- 
sence of all the brothers, asked how the Catholic Churches of the 
East understood the text in Genesis: "Let us make man after 
our image and likeness." $ 9 Photinus explained how all the 
leaders of the churches understood the text spiritually, not 
literally nor crudely, and made a long speech adducing numer- 
In the year 399. <> Gen. i : 26. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 235 

ous proofs from Scripture. "That immeasurable, incompre- 
hensible, invisible majesty cannot be limited by a human frame 
or likeness. His nature is incorporeal, uncompounded, simple, 
and cannot be seen by human eyes nor conceived adequately by 
a human mind." 

At last old Sarapion was moved by the numerous and con- 
vincing assertions of this learned man, and consented to the 
traditional faith of Catholics. Abba Paphnutius and the rest of 
us felt great joy at his assent; joy that the Lord had not allowed 
a man of such age and goodness, who had erred in simple 
ignorance, to end his days unorthodox in the faith. 

When we stood up to give thanks to the Lord in prayer, the 
old man felt mentally bewildered at having to pray, because he 
could no longer sense in his heart the anthropomorphic image 
of God which he had always before his mind's eye when praying. 
Suddenly he broke into bitter weeping and sobbing, and throw- 
ing himself prostrate on the ground with groans, cried: "Woe is 
me! They have taken my God away from me, and I have none 
to grasp, and I know not whom to adore or to address." 

Germanus and I were deeply moved by this scene. And with 
the effect of the last Conference still in our hearts, we returned 
to Abba Isaac. When we reached his presence we addressed him 
thus: 

4. "Your last Conference on prayer stirred our desire to put 
aside all else and return to you. But this new incident has 
strengthened the desire still further. Abba Sarapion, misled by 
skilful demons as we believe, fell into grave error. And this 
has cast us down into a state of hopelessness. We are thinking 
how for fifty years he has so admirably lived as a great ascetic 
in this desert, and yet through ignorance not only lost the merit 
of that life but incurred a risk of eternal death. So, first, we 
want to know how and why this grave error crept upon him. 

Secondly, we ask you to teach us how we can reach the state 
of prayer of which earlier you taught us at length, and so finely. 
Your earlier conference made us admire that state, but did not 
show us how to achieve or secure it." 

5. Isaac: "It is not surprising that a very simple man who 
had never received any instruction on the being and nature of 
God could be caught and deceived, even until now, by an error 
which he mis-learnt a long time ago. This error is not, as you 
suppose, a modern illusion of demons, but an inheritance from 
the ignorance of the old heathen. They used customarily and 
erroneously to worship demons fashioned in the likeness of men, 



236 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

and even now they think to worship God in his majesty the in- 
comprehensible and indescribable in the limited form of some 
statue. And they suppose they have nothing to worship unless 
they have in front of them a statue, which they can continually 
address in their devotions, can mentally conceive, and can keep 
in front of their eyes. Against this error is directed the text: 'And 
they changed the glory of the incorruptible God into the like- 
ness of the image of corruptible man. 5 And Jeremiah says: 'My 
people have changed their glory for an idol.' 70 

This is the way in which this error has been implanted in 
some men. Nevertheless, in people whose souls have never been 
polluted by heathenism, the error is contracted by ignorance, 
under cover of this text: 'Let us make man in our image and 
likeness.' Hence the so-called Anthropomorphite heresy has 
risen out of the detestable interpretation of this text, a heresy 
which maintains obstinately and perversely that the limitless 
and simple nature of God is fashioned in human form and 
features. Anyone well-instructed in Catholic doctrine will detest 
the idea as heathen blasphemy: and in detesting it he will come 
to that pure state of prayer where the person will allow (I need 
not say) no effigy of God to be mingled in his prayers, and will 
not even admit the recollection of a saying or an action, or the 
outline of a character. 

6. I said in my first Conference that every soul attains the 
kind of prayer proportionate to its purity: for it can abandon 
the contemplation of the earthy and material only in proportion 
as its state of purity carries it upwards to see Jesus in the mind's 
eye Jesus still in the humility of his incarnate life, or Jesus 
glorified and coming in majesty. Jesus coming in his kingdom 
shall not be seen by men who are restrained by a weakness like 
that of the Jews and therefore cannot say with St Paul: c And if 
we have known Christ after the flesh, yet now we know him so 
no more.' 71 Only those of purest sight look upon his divinity, 
men who have climbed up from earthly acts and thoughts and 
have gone apart with him into a high and lonely mountain. 
Jesus, untroubled by any earthly thought and passion and sin, 
exalted in the purity of his faith and goodness, discloses the 
brightness of his face and likeness to men who can look upon him 
because their souls are pure. 

Inhabitants of cities and villages and hamlets, men engaged 
in the ordinary and virtuous pursuits of life, sometimes see 
Jesus; but they cannot see him with the distinctness possible to 
70 Rom. 1 123; Jer. a : 1 1. ?i II Cor. 5 : 16. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 237 

those who can climb up with him upon the mount of saintliness, 
as did Peter, James and John. So in the wilderness he appeared 
to Moses, and spoke with Elijah. He wanted to teach us this and 
leave us an example of perfect purity. As the source of holiness, 
a source unpolluted like a spring of fresh water, he did not need 
to go apart in the wilderness to attain that perfect purity. No 
dirt, no stain from the crowds of human society could lessen the 
fulness of his purity of heart, for he it is who cleanses and purges 
all pollution. 

Yet he went apart alone to the mountain to pray. He gave 
an example of withdrawal, to teach us that if we want to address 
God with a heart of integrity we should go apart from all crowd 
and tumult that disturbs our peace; and there, though still 
mortal men, we may in part succeed in attaining at least the 
shadow of the bliss promised to the saints in the future, and God 
may be to us all in all. 72 

7. Then our Saviour's prayer, wherein he prayed the Father 
for his disciples, will be truly fulfilled in us: c that the love 
wherein thou lovedst me may be in them, and they in us 9 : and 
'that they all may be one, as thou, Father, art in me and I in 
thee, that they also may be one in us.' This unity will be when 
that perfect love of God, wherewith 'he first loved us 9 73 has 
passed into the affections of our own hearts. So his prayer will be 
fulfilled, and we believe that that prayer cannot fail of its effect. 

Then God shall be all our love, all we desire and seek and 
follow, all we think, all our life and speech and breath. The 
unity which now is between Father and Son shall be poured into 
our feelings and our minds: and as he loves us with a pure, 
sincere, unbreakable charity we on our side shall be linked to 
him by a lasting affection that nothing can spoil. In that 
union, whatever we breathe or think or speak is God. So the end 
of his prayer is attained in us 'that they all may be one as we 
are one: I in them, and thou in me, that they also may be made 
perfect in one' : and 'Father, those whom thou hast given me, 
I will that where I am, they may also be with me.' 

This should be the aim and purpose of the solitary: to seek 
to possess in some measure, even while mortal man, the first 
bridal gifts from the heavenly country and its glory. I repeat: 
this is the end of all true goodness, that the mind may every day 
be lifted beyond the material sphere to the realm of spirit, until 
the whole life and every little stirring of the heart becomes one 
continuous prayer." 
72 I Cor. 15:28. 73 John X7:2i~6; I John 4:10. 



238 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

8. Germanus: "We were bewildered by the first conference 
and returned to you for further explanation. But now our be- 
wilderment has grown. Certainly this doctrine stirs us to long 
for the bliss of heaven; but the more we yearn, the more we 
despair. For we still do not know how to achieve the sort of 
disciplined life which can enable us to reach this lofty goal. I 
beg you to be patient and allow me to explain (perhaps at some 
length) what we had begun to consider during our daily medi- 
tations in our cell. I know that you are unused to being troubled 
by the silly questions of weak brothers like ourselves. Yet it is 
worth bringing these silly questions into the open, so that the 
absurdity in them may be corrected. 

We think that every art or science must begin with rudiments 
easy and suitable for the uninitiated. A man must be trained, so 
to speak, on the milk of the intellect, and thereby may grow, 
step by step, from ignorance to education. First he acquires the 
more obvious principles, passes the gateway to his subject, and 
thereby can cHmb without difficulty to the pinnacles of know- 
ledge. A boy cannot frame sentences until he has learnt the 
alphabet properly. He cannot become a quick reader unless he 
can first read short and simple nouns. The man ignorant of 
grammar will never be able to write elegant prose or to become 
a sound philosopher. 

This higher discipline in which we learn to cleave to God 
continually, must doubtless have first principles, foundations 
on which a man may build to raise the lofty tower. I think, 
though hesitantly, that its first principles consist in learning by 
what meditations God may be grasped and conceived; and then, 
how to preserve this thought, whatever it is, uninterruptedly: 
and I am sure that this uninterrupted preservation is the true 
perfection of the discipline. 

We want you to show us material for this recollectedness by 
which God is conceived in the mind and the conception is re- 
tained permanently. Thereby we may keep it in front of us; and, 
when we feel we have fallen away, may at once be able to 
return, without any delay or ignorant meandering of the 
thoughts. 

Sometimes, when my mind has wandered away from con- 
templating God, I wake up as if from a sleep as sound as death; 
I look round like a drowsy man just out of bed, for the subject- 
matter to recreate recollectedness. The process of finding the 
material distracts and delays me: before I find the vision again, 
my purpose of heart is beginning to fade. I am sure it happens 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 239 

because I do not keep before my eyes some special intention in 
the way of a formula to which the wandering mind could be 
recalled from its travels so to say, a quiet harbour after a long 
and stormy voyage. Thus the mind, constantly hampered by 
this ignorance, teeters to and fro like a drunkard and does not 
even grasp the spiritual thought which comes to it, unasked and 
unsought. As it goes on receiving one sensation after another, it 
is unconscious of their arrival, their origin, or their departure." 

9. Isaac: "Your question is intricate: and the fact that you 
have asked it proves you to have made headway towards purity 
of mind. To ask questions, still more to use a delicate introspec- 
tion in this matter, is only possible to a person who by mental 
zeal and alertness has reached a stage where he can understand 
the complications of the problem; to a person whose constant 
attempts at a disciplined life have given him the experience 
whereby he may knock at the gates of mental purity. I see that 
you are no longer standing at the outer gate of true prayer, but 
are knocking at its inner door, and have already pushed it half 
open. A visitor who has reached the main hall of a house can 
easily be shown its inner rooms: and with God's guidance I 
think it will be easy to bring you to the heart of true prayer. I 
believe you will allow no obstacle to hinder your self-examina- 
tion. The man who knows what questions to ask is on the verge 
of understanding: the man who is beginning to understand what 
he does not know is not far from knowledge. 

So I am not afraid of the charge of speaking irreverently or 
betraying secrets if I now disclose what I omitted from my 
earlier Conference. I think that by God's grace your own study 
would have taught you the way even if you had no words of 
mine to help you. 

10. You made an admirable comparison between spiritual 
discipline and the education of children. A child cannot recog- 
nize or make letters before he has become used to seeing them 
every day in wax copies. I must give you the formula for con- 
templation. If you carefully keep this formula in front of you, 
and learn to recollect it all the time, you can use it to mount to 
the contemplation of high truth. Every monk who looks for 
continual recollection of God uses this formula for meditation, 
and with the object of driving every other sort of thought from 
his heart. You cannot keep the formula before you unless you 
are free from all bodily care. 

The formula was given us by a few of the oldest fathers who 
remained. They did not communicate it except to a very few 



240 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

who were athirst for the true way. To maintain an unceasing 
recollection of God it is to be ever set before you. 

The formula is: *O God, make speed to save me: O Lord, 
make haste to help me. 5 74 

This verse has rightly been selected from the whole Bible for 
this purpose. It fits every mood and temper of human nature, 
every temptation, every circumstance. It contains an invocation 
of God, a humble confession of faith, a reverent watchfulness, a 
meditation upon our frailty, a confidence in God's answer, an 
assurance of his ever-present support. The man who continually 
invokes God as his guardian, is aware that he is always at hand. 
The formula contains a fervent charity, a fearful contemplation 
of the devil's power, a regard for the defender's succour which 
alone can relieve the beleaguered soul from the devil's siege by 
day and night. The verse is an impregnable battlement, a shield 
and coat of mail which no spear can pierce. Souls sunk in accidie 
or worry or melancholy thoughts of any kind find the cure of 
despair in this verse, which shows them God's watch over their 
struggles and their prayers. Souls happy in their spiritual pro- 
gress, it warns against a bubble-like complacency, assuring them 
that only with God's protection can they keep what they have 
won; teaching them not merely to ask his help, but to ask it 
speedily. 

I repeat; each of us, whatever his condition of spiritual life, 
needs to use this verse. The man who wants to be helped in all 
circumstances and at all times, shows that he needs God to 
help him in prosperity and happiness as much as in suffering 
and sorrow. He needs to be delivered from the one, and main- 
tained in the other. For he knows that frail human nature 
cannot remain unimpaired in either state without God's help. 

Suppose I feel gluttonous; I look round for food unknown 
among hermits; in the middle of the desert I scent the cooking 
of a dish fit for kings, and against my better will I cannot help 
hungering for it. Then I must say immediately: C O God, make 
speed to save me, O Lord, make haste to help me.' Or I am 
tempted to eat supper too early, or am struggling to eat no 
more than the right and customary quantity, I must cry out: 
'O God, make speed to save me; O Lord, make haste to help me.' 
I need severe fasts to quench lust, yet I dare not undertake them 
through the delicacy or dryness of my stomach. And so to 
quieten the lust without severe fasting, I must pray: C O God, 
make speed to save me: O Lord, make haste to help me. 5 1 go to 
74 p s . 70:1. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 24! 

supper at the correct time and shudder at the food and cannot 
eat what I must eat to live, then I must sigh: 'O God, make speed 
to save me: O Lord, make haste to help me. 3 

Perhaps I want to keep my heart stable by forcing myself to 
read the Bible. But a headache stops me, by nine o'clock in the 
morning I have fallen asleep with my head on the page and I 
am driven to go to bed before the appointed hour, and so fail to 
say the full office and the proper series of psalms again I must 
say: C O God, make speed to save me: O Lord, make haste to 
help me.' Perhaps night after night I suffer some devilish in- 
somnia and am exhausted from lack of sleep, gain no refreshment 
from my night's rest. I must breathe: C O God, make speed to 
save me: O Lord, make haste to help me.' 

Perhaps, if I have not yet tamed the flesh, some sudden 
temptation against chastity comes upon me softly at night: and 
I must prevent this invading fire from burning up the fragrant 
flowers of chastity. So I must call: C O God, make speed to save 
me: O Lord, make haste to help me.' Perhaps I feel the heat of 
passion to have cooled. Then this virtue nay, this grace, for 
it is a gift of God I must keep within me by saying carefully: 
C O God, make speed to save me: O Lord, make haste to help 
me.' 

Perhaps temptations to anger, or avarice, or melancholy 
afflict me and force me to disturb my calm state, so pleasant to 
me. I must prevent myself being bitter by crying aloud: 6 O God, 
make speed to save me: O Lord, make haste to help me.' Per- 
haps some temptation to accidie, or vanity, or pride, or to des- 
pise the half-heartedness of other monks, creeps upon the mind. 
To stop this devilish suggestion, I must pray with deep con- 
trition: C O God, make speed to save me: O Lord, make haste to 
help me.' 

Perhaps I have repented long and so have pricked the bubble 
of pride and gained the grace of humility and simplicity. So 
that 'the foot of pride' may not again c come against me,' and 
c the hand of the sinner disturb me.' 75 and that satisfaction at my 
success may not cause still worse moral damage, I must call 
with my whole heart: C O God, make speed to save me: O Lord, 
make haste to help me.' 

Perhaps wandering thoughts career about the soul like boiling 
water, and I cannot contest them, nor can I offer prayer without 
silly mental images interrupting it; I feel so dry that I seem 
incapable of spiritual feeling, and many sighs and groans cannot 
75 p s . 36:11. 



242 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

save me from dreariness I must needs say: C O God, make speed 
to save me: O Lord, make haste to help me.' 

Perhaps by some joyous rapture I feel that the Holy Spirit 
has visited me, and I have gained a re-directed purpose, a 
concentration of mind, a liveliness of heart. And through these 
overflowing sensations I discern a sudden disclosure by the 
Lord of sacred truths hidden from me till now. To dwell upon 
these truths for more than a moment, I must be careful to keep 
praying: C O God, make speed to save me: O Lord, make haste 
to help me.' 

Perhaps in the night I am encompassed by appearances of 
unclean spirits and in my turn am thrown into a despair even of 
life and salvation. I shall find in the whole-hearted praying of 
that verse a safe fortress for the fugitive: C O God, make speed to 
save me: O Lord, make haste to help me.' Then the Lord 
restores and consoles me, and I feel that he is garrisoning me 
with his countless hosts of angels, and suddenly I can dare to go 
out to face the enemy and provoke them to fight, when a 
moment before I was trembling with fear of death and shudder- 
ing in mind and body at their touch or proximity. To abide by 
God's grace in this strength and courage, I must say with my 
whole heart: C O God, make speed to save me: O Lord, make 
haste to help me.' 

Continuously and ceaselessly, in adversity that we may be 
delivered, in prosperity that we may be preserved but not puffed 
up, we ought to send up this prayer. Meditate on it, never stop 
turning it over within your breast. Whatever work or ministry 
or journey you are undertaking, go on praying it. While you are 
going to sleep, or eating, or in the last necessities of nature, think 
on it. It will be a saving formula in your heart, will guard you 
from the attacks of demons, will cleanse you from the stains of 
earthly life, lead you to contemplate the unseen things of heaven, 
and carry you up to the ineffable glow of prayer which very few 
have experienced. Sleep ought to catch you thinking about this 
verse, until you are so moulded by its use that you pray it when 
asleep. When you wake it should be your first thought, it should 
force you from your bed to your knees, and thence send you out 
to your daily work, there to be always with you. You should 
think on it, in Moses' words, 76 at home or on a journey, going to 
bed or rising from bed. You should write it on the doors of your 
lips, the walls of your house, the sanctuary of your breast. 
Whether you kneel down to pray or whether you rise up from 
. 6:7. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 243 

praying and turn to the needs of your daily life, this should be 
your prayer. 

ii. This formula the mind should go on grasping until it can 
cast away the wealth and multiplicity of other thoughts, and 
restrict itself to the poverty of this single verse. So you will attain 
with ease that Gospel beatitude which holds first place among 
the other beatitudes: 'Blessed are the poor in spirit: for theirs is 
the kingdom of heaven.' This noble poverty will fulfil the 
prophet's saying: 'The poor and needy shall praise the name of 
the Lord.* 77 Truly, what higher or holier poverty can there be 
than this, that a man knowing he is defenceless of his own, asks 
help for daily life from another's generosity, and realizes his life 
and being to depend every moment on God's help. Such a one 
truly confesses himself 'the beggar of the Lord, 5 like the Psalmist 
who said: 'I am a beggar and a poor man: and God helps me.' 7S 

So by God's light he mounts to the manifold knowledge of 
God and thereafter to feed on mysteries loftier and more sacred: 
the prophet said: 'The high hills are a refuge for the stags, and 
the rocks for the hedgehogs. 5 79 1 think this meaning of the text 
is appropriate for this reason. A man who perseveres in sim- 
plicity and innocence, is aggressive to none and content to 
defend himself from being spoiled by his enemies; like the hedge- 
hog hiding under a rock, he is protected, by his continual recol- 
lection of the Lord's passion and meditation upon this verse of 
the psalms. With the same spiritual intention the book of 
Proverbs speaks about hedgehogs 'The hedgehogs are a feeble 
folk, who have made their homes in the rocks.' 80 Nothing is 
feebler than a Christian; nothing weaker than a monk, who for 
wrong may take no vengeance nor even indulge mild feelings of 
annoyance, however concealed within his breast. 

The man who in his moral ascent possesses simple innocence 
and yet the gift of wisdom has Satan crushed like a poisonous 
viper beneath his feet. And, as a stag browsing upon high 
pastures, his quick intelligence feeds upon the lofty mysteries 
revealed by the prophets and apostles. 

There, with deep compunction, he will make the thoughts of 
the psalms his own. He will sing them no longer as verses com- 
posed by a prophet, but as born of his own prayers. At least 
he should use them as intended for his own mouth, and know 
that they were not fulfilled temporarily in the prophet's age and 
circumstances, but are being fulfilled in his daily life. There are 

77 Matt. 5:3; Ps. 74:21. 78 p s . 40 : 17, LXX. 

79 p s . 104 : 1 8. so Prov. 30 : 26, LXX. 



244 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

times when a man understands God's Scriptures with the clarity 
with which a surgeon understands the body when he opens up 
the marrow and the veins. These are the times when our experi- 
ence seems to show us the meaning by practical proof before we 
understand it intellectually. 

For example, if we have the same attitudes of heart wherein 
the Psalmist wrote or sang his psalms, we shall become like the 
authors and be aware of the meaning before we have thought it 
out instead of after. The force of the words strikes us before we 
have rationally examined them. And when we use the words, we 
remember, by a kind of meditative association, our own circum- 
stances and struggles, the results of our negligence or earnest- 
ness, the mercies of God's providence or the temptations of the 
devil, the subtle and slippery sins of forgetfulness or human 
frailty or unthinking ignorance. All these feelings we find ex- 
pressed in the psalms. We see their texts reflected in the clear 
glass of our own moral experience. And with that experience to 
teach us, we do not hear the words so much as discern the 
meaning intuitively. We will not merely recite them like texts 
committed to memory, but bring them out from the depths of 
the heart as an expression of moral reality. 

So the mind shall attain that purest of pure prayers to which 
our earlier Conference led, so far as the Lord deigned to grant 
us; the prayer which looks to see no visual image, uses no mind 
nor words; the prayer wherein, like a spark leaping from a fire, 
the mind is rapt upward; and, destitute of the aid of the senses 
or of anything visible or material, pours forth its prayer to 
God with groanings and sighs that cannot be uttered." 

12. Germanus: "You have most clearly explained the system 
of spiritual discipline for which I asked, and perfect prayer 
itself. There can be nothing more sublime than to fold the recol- 
lection of God into the little space of a meditation upon a single 
verse, to summarize all the prayerful feelings in one sentence. 

Now, we beg you to expound our one remaining problem. 
You have given us this verse as a kind of formula. How can we 
keep it permanently before us? By God's grace we have been 
liberated from the stupidities of secular thoughts how may we 
grasp spiritual thoughts and never let them go? 

13. When the mind has begun to take the meaning of a 
psalm, it passes on unawares and unintentionally to some other 
text of Scripture. When it has just begun to meditate upon that 
text and has half considered it, its attention is caught by another 
passage and it forgets all about the earlier matter for meditation. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 245 

And so it goes on, hopping from text to text, from psalm to 
psalm, from Gospel to Epistle and thence to a prophetic book 
and thence to a narrative in the historical books of the Old 
Testament; meandering vaguely through the Bible, choosing 
nothing and grasping nothing on purpose, considering no text 
to its depth; the mind becomes a dilettante, a taster of spiritual 
meanings, not a creator or owner of them. At the time of the 
office it totters about like a drunkard, its worship ever in- 
adequate. During the prayers it is thinking about a psalm or 
lesson. During the singing of the psalter, it is thinking about 
something quite outside the text of the psalm. During the lesson, 
it is thinking about something that has to be done, or remember- 
ing something that has been done. So it receives or rejects 
nothing in a disciplined and orderly manner, but seems to be 
knocked about by haphazard assaults, powerless to keep or to 
linger over the text which pleases it. 

We therefore need to know how to worship adequately by 
these means, and how permanently to hold this verse which 
you gave us as a formula. Then our feelings would not rise and 
fall hither and thither under their own impetus, but would 
respond to the control of the will." 

14. Isaac: "I think that enough was said on this subject in 
our earlier discussion. But because you want me to repeat it, I 
will give a brief summary on how to make the heart stable* 

Three things make the wandering mind stop wandering: 
watching, meditation, prayer, when used purposefully and assi- 
duously. This is only possible if the anxieties and worries of this 
life are first put away, through tirelessly engaging in work 
undertaken not for monetary gain, but for the religious needs of 
the coenobium. This is the only way to obey St Paul's command, 
Tray without ceasing. 9 

He prays too little, who only prays when he is on his knees. 

But he never prays, who while on his knees is in his heart 
roaming far afield. 

Therefore what we wish to be while praying, we ought to be 
before we begin to pray. The praying mind cannot help being 
fashioned by its earlier condition, cannot help its earlier thoughts 
lifting it upward to heaven or pulling it downward to earth." 



Thus far Abba Isaac, to our wonder, gave his second Con- 
ference on the nature of prayer. He gave his teaching about 
meditating on that one little verse, as an outline for beginners. 



246 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Germanus and I admired the teaching and wanted to follow it, 
for we believed it to be a short and easy way. But when we tried 
it, we found it harder to observe than our previous method of 
wandering haphazardly through the Bible and meditating on a 
variety of different texts. 



However, it is certain that a man is not incapable of perfec- 
tion or purity of heart because he cannot read. Perfection and 
purity are available for anyone who uses one brief text -if he 
uses it with a purpose of heart strong and unwavering towards 
God. 

CONFERENCE n 

First conference of Abba Chaeremon 

ON PERFECTION 

1. After I first learnt the faith, I lived in a monastery in 
Syria. And there, after making a certain amount of progress, I 
began to look for that higher grace which leads to a perfect 
life. I therefore resolved to go to Egypt at once, and travel 
through it to the furthest fastnesses of the Thebaid, with the 
object of visiting the many holy people whose fame had re- 
sounded through the earth. If I could not imitate them, I might 
at least learn from them. 

After a long voyage, I came with Germanus to an Egyptian 
city named Thennesus. It is a town surrounded by the sea on 
one side and salt marshes on the other: and since the inhabitants 
are so short of land, they devote themselves to earning a living 
by seafaring and trade. When they want to build a house, they 
have to lay its foundations by bringing soil by sea from a dis- 
tance. 

2. On our arrival God blessed us, for he had brought to the 
town a saintly and eminent bishop named Archebius. Archebius 
had been plucked out of a society of hermits and made Bishop 
of Panephysis, but he had maintained as a bishop the rigorous 
discipline of the hermitage, altered nothing of his humble 
manners and did not flatter himself on his high office. On the 
contrary, he said that he had been made a bishop, not because 
he deserved it, but because he had been expelled from his 
hermit's way as unworthy to remain, inasmuch as he had tried 
for thirty-seven years to reach purity of heart, and had failed. 

He had come to Thennesus on the business of electing a 
bishop, and welcomed us warmly like a father. When he heard 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 247 

that we wanted to visit the fathers in the distant parts of 
Egypt, he said to us: "First of all, come and see the old men who 
live near our monastery. They are crippled with age, but you 
have only to look at them to see that they are holy men and 
even to learn a great deal from them. A saintly life is more 
educative than a sermon: and by their lives you can learn the 
lesson which, I am sorry to say, I can no longer teach you be- 
cause I have lost it. If I cannot produce for you the pearl of 
great price, I can at least show you where you may best find it: 
and I think that this may partly make amends for my own 
inability to help you." 

3. So he took his staff and his scrip, like all Egyptian monks 
starting a journey, and guided us to his own city of Panephysis. 
The land round here used to be very rich, and rumour says that 
it used to supply the emperor's court with food. But in an 
earthquake the sea flooded in, destroyed the villages, and 
turned its fertile lands into salt-marshes. Some people there 
apply literally to the country the verse of the Psalms which was 
intended allegorically, "He hath turned rivers into a wilderness: 
and the springs of waters into a thirsty land: a fruitful land into 
salt, for the wickedness of them that dwell therein." 81 The 
flood-waters had turned the hillocks of higher ground, on which 
villages had been built, into islands: and since the inhabitants 
had fled, these places were suitable for holy men wanting to 
live alone. 

Among the hermits of the region, three old men named Chae- 
remon, Nesteros, and Joseph, had lived therefor the longest time. 

4. Archebius chose to take us to see Chaeremon first, because 
his cell was nearest to Archebius's own cell, and because he was 
the eldest of all, being over a hundred years old. Though 
mentally he was still vigorous, his back was so crippled by age 
and by constant kneeling in prayer, that he could only move by 
crawling on hands and knees like an infant. His limbs were 
useless, defunct, yet he still kept the rigour of his rule. We 
gazed at his face, which was wonderful, and then at his method 
of moving. 

We humbly asked him to teach us, and said that we had come 
simply to learn the rules of the spiritual life. 

He sighed deeply and said: "What can I teach you? In my old 
age I have become so weak that I have softened my earlier aus- 
terities and consequently destroyed my confidence that I could 
teach. How can I presume to preach what I do not practise, 
si Ps, 107:33-4. 



248 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

or tell someone else to do something which I myself do half- 
heartedly or not at all? That is why I have refused to allow any 
younger man to live with me in my old age, because I am afraid 
that his discipline would be weakened by my example. A teacher 
will never exercise an effective authority unless he drives it into 
the heart of his pupil by his actions." 

5. At this we felt very embarrassed, and replied: "The con- 
ditions of life here, and of living as a hermit to this age, are 
conditions which a robust young man would find difficulty in 
enduring, and ought to teach us all we need even if you tell us 
nothing. We have already learnt a lesson from you. Still, we 
beg you to put aside your silence for a short time, and tell us 
how to grasp at the goodness we see in you how to reverence 
it, at least, since we cannot copy it. As perhaps you know, we 
are spiritually backward and do not deserve to have our request 
granted. But at least the trouble of this long journey from the 
monastery, at Bethlehem, trouble caused by our wish to learn 
your ways and to make spiritual progress, ought to persuade 
you to answer." 

6. Then the blessed Chaeremon said: 

"Three things enable men to control their sins: fear of hell 
or the law of the land; hope for the kingdom of heaven: and the 
love of goodness for its own sake. 

We read that fear hates the touch of evil: c the fear of the Lord 
hateth evil. 9 And hope repels the onslaught of every sin C A11 
those who hope in him shall not fail. 9 And love does not fear 
downfall into sin, for 'charity never faileth,' and 'charity 
covereth a multitude of sins. 9 82 That is why St Paul summarized 
all salvation in those three virtues, 'Now abideth faith, hope, 
charity, these three.' 

Faith is what makes us shun sin from fear of its punishment 
in the future judgement; hope calls our mind away from the 
present life and the pleasures of the body to seek our reward in 
heaven; charity kindles the mind to love Christ and the goodness 
of the spirit, and so to hate whatever is contrary to them. 

These three virtues, which call us to stop sinning, seem all to 
aim at the same goal, but they differ widely in excellence. 
Properly speaking faith and hope are qualities of men who are 
on the way towards goodness but as yet do not love it: charity 
is a quality of God, and of men who have received into their 
beings the image and likeness of God, God, alone, acts from love 
of goodness for its own sake, without being moved by fear, or 
Prov. 8: 13; Ps. 34:22; I Cor. 13 :8; I Peter 4:8. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 249 

hope of reward. The Lord/ said Solomon, 'has done all things 
for his own sake.' 83 Out of pure goodness he bestows his 
abounding good on saint and sinner. Wrong cannot weary him 
nor sinfulness provoke him, for he ever abides the same, pure 
and unchanging goodness. 

7. A man who is aiming at the perfect life will climb up from 
the first rung, the fear which is rightly called servile as it was 
said: 'When ye have done all things, say "we are unprofitable 
servants." ' 84 and will mount to the rung of hope. The man 
who hopes is like a paid servant, not a slave; for he is secure in 
his status and exemption from servile punishment, looks for a 
wage in return for his labour, is conscious of his services, and 
expects payment under contract and therefore cannot be like 
a son who loves his father, trusts his father's generosity, and 
never doubts that all his father's goods are his own. 

The prodigal who had lost his father's goods and the name of 
son, did not dare to aspire to this state of sonship e l am no 
more worthy to be called thy son.' 85 He fed upon the husks that 
the swine did eat and was not filled (it means, the squalid food 
of sin), and then he returned to his right mind, was stricken 
with repentance, and began to loathe the filth of the sty and to 
fear starvation. So, like a slave, he began to want to be a paid 
servant, and said: 'How many hired servants of my father have 
bread enough and to spare, while I perish with hunger. I will 
arise, and go to my father, and will say unto him, Father, I 
have sinned against heaven and before thee, and am no more 
worthy to be called thy son: make me as one of thy hired 
servants/ But his father ran out to meet him, and listened to 
his humble and penitent words with a family affection deeper 
than his son's, and lifted him above the state of a hired servant 
and restored him to his sonship. 

We likewise ought to mount quickly upward, in the strength 
of a love that cannot be broken, to be sons who believe that all 
their father's goods are their own, who are made in the image 
and likeness of their father, and who like his true Son can say: 
'All things that the Father hath, are mine.' St Paul says it of 
us: 'All things arc yours, whether Paul, or Apollos, or Cephas, 
or the world, or life, or death, or things present, or things to 
come all are yours.' Our Saviour commanded and called us 
to this likeness: 'Be ye perfect, even as your father in heaven is 
perfect.' 86 

83 Prov. 16 14. 84 Luke 17 : 10. 

ss Luke 15:19. 86 John 16:15; I Cor. 3:22; Matt. 5:48. 



250 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

In people on the way to the perfect life, there can come 
moments when the love of goodness is interrupted: the mind, 
through half-heartedness or happiness or some passing pleasure, 
relaxes its tautness, loses its fear of hell and hope of future 
reward. Sometimes fear and hope can each be stages leading to 
an advance; one who has begun by avoiding sin out of fear of 
hell or hope of heaven, can pass to the rung of charity. Tear is 
not in love, but perfect love casteth out fear: for fear hath 
torment, but he who feareth is not perfect in love. Let us 
therefore love, because God first loved us. 5 87 

Therefore we can only ascend to the truly perfect way if, 
as he first loved us simply to save us, we love him simply be- 
cause he has loved us. We must strive earnestly to pass from 
fear to hope, from hope to the love of God and of goodness for 
its own sake; and as we reach this last stage, we shall grasp 
goodness immovably, so far as that is possible for human 
nature. 

8. There is a lot of difference between the man who eradi- 
cates sin by fear of hell or hope of God's reward, and the man 
who loves God and therefore shrinks from wickedness, possesses 
purity simply because he loves purity, and acts out of a pleasure 
in present virtue. The reason is that, in this second state, the 
man acts in just the same way when there are no observers: he 
prevents secret thoughts of evil entering the heart simply be- 
cause the heart loves goodness: whatever is contrary to good- 
ness is not received into the heart, indeed is abhorred. To hate 
sin from a love of present good is different from avoiding illicit 
passion for the sake of future gain: the one is afraid of loss in the 
present, the other of punishment in the future. It is better not 
to want to leave the good because you like the good, than not 
to consent to evil because you are afraid of evil. In one the good 
act is voluntary, in the other it is extracted by a kind of com- 
pulsion based on punishment or reward. 

The man who abstains from sin out of fear, will return to 
what he likes when the fear evaporates. Therefore he will 
never achieve a stable character of goodness; will not secure a 
tranquil chastity, will always be liable to onslaughts. Wherever 
there is war, there will be risk of wounds. A soldier in a battle, 
however bravely he fights, however many mortal wounds he 
inflicts on the enemy, cannot help sometimes being hurt by the 
enemy's sword. But a conqueror of sin, who has won through to 
peace, will keep the character which is now all his own, be- 
87 1 John 4:18-19. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 25 

cause he believes no loss to be worse than the loss of his inmos 
chastity. He regards any grave fall from virtue as a seven 
punishment, and therefore thinks nothing more precious thai 
his present purity. 

So the presence or absence of other people will make n< 
difference to his conduct. Everywhere he bears round with bin 
his conscience as the judge of his actions and inner thoughts 
listening intently to hear its voice, knowing that it cannot fo 
avoided, or cheated, or escaped. 

9. A man can only live according to his conscience if In 
relies upon God's help and not upon his own endeavours. Bu 
if he does live according to his conscience, he will then begin t< 
pass from the states of servile fear and hireling hope to th< 
state of an adopted son, moved by neither fear nor greed bu 
by never-failing charity. The Lord administered a rebuke ii 
which he taught where fear and charity were each appropriate 
*A son knoweth his own father, and a servant feareth his lord 
and if I be a Father, where is my honour: and if I be a Lord 
where is my fear?' The slave must fear his master, because *i 
knowing his lord's will he has done things worthy of stripes, h< 
shall be beaten with many stripes.' 88 

In charity, then, man. attains the image and likeness of God 
and delights in goodness for its own sake. He possesses a measure 
of God's patience and gentleness. He refrains from anger at th< 
faults of others, sympathizes with their weaknesses and inter- 
cedes for their pardon. He remembers that for many years h< 
suffered from the same passions until the Lord's mercy savec 
him. Seeing that it is grace and not works which delivered hiir 
from concupiscence, he will know how to show mercy insteac 
of wrath to the erring. In serenity of heart he will sing to Goc 
the verse of the Psalms, 'Thou hast broken my chains: I wil 
offer to thee the sacrifice of praise* and 'Except the Lord hac 
helped me, my soul had almost dwelt in hell.' In this humbL 
spirit he will be able to obey even that Gospel command o 
perfection, 'Love your enemies, do good to them that hate you 
and pray for them which persecute and slander you.' 

So God will grant us the reward, to be made in the image anc 
likeness of God and to be called his sons: c that ye may be son 
of your Father which is in heaven, who maketh his sun to ris< 
upon the good and the evil, his rain to fall upon the just anc 
unjust.' This was the feeling in which St John said: e that w< 
may have confidence in the day of judgement, because as he is 
88 MaL i :6; Luke 12 143. 



252 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

so are we also in this world. 9 The only way in which our weak 
and frail human nature can resemble his nature is by pouring 
out the loving heart in tranquillity, to good and bad, just and 
unjust; by doing good because it is good. So we come to the 
true state of adopted sons of God, of which St John wrote: 
'Everyone that is born of God doth not sin, for his seed is in him, 
and he cannot sin, because he is born of God'; and e We know 
that everyone who is born of God sinneth not, but his birth 
from God preserveth him, and the wicked one toucheth him 
not.' 89 

This last text, 'he cannot sin, 5 must only be understood of 
deadly sin, not of all sin. In another text St John says that we 
should not even pray for a man who does not want to be rid of 
deadly sin: 'If a man knows his brother to be sinning a sin not 
unto death, let him ask, and he will give him life for them 
that sin not unto death. There is a sin unto death: I do not say 
that he should pray for that.' From sins not unto death the 
most faithful servants of Christ, however vigilantly they live, 
cannot altogether keep themselves free: and of them St John 
says: c lf we say that we have no sin, we deceive ourselves, and 
the truth is not in us': and: 'If we say that we have not sinned, 
we make him a liar, and his word is not in us.' 90 No holy man 
can prevent himself falling into the little sins, sins of speech and 
thought, of ignorance and forgetfulness, sins which we do not 
will and sins that we do will, sins which take us by surprise. 
They are far from being deadly sins; still, they bring guilt. 

10. When a man has come to love goodness and to imitate 
God, then he will be clothed in the Lord's spirit of compassion, 
and pray for his enemies: 'Father, forgive them, they know not 
what they do.' 91 Not to be merciful and sympathetic with 
others' faults, but to be rigid and censorious, is clear proof of a 
soul sunk down in sin. No one like this can obtain perfection of 
heart because he is without that instrument which enables the 
full requirements of the law to be obeyed: as St Paul said: 'bear 
ye one another's burdens, and so fulfil the law of Christ* 5 Nor 
does he possess charity which 'is not grieved, is not puffed up, 
thinketh no evil, endureth all things, beareth all things.' 'A 
righteous heart pitieth the life of his beasts; but the heart of the 
ungodly is without pity.' A monk is certain to fall into the same 
sins which he mercilessly condemns when he finds them in, 
another. 'A rigid king shall fall into evil,' and 'one who stops 

89 Ps. 116:16-17; Matt. 5:44-5; IJohn4:i7; 3:9; and5:i8. 

90 I John 5 : 16; i :8 and 10. 91 Luke 23 :^. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 253 

his ears so as not to hear the weak, shall himself cry, and there 
shall be none to hear him. 3 " 92 

n. Germanus: "You have spoken with power and grandeur 
about the perfect charity of God. But we are troubled for this 
reason. While you were so much exalting charity, you said that 
the fear of God and the hope of eternal reward were imperfect. 
But the prophet seems to have disagreed with you. Tear the 
Lord, all ye his saints: for they that fear him lack nothing. 9 
Again, he avowed that in acting righteously his motive was the 
vision of the reward from God. C I have inclined my heart to do 
thy righteous acts always, for the reward.' And St Paul said: 
c By faith, Moses, when he was grown up, denied himself to be 
the son of Pharaoh's daughter; choosing rather to be afflicted 
with the people of God than to have the pleasure of sin for a 
season, esteeming the reproach of Christ greater riches than the 
treasure of the Egyptians; for he looked unto the reward.' 93 

Then how can we believe fear and hope to be imperfect? 
David gloried that he did righteous deeds with an eye on the 
reward. Moses refused to become a member of a royal family 
out of hope for future reward, and preferred suffering to the 
treasures of Egypt." 

12. Chaeremon: "God's Scriptures call us, who have free 
will, to the different rungs in the ladder of perfection, but call 
one in one way, another in another, according to the mental 
condition of each person. The perfection of each person is not 
the same; the crown of each head is not of the same uniform 
pattern. Not everyone possesses the same power or earnestness 
of will. God's word has offered different measures of perfection 
to different kinds of people. 

This is obvious, from the variety of beatitudes in the Gospel. 
The people whose is the kingdom of heaven are called blessed; 
and the people who shall inherit the earth are called blessed. 
The people who shall be comforted are called blessed, and so 
are those whose hunger after righteousness has been filled. Yet 
we believe that there is a vast difference between living in the 
kingdom of heaven, and possessing as much as you like on earth, 
a vast difference between receiving comfort and being filled with 
righteousness, a vast difference between the merciful who shall 
obtain mercy, and the pure in heart who shall be deemed 
worthy to enjoy the glorious vision of God. 

'For there is one glory of the sun, and another of the moon, 

92 Gal. 6:2;! Cor. 13 14-7; Prov. 12 : 10, LXX; 13 : 17, LXX; 21:13, LXX. 

93 PS. 34:9; 119:112; Hcb, ii 124-6. 



254 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

and another glory of the stars; for star differeth from star in 
glory, so also is the resurrection from the dead. 9 It is in accord 
with this rule that God's Scripture praises those who fear him: 
'Blessed are all they that fear the Lord/ and it even promises 
them a beatitude full and entire. Yet Scripture also says: 'There 
is no fear in love: but perfect love casteth out fear: for fear hath 
torment. But he that feareth is not yet made perfect in love/ 
Again: on the one side Scripture says that it is a grand thing to 
serve the Lord, and 'serve the Lord in fear/ and: c lt is a great 
thing for thee to be called my servant/ and: 'Blessed is that ser- 
vant whom his Lord, when he cometh, shall find so doing.' Yet 
on the other side, the Lord said to the apostles: 'I no longer call 
you servants, for the servant knoweth not what his Lord doeth: 
but I call you friends, for all things whatsoever I have heard 
from my Father, I have made known unto you.' And c Ye are 
my friends, if ye do whatsoever I command you.' 94 

You see how there are different rungs in the ladder of per- 
fection, and that the Lord calls us upward from what is high 
to what is higher. You can be perfect in the fear of God. Then 
you go, as it is written 'from strength to strength/ from one 
kind of perfection to another kind of perfection, from fear to 
hope. In this new stage you are called onward to a still higher 
blessedness, charity. He who was a faithful and wise servant, 
becomes a friend and an adopted son. 

In this light you must understand what I said. I do not assert 
that the continual contemplation of eternal punishment or of 
the blessed reward promised to the saints, is worthless. I assert 
that they are useful and introduce their possessors to the begin- 
ning of the life of bliss: and yet, that charity, with its fuller 
confidence and joy, will take them out of servile fear or hope 
of payment, to love God and be adopted as his sons: so to say, 
from being perfect to being more perfect. 

Our Saviour said: 6 In my Father's house are many man- 
sions.' And although everything shines which is in the sky, 
the sun and the moon and the morning star and the rest do not 
all shine with the same light. St Paul puts charity not only above 
fear and hope, but above every other sort of gift of God, 
however great and wonderful, and sets out to show us 'a more 
excellent way.' When he had finished his catalogue of God's 
gifts, and wanted to describe them more in detail, he first wrote: 
'And yet I show unto you a still more excellent way. Though I 

94J Cor. 15:41-2; Ps. 8:x; I John 4:18; Ps. a:n; Isa, 49:6, UCX; 
Matt. 24:46; John 15:14-15. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 255 

speak with the tongues of men and of angels, and though I have 
the gift of prophecy and understand all mysteries and all know- 
ledge, and though I have all faith so that I can remove moun- 
tains, and though I give all my goods to feed the poor, and give 
my body to be burned and have not charity, it profiteth me 
nothing. 3 You see that there is nothing more precious, more 
perfect, more sublime, more lasting, than charity. 'Whether 
there be prophecies, they shall fail: whether there be tongues, 
they shall cease: whether there be knowledge, it shall vanish 
away. But charity shall never fail.' Without it the most trans- 
cendent and excellent kinds of spiritual gift even the glory of 
martyrdom itself is made nothing. 

13. The man who is rooted in this perfect charity must climb 
one more step to a higher fear. This fear arises not from terror 
of punishment or greed for a reward, but from love. A son fears 
a generous father, brother fears brother, friend fears friend, 
husband fears wife fears not blows nor abuse, but the least 
offence against the loving relationship. In deed and word he 
acts with a reverence, in fear that the love of the other towards 
himself may begin to grow cooler. One of the prophets has 
finely described the grandeur of this kind of fear: c Wisdom and 
knowledge are the riches of salvation: the fear of the Lord is its 
treasure.' He could not have expressed more clearly the value 
of this fear, than by saying that the riches of our salvation 
(which are true wisdom and knowledge of God) cannot be 
preserved without it. The Psalmist invited saints, not sinners, 
to this fear of the Lord: Tear the Lord, all his saints: for they 
that fear him lack nothing.' The man who fears the Lord like 
this, will lack nothing for his perfection. 

St John was obviously talking about fear of punishment when 
he wrote: e he that feareth is not made perfect in love, be- 
cause fear hath punishment.' There is a lot of difference, then, 
between the fear which lacks nothing, which is the treasure of 
wisdom and knowledge, and the imperfect fear which is called 
c the beginning of wisdom,' which carries its own punishment 
with it, and so is expelled from the hearts of the truly charitable. 
For 'there is no fear in love: but perfect love casteth out fear.' 
If fear is the beginning of wisdom, what will the end of wisdom 
be but in Christ's charity, a charity which includes the fear of 
true love, and so is called the treasure of wisdom and know- 
ledge? 

Thus there are two fears. A beginners' fear, the fear of men 
who are still slaves and afraid 'The servant shall fear his Lord/ 



256 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

and the Gospel text, 'I no longer call you servants, for the ser- 
vant knoweth not what his Lord doeth'; and therefore, he said: 
The servant abideth not in the house for ever, but the son 
abideth for ever. 5 He grants us to pass from fear of punishment 
to the fullest liberty of charity and the confidence of the friends 
and sons of God. St Paul, who had himself been brought by 
the Lord's love out of servile fear, laid aside the lower and 
affirmed that the Lord had enriched him with a higher good. 
c God hath not given us the spirit of fear, but of power and of love 
and of a sound mind.' And St Paul thus addressed men who 
truly loved their heavenly Father, and whom God had already 
adopted and transformed from slaves into sons: c You have not 
received the spirit of bondage again to fear, but you have re- 
ceived the spirit of adoption, whereby we cry Abba, Father.' 

The other fear appears in the text where the prophet is des- 
cribing the sevenfold gift of the Spirit which according to the 
mystery of the incarnation full surely descended upon our 
Lord's manhood. 'And there shall rest upon him the spirit of 
the Lord: the spirit of wisdom and understanding, the spirit 
of counsel and strength, the spirit of knowledge and of true 
godliness/ and lastly and emphatically 'the spirit of fear shall 
fill him.' 95 About this text you should first take care to observe 
that he does not say, as of the others, that c the spirit of fear shall 
rest upon him* but * shall fill him. 9 The power of it is so abundant 
that if once it possesses a man in its strength, it possesses his 
mind to the exclusion of all else. Linked with the charity which 
never fails, it fills and permanently possesses the soul whom it 
has seized, and cannot be lessened by the temptations of any 
this-worldly happiness. This is the perfect fear, which is said to 
have filled the Lord's humanity, who came to redeem mankind 
and give them their example and pattern of goodness. The true 
Son of God, who did no sin, neither was guile found in his 
mouth, could not feel the servile fear of punishment." 

14. Germanus: "Now that you have finished your descrip- 
tion of perfect charity, I should like to ask a further question, 
on the aim of chastity. I am sure that the pinnacle of charity, 
whereby we reach up to the image and likeness of God, cannot 
exist without perfect chastity. But we should like you to teach 
us whether chastity so stable that no allurement ever interrupts 
the heart's integrity is a possibility in this life." 

15. Chaeremon: "It is a mark of holiness to be always learn- 

ss Mai. i :6, LXX; John 15:15 and 8:35; II Tim. 1:7; Rom. 8:15; Isa. 



11:2. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 257 

ing or teaching how to cleave to the Lord. Day and night, as the 
Psalmist said, we ought to meditate on him all our lives, and 
thereby nourish the mind in its hunger and thirst after righteous- 
ness, a hunger and thirst which can never be satisfied. 

But the Saviour in his loving-kindness wishes us to look after 
our servant the body: and we ought to look after its needs so 
that it may not grow too tired. 'The spirit is willing but the 
flesh is weak.' 96 It is time to eat a little, and afterwards we shall 
be able to discuss your enquiry more attentively." 

[Chaeremon went on in his second conference to the theme 
of chastity as a possible state of life, distinguished from, and 
higher than, continence, but only possible by God's grace and 
long patience. In the third conference of Chaeremon (Conference 
13) Cassian took the opportunity, since he had been led to the 
subject of grace, to write a tract against St Augustine's views 
on predestination and irresistible grace. He was ever anxious 
to preserve the sense of moral responsibility and initiative and 
effort, which he feared that the Augustinian doctrines must 
undermine. 

Conference 14 is the first conference of Abba Nesteros, and 
on "spiritual knowledge," i.e., the way to understand and 
interpret the Scriptures, and the moral qualities and religious 
insight necessary for rightly understanding them.] 

CONFERENCE 15 
The Second Conference of Abba Nesteros 

ON MIRACULOUS GIFTS 

i. After evening service, we sat down as usual on the mats, 
ready to listen to the talk which he had promised. For some 
little time we kept a respectful silence: and he it was who spoke 
first. 

"In the course of our previous talk we have come naturally 
to the subject of spiritual gifts. 

The traditions of the elders teach that there are three reasons 
for these gifts. One is for purposes of healing, a grace which 
sometimes accompanies holy and chosen men because of their 
sanctity. We read that the apostles and many of the saints did 
signs and wonders by the Lord's authority: c heal the sick, raise 
the dead, cleanse the lepers, cast out devils: freely ye have 
received, freely give.' 97 
96 Ps. 1:2; Matt 15:32 and 126:41, 9 7 Matt. 10:8. 



258 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

The second reason is to edify the church, to build up the faith 
of the people who bring their sick, or who are themselves in 
need of healing. Here the power of healing proceeds even from 
men who are sinners unworthy of it. The Saviour says in the 
Gospel: 'Many shall say to me in that day. Lord, Lord, have we 
not prophesied in thy name, and in thy name cast out devils, 
and in thy name done many mighty works? And then I will 
confess to them, I never knew you: Depart from me, ye workers 
of iniquity.' But if the patients, or those who bring them, lack 
faith, this prevents the men who possess the gift of healing from 
exercising it. So the evangelist Luke wrote: 'Jesus could not 
there do any mighty work because of their unbelief: and the 
Lord himself said: 'Many lepers were in Israel in the days of 
Elisha the prophet, and none of them was cleansed but Naaman 
the Syrian/ 98 

The third is healing worked by the deceitful power of demons. 
It happens when a man who is obviously a sinner is regarded as 
a saint and friend of God because he works miracles, others are 
led to copy his sins, scandal arises, and religion is defamed: or 
sometimes the demons do it to lift into pride the man who be- 
lieves himself to possess the miraculous gift, and so prepare him 
for a more disastrous fall. They pretend that they are being 
burnt up and driven out from the bodies where they were 
dwelling through the holiness of people whom truly they know 
to be unholy." 

2. Then we ought not to admire people, who possess these 
powers, on account of these powers. We should see whether 
they are morally reformed. God's grace gives this to a man, not 
for miscellaneous reasons like the faith of someone else, but in 
proportion to his own earnestness. This is the knowledge of true 
goodness, which St Paul calls charity, and is more excellent 
than all the tongues of men and of angels, the faith which 
moves mountains, all knowledge, the sacrifice of one's property, 

s>8 Matt. 7:22-3; Mark 6:5-6; Matt. 13:58; Luke 4:27* 
99 "Deuteronomy refers to this: *If there rise up in the midst of thee a 
prophet, or one who says that he has seen a dream, and declare a sign 
and wonder, and that which he hath spoken cometh to pass, and he say 
to thee: Let us go and follow after other gods whom thou knowcst not, 
and let us serve them: thou shalt not hear the words of that prophet or of 
that dreamer, for the Lord thy God is tempting thee, that li may appear 
whether thou lovest him or not, with all thy heart and with all thy soul.' 
And in the Gospel we read: 'There shall arise false Christs and false 
prophets, and shall give great signs and wonders, so that, if it were pos- 
sible, even the elect should be led astray' (Deut. 13 : 1-3; Matt. 24:24).'* 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 259 

even than the ultimate glory of martyrdom. First he gave a list 
of the different sorts of spiritual gifts e to one is given by the 
spirit the word of wisdom, to another the word of knowledge, 
to another faith, to another the gift of healing, to another the 
working of miracles' and the rest. And then he laconically puts 
charity above them all, 'and yet show I unto you a more excel- 
lent way.' The text is plain: the summit of perfection and 
blessedness consists not in working miracles but in pure charity* 
All else will pass away, charity will abide. 

That is why I never saw my teachers set any store by miracles. 
Even when they possessed this particular grace of the Holy 
Spirit, they would never use it except in some extreme and 
compelling necessity. 

3. I remember how Abba Macarius, who was the first to live 
alone in the desert of Scete, raised a dead man to life. It hap- 
pened like this. 

A heretic, a disciple of Eunomius, was trying to pervert the 
catholic faith by skilful argument, and had succeeded in cap- 
turing a good number of followers. Disturbed by these losses, 
catholic men asked blessed Macarius to come and save the 
simple faith of all Egypt from this shipwreck- Wheft Macarius 
came, the heretic used subtle syllogisms to attack him, and tried 
to drag him into the prickly jungle of Aristotle, about whom 
Macarius knew nothing. But Macarius replied to his lengthy 
arguments by a short text of St Paul. 'The kingdom of God is 
not in word, but in power.' 1 Let us go to the cemetery, and 
invoke the name of the Lord upon the first corpse we find. Let 
us prove our faith by our works, as the Scripture says* Let the 
Lord's testimony decide upon the orthodox faith, and not a 
futile debate. This is the judgement which is infallible." 

The heretic was very embarrassed at hearing this in the 
middle of the crowd, but for the moment he pretended to 
agree and promised to appear there next day. When the next 
day came, all the people assembled expecting a great spectacle. 
But the heretic, stricken by the consciousness of his infidelity, 
fled away and escaped from Egypt. Macarius and the people 
waited for him until 3 o'clock. But seeing that he had refused 
the contest, Macarius gathered the people whose faith had been 
perverted and led them to the cemetery. 

The river Nile overflows and covers the whole country for no 
small part of the year,, turning it into what looks like a sea, and 
making boats the only means of communication. Hence the 
1 1 Cor. 4:20. 



260 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Egyptians have the custom of embalming the dead and then 
burying them in tombs lifted above ground level. The soil is 
too damp to make normal interment possible. If you bury a 
body in it, the successive floods bring it to the surface. 

Macarius stood by a very old corpse, and said: 'Man, tell me 
this. If that damnable heretic had come here with me and I 
had invoked in his presence the name of Christ my God, 
would you have risen from the dead in front of these people, 
who were almost led away by his false teaching? 5 The man rose 
and said that he would. Then Abba Macarius asked him what 
he had been during his life, when he lived and whether he had 
known Christ's name. He said that he lived under the ancient 
kings of Egypt and had not in those days heard of Christ's 
name. So Abba Macarius replied: 'Sleep in peace with the rest 
of your fellows, waiting for Christ to raise you at the last.' 

Perhaps this power of grace in Macarius would always have 
remained hidden unless he had been driven to work the miracle 
by the danger into which the province was running, and by his 
true love for Christ. He did it not for the sake of ostentation, 
but was forced to do it for the love of Christ and the good of the 
people. This is what Elijah did, as we read in the Book of Kings, 
when he called down fire from heaven upon the sacrifice ready 
on the pyre, so as to free his people's faith from being en- 
dangered by the wonder-working of the false prophets. 

4. Perhaps I should say a little of the deeds of Abba Abraham, 
who was nicknamed the Simple because of his innocence and 
the simplicity of his manners. In Eastertide he had gone from 
his hermitage into Egypt with the aim of harvesting. A woman 
besieged him, weeping and praying, for her baby who was al- 
ready weak and half-dead from lack of milk. Abraham gave her 
a cup of water, signed with the sign of the cross: and as soon as 
she drankit, her dry breasts began marvellously to flow with milk* 

5. Once when he went to a village, a mocking crowd 
surrounded him and jeered at him. They showed him a man 
who for many years had had a crippled knee and was forced to 
crawl, and tempted him saying: 'Abba Abraham, give us a sign 
if you are a servant of God, and restore this cripple to health 
or we shall believe that the name of Christ whom you worship 
is powerless.' He at once invoked Christ's name, stooped down, 
and pulled the man's withered foot out. And at his touch the 
bent and withered knee was straightened, and he happily 
walked away on his legs, which he had forgotten how to use 
through so many years of weakness. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 26l 

6. These men felt no pride in their power to do miracles of 
this sort. They said that the miracles were wrought by them, not 
because they were good men, but because the Lord was merci- 
ful. They rejected the admiration which comes from popular 
regard for miracles, using the words of the apostle: 'Men. and 
brothers, why marvel ye at this, or why look ye on us as though 
by our own power or holiness we had caused this man to walk? 9 
They thought that a man should never be cried up for the 
wonderful gifts of God, but only if he was a good man doing 
good intentionally. Men of corrupted minds, heretics, cast out 
devils and work miracles in the name of the Lord. It is true that 
when the apostles complained: 'Master, we saw one casting out 
devils in thy name, and we forbade him because he followeth 
not with us, 5 Christ at the time replied: Torbid him not, for he 
that is not against you is for you.' But when in the judgement 
these wonder-workers say: 'Lord, Lord, have we not in thy 
name prophesied, and in thy name cast out devils, and in thy 
name done many mighty works?', Christ proclaimed that he 
would answer: e l never knew you: depart from me, ye workers 
of iniquity.' 

He himself warns people to whom he gives this power of 
miracles because of their holiness, that they are not to be 
proud of it: c Rejoice not because the devils are subject to you, 
but rejoice rather because your names are written in heaven.' 2 

7. He who is the author of all miracles and wonder-working 
called his true and chosen disciples to hear his teaching, and 
showed them what they were most particularly to learn. 'Come, 
and learn of me' not to cast out devils by heaven's power, not 
to heal lepers, not to raise the dead. Though I do these things by 
some of my servants, man cannot ascribe to himself the praise 
due to God, cannot snatch for himself any part of the glory due 
to God alone: man is but the agent, the minister. Instead, he 
said: 'Learn of me, for I am meek and lowly in heart.' 3 Every- 
one can learn this lesson and obey it. Wonders and powers are 
not always necessary, for some are harmful, and are not 
granted to everyone. 

Humility, then, is the queen of all the virtues, she is the 
stable foundation of the house of heaven, she is the peculiar 
and marvellous gift of the Saviour. The only person who can 
without risk of pride work the miracles which Christ wrought, 
is the man who follows our gentle Lord not in working miracles 

2 Acts 3 : 12; Luke 9 :49-5o; Matt. 7 :22~3; Luke 10 :ao. 

3 Matt. 11:28-9. 



WESTERN ASCETICISM 

but in patience and humility. He whose motive is ostentation 
in commanding unclean spirits or healing the sick or showing 
some wonderful sign to the people, is a stranger to Christ though 
he invokes Christ's name: for he is proud, and follows not his 
master's humility. 

When the Lord was returning to his Father, he wrote, so to 
say, his will, and left it to his disciples thus; 'A new command- 
ment give I unto you that ye love one another; as I have loved 
you, so do ye also love one another 3 : and immediately after- 
wards, 'By this shall all men know that ye are my disciples, if 
ye have love to one another.' He did not say: 'If ye do signs and 
miracles like me,' but 'if ye love one another.' Surely none but 
the humble and the meek can obey this commandment. 

That is why our elders never counted as true monks men who 
boasted of their exorcising powers and spread the grace which 
they possessed (or alleged they possessed) in front of crowds of 
admirers. And the ostentation was futile. 'He who trusteth in 
lies feedeth the winds; and the same runneth after birds that 
fly away,' We find their retribution in the Book of Proverbs, 
'Whoso boasteth himself of a false gift is as easy to see as the 
wind and the clouds and the rain.' 4 

So, if we are present when someone works a miracle, we are 
not to admire him because of the act, but only for his moral 
life. We are not to ask whether the devils are subject to him, 
but whether he possesses the charity which St Paul described. 

8. It is a bigger miracle to eject passion from your own body 
than it is to eject an evil spirit from another's body. It is a 
bigger miracle to be patient and refrain from anger than it is to 
control the demons which fly through the air. It is better to rid 
your own heart of the melancholy which corrodes it, than it is to 
rid someone else of bodily disease. The power which heals your 
own soul is finer and loftier than the power which heals 
another's body. The soul is more important than the body, its 
salvation more urgent. The more precious the material, the 
more destructive is the fall, 

9. Of bodily healing, the Lord said to his apostles: 'Rejoice 
not that the devils are subject to you.' 5 They did it not in their 
own strength, but in the power of his name which they invoked, 
So they are warned against the presumption of claiming any 
glory on this score, for God did it by his power. They arc warned 
to claim glory on the ground of the inner purity of life and 

4 John 13:34-5; Frov. 10 ; 4; Prov. 25:14, 

5 Luke 10:20. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 263 

heart, for thereby it was granted that their names should be 
written in heaven. 

10. I will prove what I have said by ancient evidence and 
God's oracles. Here are the very words of the blessed Paph- 
nutius, when giving his opinion about admiration of miracles 
and the grace of purity : words which he learnt from the mouth of 
an angel. In his old age Paphnutius still kept a strictly discip- 
lined rule of life. He believed that he was absolutely immune 
from temptations to his chastity, for he knew that in the long 
struggles with demons he had always emerged the victor. 

One day some monks were visiting him; and while he was 

Sreparing for them the lentil porridge which they call athera, a 
ame darted out and burnt his hand while it was itx the oven 
it easily happens. But Paphnutius was deeply depressed, and 
began to consider silently in his mind thus: 'Why is there not 
peace between me and the fire? The fiercer fighting with the 
demons has ceased: yet this little ephemeral fire has attacked 
me. What of the eternal fire on the dreadful day of judgement 
which searches out the good and the bad? Will it pass me over?' 
His mind was still chasing these melancholy thoughts when sleep 
suddenly came over him. And in his sleep, an angel of the Lord 
came, and said: 'Why are you sad, Paphnutius? Are you sad 
that you are not yet at peace with the fire from the oven, while 
you have not fully purified the lusts of your body? So long as the 
roots of that lust dwell within you, they will not let the material 
fire be at peace with you. You will not feel it at peace with you 
unless you make the following experiment to prove that all lust 
is extinct. Go, lay hold upon a fair maiden. Atxd if your heart 
remains tranquil, and your bodily senses serene, this fire in the 
oven will be as harmless and gentle to you as it was to the three 
children in the burning fiery furnace at Babylon.' 

Old Paphnutius was struck by the vision, and did not risk 
the experiment which God had suggested, he guessed that his 
chastity might not stand the test. Instead, he examined his 
conscience, and investigated the purity of his heart. e lt is not 
then surprising,' he said, 'that I feel the fire to be still hostile to 
me though I have conquered unclean devils and believe the 
fire's onslaught to be far more trivial than those of the 
demons. It is a greater gift to kill lust within than to drive 
the devils without by the Lord's high power and invocation of 
his name.' " 

So Abba Nesteros ended his account of the true working of 
the miraculous gifts of God. Moved by his teaching we were 



264 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

eager to hear the elder, Joseph, whose cell was some six miles 
away: and Abba Nesteros conducted us thither. 

[The two Conferences of Joseph were delivered upon friend- 
ship and on making promises, the second because Cassian or his 
friends were worried by his breaking of his word to the com- 
munity at Bethlehem of an early return. These two Conferences 
ended the second division of Cassian's work. But he was also 
sending seven other Conferences to the monks living in the 
Stoechades islands, and these are at present Conferences 18-24, 
a group miscellaneous in character. Here are translated the 
eighteenth, on the three kinds of monks: and the nineteenth, on 
the aims of the coenobite and hermit.] 

CONFERENCE 18 
Conference of Abba Piamun 

ON THE THREE SORTS OF MONKS 

i. After we had visited and talked with those three old men, 
whose conferences I have tried to describe at the request of our 
brother Eucherius, Germanus and I were still eager to visit the 
remoter parts of Egypt where most of the holy men were 
living. We came to Diolcos, a village near one of the seven 
mouths of the Nile. It was off our route, but we wanted to see 
the ascetics there. The moment we heard of a celebrated 
monastery founded by the old fathers, we started out thither 
not knowing what we should find like money-making mer- 
chants, risking the journey but hoping for greater profits. 

At Diolcos we wandered round for a long time from cell to 
cell. We were like travellers surveying a high range of moun- 
tains, who in the end found the highest Abba Piamun, towering 
over the others in his sanctity, the oldest of the ascetics there and 
their priest. The others directed us to him because they looked 
towards him as navigators guide their course by a lighthouse. 
Like the city set on the hill in the Gospel, shining its light upon 
the country, Piamun enlightened us. God's grace testified to 
his goodness, for in our presence he worked miracles. But them 
I must omit, if I am to keep to the proper plan of this book. I 
did not promise to write about God's miracles, but about the 
discipline and rules of the holy men as far as I can remember 
them. My intention is to show people how to lead the good life, 
not to give the reader idle stories which are useless for reform- 
ing his character. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 265 

When Piamun understood that we were strangers, he wel- 
comed us warmly and hospitably. He first asked where we had 
come from, and why we had come. And when he heard that we 
had come to Egypt from a community in Syria with the aim of 
finding the way of perfection, he began to talk. 

2. "My sons, anyone who wants to be skilful at an art will 
fail unless he takes the utmost pains to study the system and 
observe the rules of the best masters. It is silly to think you can 
become like people whose industry you are refusing to imitate, 
simply by wishing to become like them. I have met people who 
have come here from your country simply to travel round the 
monasteries without any intention of starting to keep the rules of 
the monks or of retiring into cells and putting into practice what 
they have seen or heard. They retained their native character 
and manners: and some allege that they really changed their 
country not with any purpose of spiritual profit, but simply be- 
cause they were poor and in want in their own country. They 
were so obstinate that they could learn nothing, and could not 
even stay any length of time here. And if they came here and 
yet changed nothing, not fasting, nor psalmody, nor clothes, we 
naturally thought their only reason for coming here was to 
find food. 

3. I believe that you have come here because God has drawn 
you to follow our way to knowledge. And if so, you must 
altogether abandon the rules which you were taught in Syria 
during the early days of your vocation, and humbly follow 
whatever you see our elders do or teach. You must not be 
troubled or stop imitating us because at the moment you do 
not see the reason of something. If men are (in the right sense) 
simple enough to think well of everything, if they are careful 
to copy whatever the elders have taught or practised, and not to 
argue about it then through experience they come to know 
the reason why. The man who learns by argument will never 
find the true reason: for the enemy, seeing him trust to his own 
judgement rather than that of the fathers, easily pushes him 
into thinking valuable and saving practices to be harmful or 
futile. The enemy can cleverly play on his presumption: and so he 
clings obstinately to his unreasonable opinions, and decides that 
only to be holy which his stubborn judgement regards as right. 

4. First, you should know how our way of life arose, and who 
founded it. A man can only be trained effectively in some art 
and be led to practise it earnestly, when he recognizes the 
eminence of its authors. 



266 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

In Egypt there are three kinds of monks. Two are excellent, 
the third is half-hearted and at all costs to be avoided. 

The first kind is the coenobites. These are monks living in 
a community under the government of a single elder. Most of 
the Egyptian monks are coenobites. 

The second kind is the hermits. These are men who have first 
been trained in communities to the life of virtue and have then 
chosen to live a completely hidden and solitary life. This is the 
life which I wish to follow. 

The third, and culpable, kind is the Sarabaites. 

I shall talk about each of these three kinds in turn. First, 
as I said, you ought to know the founders of each kind. From 
this knowledge alone may arise a dislike of the sort which is to 
be shunned, and a desire for the sort which is to be followed. 
Each way will carry the man who follows it to the destination 
which its founder reached. 

5. The system of the coenobites arose at the time when the 
apostles were preaching. The crowd of believers in Jerusalem 
was of this sort, as it is described in the Acts of the Apostles: 'The 
multitude of believers was of one heart and one soul, neither 
said any of them that any of the things which he possessed was 
his own, but they had all things in common. They sold their 
possessions and property and divided them to all, as any man 
had need/ And, Tor neither was there any among them that 
lacked; for as many as possessed fields or houses, sold them and 
brought the price of the things that they sold and laid them 
before the apostles' feet: and distribution was made to every 
man as he had need/ 

The whole Church, I assert, lived then as the coenobites live, 
now so few that it is difficult to find them. 

But after the death of the apostles, crowds of strangers and 
men of different races flowed into the Church; the apostles had 
judged that since they were new converts and had grown 
accustomed to pagan habits, nothing more should be asked of 
them than that they should 'abstain from things sacrificed to 
idols, and from fornication, and from things strangled, and from 
blood.' 6 Their faith was cooler than the faith of the first 
Christians: and so the faith of the whole Christian body began 
to grow cold. The liberty, conceded to the Gentiles because they 
were neophytes and therefore weak in faith, began little by little 
to infect the whole Church at Jerusalem and diminish its per- 

s Acts 4: 32-5; 2:45; 15:29. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 267 

feet life* And as day by day the number of converts at home 
and abroad grew, and the primitive Christians lost their 
fervour, the leaders of the Church as well as the new converts 
began to lose something of their strict discipline. There were 
some who thought they might lawfully do what was allowed 
to the Gentiles, and follow Christ though they kept all their 
property and money. 

And so the Christians who were still fervent as the Christians 
of apostolic days, and remembered the original and perfect way 
of life, left their cities and the company of those who thought 
they could live negligently and comfortably in God's Church, 
and dwelt in places outside the cities, or in even more remote 
haunts. They began to keep privately and as individuals the 
rules which they remembered were given by the apostles to the 
whole Church. 

The coenobites' discipline grew up from the disciples who 
separated themselves in order not to be infected by lax Chris- 
tians. After a short time, marked out from most of the faithful 
by their celibacy and their separation from their relatives and 
society, they came to be known as monks or monazontes, because 
they lived a disciplined life alone* When they joined together 
they were known as coenobites, and their cells and habitations 
were called coenobia. This was the earliest kind of monk; first 
in time and in the grace of God; and for many years, until the 
time of Abba Paul and Antony, it remained the only kind. We 
still see the traces of it in strict coenobia. 

6. These coenobites, men of perfect life, were, if I may say 
so, a stem from which grew many flowers and fruit the 
hermits. Everyone knows the founders of this way, whom I men- 
tioned just now, Abba Paul and Antony. Their motive for 
choosing the solitary life was not cowardice nor intolerance of 
community living, but a wish to advance further in the con- 
templation of God (though Paul is said to have been driven 
into the desert to escape arrest during the persecution). So this 
second way of perfection sprang out of the first. Its followers 
are called anchorites, that is withdrawers. They have not re- 
mained satisfied with defeating the attacks which the devils 
secretly plan in human society, but have been ready to meet 
them in open war. That is why they have penetrated courage- 
ously into the fastnesses of the desert, like John the Baptist who 
remained in, the desert all his life, or Elijah and Elisha and the 
others whom St Paul mentioned: 'They wandered about in 
sheepskins and goatskins, being in want, distressed, afflicted, of 



268 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

whom the world was not worthy: wandering in deserts, in 
mountains and caves of the earth.' 7 

7. While the Christian religion was happy in these two ways 
for monks (though by degrees the system of the hermits also 
began to deteriorate) there appeared, or rather reappeared, 
a faithless variety of monk: the kind which was represented by 
Ananias and Sapphira, at the beginning of the Church's history, 
and which the apostle, Peter, had so severely forbidden. The 
apostle did not allow the inventors of this sinful way to be res- 
tored after repentance and satisfaction, but destroyed them as 
you would a noxious weed. As long as the memory of Peter's 
severity remained impressed upon the faithful, this kind of 
monk was regarded as hateful by everyone and no one tried 
that way of iSe. But when the memory of the dread sentence 
on Ananias and Sapphira had faded, gradually there appeared 
the Sarabaites. This is an Egyptian word, meaning persons who 
have deserted their communities and live each to himself. They 
are descended from Ananias and Sapphira. They do not follow 
the perfect way: they prefer to pretend to follow it. No doubt 
they want to be rivals of, and to gain the kind of credit given to, 
people who choose Christ's utter poverty above all the riches 
of the world. 

They pursue true goodness feebly. They must needs become 
monks in order to gain the repute of monks, but they make no 
effort to follow their discipline, disregard the rules of the com- 
munities, are outside all control from the elders, fail to use the 
elders' traditions to conquer their self-will. They make a public 
profession of renunciation, and acquire the credit of the title, 

7 "The Lord's words to Job refer to them figuratively: ( But who hath sent 
out the wild ass free, and who hath loosed his bands? To them I have 
given the wilderness for a house, and a barren land for his dwelling. He 
scorneth the multitude of the city and heareth not the cry of the tax- 
collector. He looketh round about the mountains of his pasture, and 
seeketh for every green thing.' So in the Psalms: 'Let now the redeemed 
of the Lord speak, those whom he hath redeemed from the hand of the 
enemy. . . . They wandered in a wilderness, in a place without water. 
They found not the way of an inhabited city. They were hungry and 
thirsty: their soul fainted in them. And they cried unto the Lord in their 
trouble, and he delivered them out of their distress.' So Jeremiah: 'Blessed 
is the man that hath borne the yoke from his youth. He shall sit solitary 
and keep silent, because he hath taken it up upon himself.* It is the hermits 
who with love and in earnest sing the words of the Psalmist: *I am become 
like a pelican in the wilderness. I watched, and am become like a sparrow 
alone upon the house-top' (Heb. 11 :37-8; Job 39:5-8, LXX; Ps. 107: 
2-6; Lam. 3 :a7-8; Ps. 102 :7-8)." 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 269 

and then go on living in their homes just as before, carrying on 
the same work; or they build cells for themselves, call them 
'monasteries' and live in them as they please. They disobey the 
Gospel commands not to be anxious about our daily bread or 
our everyday affairs. It is only possible to obey these commands 
if you abandon all your property, and so subject yourself to the 
superiors of a community that you cannot say you are your own 
master in anything. 

Shirking the austere rule of a community: living two or three 
together in a cell; under no direction: aiming above all else at 
having freedom from the elders, of going where they like, and 
of satisfying whatever passion they Hke they are more busied 
about the necessities of life day and night than are coenobites. 
But their intentions and faith are quite different from those of 
coenobites. They toil, not to offer their produce or earnings to 
the steward of the community, but to save money for themselves. 
See what a gulf lies between them. The coenobite takes no 
thought for the morrow, and offers God the most acceptable 
fruits of his labour. The Sarabaite is faithlessly anxious, not only 
about the morrow, but about years ahead: he believes God false 
or impotent, because he has promised to give sufficient food and 
clothing and yet cannot or will not. The coenobite prayerfully 
seeks absolute poverty for ever, the Sarabaite seeks wealth. The 
coenobite struggles to fulfil more than the regular task in his 
daily work, so that if the monastery has more than it needs, the 
extra money may be given away by the abbot in prisons or in the 
guestchamber or in the infirmary or to the poor: the Sarabaite 
works so that whatever is extra above his daily but greedy 
needs, may be spent extravagantly or saved for his future use. 
Even granting that their ill-gotten earnings are sometimes dis- 
tributed in better ways than these, it is still true that they are 
not aspiring after goodness. The coenobite, in his humility and 
obedience, accounts to the monastery daily for what he has 
earned, and surrenders it with the same self-sacrifice with which 
he originally devoted himself to poverty; he re-dedicates him- 
self daily to a life of renunciation. The Sarabaite every day 
rushes headlong into sin by being complacent about his gener- 
osity to the poor. The coenobite, patient under his discipline, 
continuing steadfastly in his chosen way, never to obey self- will, 
becomes crucified daily to the world, a martyr while he is still 
on earth. The Sarabaite is dragged down to hell by his half- 
heartedness. 

In Egypt there are almost equal numbers of coenobites and 



270 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Sarabaites. But in other provinces, where the needs ^ of the 
Catholic faith have forced me to travel, I have found this third 
kind, the Sarabaites, to be abundant, and almost the only sort 
of monk. 

In the time of Lucius, who was an Arian bishop during the 
reign of Valens, I ministered to the brethren from Egypt and 
the Thebaid who had been exiled to the mines of Pontus and 
Armenia because they stood firm in their orthodoxy. And on 
this journey, I very occasionally found disciplined coenobites 
in a number of cities, but I discovered that no one had even 
heard of the way of the hermits. 

8. There is also a fourth kind of monk, which lately I have 
observed appearing among people who look and behave like 
hermits. At first they are fervent and for a short time seek the 
true coenobite's life. But they quickly grow lukewarm, because 
they are too complacent to put aside their old sins, will not bear 
the yoke of humility and patience for long, disdain the control 
of the elders: and therefore they look out for separate cells and 
want to live alone. Since no one will then trouble them, they 
will be able to be reputed patient, gentle and humble. 

This half-hearted scheme prevents anyone whom it infects 
from approaching the way of perfection. So far from being 
eradicated, sins strike deeper roots. It is like a fatal poison in the 
stomach the more deep-seated in the body, the more it creeps 
onward and generates incurable disease. Out of reverence for 
the solitary, no one dares to criticize his faults: and so he has 
chosen rather to know nothing about his own faults than to get 
rid of them. Goodness is begotten, not by forgetting about sin, 
but by destroying it." 

9. Germanus: "Is there any difference between the coenobiurn 
and the monastery, or are they two names for the same thing?" 

10. Piamun: "Some people use the two words as synonyms. 
But there is this much difference. Monastery means the spot, 
the place where the monks live. Coenobium means not only 
where they live but how they live, the kind of rule they adopt. 
And monastery can be used to mean a hermit's cell, coenobium 
cannot be used except where a number of brothers are dwelling 
together in unity. Monastery is also used to describe the groups 
of Sarabaites. 

11. I see that you have learnt the principles of this way of 
life from the best kind of monks. You are aiming at the heights 
of the hermit's way after being rightly trained in the coenobium. 
I am sure that you there learnt humility and patience and arc 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 27! 

still following them and truly following them from the heart, 
not merely putting on an appearance by humble-sounding 
words and humble-seeming postures. 

Once Abba Sarapion finely mocked this sham humility. A 
man arrived at his cell, making a great show of lowliness in his 
dress and speech. Sarapion, as is usual, asked him to offer a 
collect. The visitor refused, and said that he was guilty of such 
crimes that he did not deserve even to breathe the same air: 
refusing the mat, he sat on the ground: still less would he allow 
Sarapion to wash his feet. After supper it is usual to have a 
religious conference. So Sarapion began, with kindness and 
gentleness, to warn him against being an idle and haphazard 
wanderer, especially as he was young and strong. He told him 
that he ought to settle in a cell, subject himself to the rules of 
the elders, and maintain himself by his own work instead of 
living on the hospitality of others. Since St Paul was working 
for the spread of the Gospel, he might reasonably have lived on 
others. Yet he preferred to work day and night to get daily 
bread for himself and those who were ministering to him and 
could not work themselves. 8 

At this speech the visitor fell into grief and vexation, and 
could not keep the bitterness of his heart out of his face. So 
Sarapion said: e My son, you have accused yourself of bearing 
the burden of crime, and you were not afraid to lower your 
reputation by confessing wicked sins. How is it, then, that I see 
you moved with indignation, so that you cannot even pretend 
to keep a serene countenance, at my simple little piece of advice? 
There was nothing abusive in what I said, its motives were 
edification and friendship. Is it possible that in humiliating 
yourself you were hoping to hear me say: "The righteous man 
is his own accuser when he begins to speak"? 9 You must keep 
true humility of heart: and true humility comes, not from 
affectation of posture or speech but from an interior humbling 
of the mind. Humility and patience will shine out, not when a 
man accuses himself of crimes which no one will believe, but 
when he bears arrogant and unjust abuse with a gentle peace- 
ableness.' " 

12. Germanus: "We should like to know how to get and keep 
that tranquillity. If we are told to be silent, it is easy to say 
nothing. But we sometimes lose interior gentleness of heart even 

s Gf. II Thess. 3 :8; Acts 20:34. 

$ Prov. 18:17, LXX. For this story, cf. Apophthegmato, Serapion, 6.4: 
Verba Seniorum VIII, 9: and these translations, p* 98. 



272 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

when we succeed in being silent. So I think that no one can be 
stable in gentleness unless he is living alone in a hermit's cell." 

13. Piamun: "The only source of true patience and tranquil- 
lity is deep humility of heart. If it flows from this source, you do 
not need the solitary's cell to gain it. If it is nourished intern- 
al^ by its mother and guardian humility, it needs no external 
support. 

But if criticism annoys us, it is certain that humility has no 
firm foundation, for even a mild breeze can ruinously shake our 
house. The patience which is admirable does not consist in a 
peace of mind which is retained because it is never assailed: it 
consists in the peace which remains amid tempestuous tempta- 
tions to lose it. Troubles which the world thinks will overthrow 
it are its strengthening: blows which the world thinks will blunt 
it, are its sharpening. 

Everyone knows that patience is derived from passion and 
endurance: and therefore that you cannot call anyone patient 
unless he endures indignities without annoyance. So Solomon 
rightly praised the patient man: 'Better is the patient man than 
the strong, and he who restrains his anger more than he that 
taketh a city'; and C A long-suffering man is mighty in prudence, 
but a faint-hearted man is very foolish. 9 10 Therefore, if a 
wronged man flares up in anger, the wrongful abuse should not 
be thought the cause of his sin, but the manifestation of a hidden 
weakness. 

Our Lord and Saviour taught a parable about two houses, 
one founded on a rock and the other on sand. On both houses 
fell the rain and the floods and the storms. But the one built on 
the rock sustained the violence unharmed: the one built on 
shifting sand straightway collapsed. It is obvious that it did not 
collapse because the rains and the floods beat upon it, but be- 
cause it had been built foolishly on sand. The saint does not 
differ from the sinner in not being tempted so strongly. The saint 
is not conquered by a great onslaught, the sinner falls to a 
trivial temptation. As I said, we should not praise the courage 
of a man who had won a fight without opposition. No conflict 
with an enemy no victory. 

'Blessed is the man that endureth temptation, for when he 
has been proved, he shall receive the crown of life which God 
hath promised to them that love him.' St Paul said that 
'strength is made perfect' not in ease and comfort, but 'in 
weakness.' Tor behold, I have made thee this day a fortified 
10 Prov. 16:32, LXX; 14:29, LXX. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 273 

city, and a pillar of iron, and a wall of brass, over all the land, 
to the kings of Judah, and to the princes thereof, and to the 
priests thereof, and to the people of the land. And they shall 
fight against thee, and shall not prevail: for I am with thee, saith 
the Lord, to deliver thee.' n 

14. I want to give you two examples of true patience. 

A religious woman was once so ardent in pursuing patience 
that she sought out temptation instead of avoiding it. She 
wanted to test herself and teach herself not to yield. She was of 
aristocratic ancestry, and lived at Alexandria, serving the Lord 
faithfully in the house left to her by her parents. She went to 
Bishop Athanasius of blessed memory, and asked him to allow 
her to support one of the widows at present being maintained 
by the Church's treasury. Her actual words were: 'Give me one 
of the sisters to look after.' The bishop praised her intention and 
saw that she was generous in her almsgiving. So he ordered that 
one of the widows should be selected who was outstanding in 
integrity and seriousness and self-discipline. Otherwise, if the 
recipient of the charity were a sinner or wicked woman, he was 
afraid the donor's generosity would be diminished or that in 
disgust she might even take some harm to her own faith. 

Taking the widow home, the lady rendered her every service. 
She soon discovered her modesty and gentleness, and found 
that she was given thanks for everything which she did. So 
after a few days she returned to Bishop Athanasius and said: 
'I asked you to give me someone to refresh, someone whom I 
could try to please by my services.' Athanasius did not yet 
understand what she wanted, and thought that the head of his 
tieasury must have neglected to obey his command. Enquiring 
with some heat the cause of the delay, he discovered that she 
had been, given the most honourable widow on the Church's 
list. So he gave secret orders that she should be given the worst 
of the widows, the one who bawled and brawled and drank and 
gossiped more than any other widow guilty of these vices. It 
was all too easy to find the woman. The lady received her, be- 
gan to keep her at home, serve her as carefully as she had served 
die first. Now the only thanks she got was reviling and wrong- 
doing and cursing; the woman complained continually that 
she had been asked from the bishop with no intention of doing 
her good but solely with the object of torturing and scorning 
her: she said that instead of passing from labour to rest, she had 
passed from rest to labour. Her wanton abuse culminated in 
n James i : 12; II Cor. 12 :g; Jer. i : 18-19, 



274 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

blows. But the lady meekly redoubled her efforts to serve her. 
She learnt to overcome the harridan by obeying her quietly, 
and to soften her abusive rage by humanity and gentleness. 

By these exercises she was strengthened and obtained the 
true patience for which she was looking. And she went to Bishop 
Athanasius and thanked him for the good his selection had done 
to her. She said that he had (at last) given her what she wanted, 
a most wonderful teacher of patience, whose constant abuse., 
like the oil with which a man smears himself when about to 
wrestle, had trained her patience to be perfect. c At last you have 
given me someone to look after, for the first rather honoured and 
refreshed me by her services.' 

It is enough that this story should be told about a member of 
the female sex, to edify us and even confound us. We cannot 
keep our patience if we shut ourselves up in cells as wild boasts 
retire to their lairs. 

15. Here is another example, one of Abba Paphnutius. 

Paphnutius lived a strict life in the fastnesses of the celebrated 
desert of Scete, where he is now presbyter- The other hermits 
called him the Buffalo, because he seemed to have a kind of 
innate love of solitude. Even as a youth he was eminent in 
goodness and grace; the chief ascetics of that time marvelled at 
his seriousness and stability of purpose, and in spite of his ago 
elected him into the number of the elders on the ground of his 
character. 

But one of the monks, like the patriarch Joseph's brothers, was 
inflamed by jealousy against him. Wanting to spoil the reputa- 
tion of Paphnutius, he hit on a devilish plot* He seized the 
moment on Sunday when Paphnutius was away from his cell 
at church. He stole into the cell,, and there hid his own book 
among the plaits which Paphnutius was in the habit of weaving 
from palm-leaves. Confident in his plan, he went to church 
like a man with a clear conscience. At the end of the service ho 
lodged a public complaint to the holy Isidore (who was 
Paphnutius' predecessor as priest of this hermit brotherhood) > 
alleging that his book had been stolen, from his cell. The com- 
plaint disturbed the brothers and above all their priest, because 
they knew not what to suspect or what to decide, and wore 
extremely astonished inasmuch as no one remembered a similar 
crime being perpetrated in that desert before (and it has never 
happened since) . The plaintiff then urged that they should ail be 
confined to the church while searchers were chosen to examine 
every hermit's cell. The priest entrusted the task to three of the 



THE CONFERENCES OF CSASSIAN 

elders, They ransacked the bedding in each cell, and at last 
found the book where the plotter had hidden it, in Paphnutius' 
cell, among the plaits. The searchers immediately carried it 
back to church and displayed it. 

The conscience of Paphnutius was perfectly clear. Yet he 
offered to make satisfaction like a man who admits he is a thief, 
asked and prayed to be put in the penitents' seat. In his shame 
and modesty, he was afraid that if he tried to plead not guilty, 
he would merely be believed to be a liar as well as a thief, since 
everyone accepted the evidence. He straightway left the church, 
his mind not really cast down but trusting in God's judgement, 
He poured out prayer and lamentations, trebled his fasting, and 
was seen by everyone to be prostrating himself in humility. 
For nearly a fortnight he thus bruised his flesh and spirit: and 
then on Saturday and Sunday came early in the morning to 
church, not to receive Holy Communion, but to lie prone in the 
church porch and beg for pardon. 

Then God, who knows all secrets, did not allow him to be 
further buffeted by providence, nor further slandered by his 
fellows. The wicked and guilty monk, who had 'stolen' his own 
property, and had skilfully ruined the reputation of another, 
had perpetrated his crime unseen. But the devil who had egged 
him on caused it after all to be known. The monk, seized by 
some terrible demon, blabbed about his whole plan, and be^- 
traycd himself. For a long time ho was so troubled by an un- 
clean spirit that he could not even be cleansed by the prayers of 
the holy men in Scetc who possessed the miraculous gift of 
exorcising demons. Not even the special grace of the priest, 
Isidore, could expel this savage spirit: though Isidore was 
richly endowed by the Lord with this power, so that he could 
sometimes heal the possessed even at a distance, Christ was 
reserving this glory for the young Paphnutius. And thus the 
sinner was healed by the prayers of him against whom he had 
sinned, and the name whose reputation he had tried to blast 
was the name which brought him pardon and relief from his 
suffering, 

Paphnutius in early days already showed the signs of his 
future character, already planned the way to the perfection 
which was to be matured as he grew in years. And we too if 
we want to be as saintly as he was must lay the foundations of 
that saintiwess in the same way. 

x6 I had two reasons for telling this story. Knowing that 
our temptations are less than his, we shall seek better for 



276 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

patience and tranquillity when we contemplate the rock-like 
stability of Paphnutius. Secondly, we must resolve that we car 
never be safe from violent and devilish temptations if to proted 
our patience we put our trust in something outside us instead 
of inside us in the cell or the solitude or our association with 
holy men or anything else external. In the Gospel our Lord 
said: The kingdom of God is within you.' 12 And unless the 
same Lord strengthen and protect our minds, we are wrong H 
we think we can defeat the attacks of the enemies which fiy 
through the air merely by living with other men, or a long wa> 
off, or inside walls to keep them out. Paphnutius had all these 
things: yet the tempter found a way to attack him, and was not 
repeUed by a hermitage, or a desert, or holiness in the men oi 
that society. He was not moved by an assault like that because 
he had fixed his heart's hope not on anything external, but on 
the judge of all secrets; and, conversely, did not the envious and 
guilty monk enjoy the protection of a solitary life and a distant 
cell and the company of St Isidore his abba and priest, and oi 
other holy men? The satanic hurricane fell against a house 
built on sand, and destroyed it. 

Then let us not seek our peace outside ourselves. Let us not 
think to cover our own impatience with someone else's patience. 
As 'the kingdom of God is within you,' so *a man's foes are they 
of his own household.' No one is more my enemy than my own 
heart, the inmost indweller of my household. If we arc careful, 
we can prevent ourselves being injured by internal enemies. If 
our own household is not assailing us, there is the kingdom ot 
God and peace of mind. Look carefully, and you will sec that I 
cannot be injured even by a villain, if I am not at war against 
myself within my own heart. If I am injured, the sin is not due 
to the assault from outside: it is due to my own lack of patience. 
Strong meat is healthy to the healthy, but it kills a sick man. It 
cannot hurt the eater unless his own illness makes the food 
harmful to him. 

If ever a temptation like that of Paphnutius arise among the 
brothers, we need never be shaken from the path of peace, 
need never allow an opening to the blasphemy and slander of 
worldly men, need never be surprised that wicked men are to 
be found secretly among the holy societies. Thus world is a 
threshing floor which sifts us, and tares destined for everlasting 
fire are mixed with the richest wheat. Remember that Satan 
was chosen to be an angel, Judas an apostle, the hcresiarch 
12 Luke 17:21. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 277 

Nicolas a deacon. It is no wonder that wicked men are to be 
found among the ranks of the saints. (Some say that the 
heresiarch Nicolas was not the man appointed to the diaconate 
by the apostles, but they cannot deny that he was one of the 
disciples at a time when all the disciples were as perfect as the 
very few whom you now find with some difficulty in coenobia.) 

Then let us forget the sad fall of the brother in that desert; for- 
get the horrible stain which he afterwards blotted out by his tears 
of penitence; forget the ancient sin of envy which was made the 
worse because he was a religious. Let us remember the example 
of St Paphnutius, follow his humility with all our power, a 
humility which was no sudden offspring of the hermitage but 
had first been acquired in human society and then perfected in 
the solitary life. 

Envy, 13 you should know, is a disease more difficult to cure 
than any other sin. I would almost say that once a man is 
poisoned by it there is no antidote. It is the plague of which the 
prophet spoke in an allegory: 'Behold, I will send among you 
serpents, basilisks, against which there is no charm: and they 
shall bite you. 3 It is a good comparison between envy and the 
poisonous bite of the basilisk, for by envy Satan, the source of 
all poison, perished. By envy he first slew himself and then the 
Lord whom he envied: he poured deadly poison into himself 
before he poured it into man. 'By the envy of the devil death 
entered into the world: they therefore who are on his side 
follow him.' 14 The first person to be corrupted by it allowed no 
antidote by repentance; and so the envious put themselves 
outside the help of him who can cure the bite. Tormented not 
by the faults of the people they envy, but by their prosperity, 
they cannot admit the truth about others and are always on the 
watch for trivial and silly causes of offence. These imaginary 
causes of offence cannot be overcome so long as the deadly 
virus is in them and they will not bring it to the surface. The 
wise man has said: 'If a serpent bite without hissing, the charmer 
can do nothing.' It is only the silent bites which wise men cannot 
cure. 

13 This little conclusion on the sin of envy is given a separate chapter 
heading by some important manuscripts. Unlike the later list of "seven 
deadly sins'* envy had found no place in the "eight capital sins" which 
Cassian had treated in the Institutes. I have suspicions about its Cassianic 
authorship, on grounds of Latin style and mode of handling the subject- 
matter, but these suspicions can claim no support in the manuscripts. 

i* Jer. 8:17; Wisdom 2 124. 



278 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

The disease is so incurable, that it is made worse by treat- 
ment; the sore is inflamed by ointments* Solomon says: 'Envy 
endures nothing.' 15 The more progress another has made in 
humility or patience or generosity, the more a man envies him, 
and wants his ruin or death. The eleven patriarchs could not be 
diverted from their envy by any submission on the part of their 
brother who had done no harm: and Scripture relates of them: 
'His brothers envied him because his father loved him, and they 
could not speak peaceably unto him': and in the end they were 
so jealous that they would listen to no entreaties, plotted his 
death, and were scarcely satisfied with the sin of selling him 
into slavery. 

Thus it is sure that envy is more destructive than the other 
faults, more difficult to eradicate: for it is kindled by the 
remedies which cure other sins. For example: The man who 
grieves for an injury done to him, is cured by a generous com- 
pensation. Though he was indignant at the wrong, he can be 
placated if satisfaction is rendered humbly. But what will you 
do for a man who is more offended the more kind and humble 
you are to him? He is not irritated by his own greed, which a 
bribe can heal, nor by his desire to injure, or love of revenge, 
which gentleness could overcome. He is irritated by another's 
happiness. Where shall we find a man who, to satisfy another's 
envy, will want to lose his own prosperity or wish a disaster to 
happen to him? 

Therefore, in order not to lose the moral life within us, the 

gait of us indwelt and quickened by the Holy Spirit, by a single 
ite from the basilisk, let us continually ask the help of God to 
whom nothing is impossible. The other snake-poisons are the 
carnal sins: and though frail human nature easily falls into these, 
it is as easily cleansed. These other bites show marks on the 
body; and however dangerous the swelling, a skilful doctor can 
apply the healing remedy and the poison shall not reach the 
heart the wise guide to God's Scriptures can apply the saving 
words and prevent the moral poison from killing the soul for 
eternity. But envy is like the basilisk's poison it leaves no mark 
and penetrates to the very life of religion and faith before the 
person is aware that he is wounded. The jealous man is not 
raising himself up against man but blaspheming against God, 
for he is scandalized by nothing in his brother except his happi- 
ness, and is therefore attacking, not man's guilt, but the judge- 
ments of God. 
is Eccl. 10:11, LXX; Prov. 27:4, LXX. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 279 

This then is that e root of bitterness springing up' : it raises 
itself to heaven, scorning God who gives his good to mankind. 

No one should be worried because God threatens to send 
'basilisks' to bite men whose sins offend him. It is certain that 
God cannot be the author of envy. Yet it is fair, and worthy of 
God's justice, that in bestowing good gifts on the humble and 
refusing them to the proud and the wicked, he should smite and 
consume with envy those who deserve to be given over to a 
reprobate mind, as St Paul says. This is what is meant by 
another text, They have provoked me to jealousy by them 
that are no gods: and I will provoke them to jealousy by them 
that are no nation.' " 16 



By this conference Piamun stirred our desire to proceed 
further in our step from the primary school of the coenobium 
to the secondary grade of the hermitage. It was under his 
guidance that Germanus and I learnt the elements of the 
hermits' way, and began to acquire that knowledge which we 
afterwards extended in Scete. 

CONFERENCE 19 
Conference of Abba John 

ON THE AIMS OF THE COENOBITE AND HERMIT 

I. Only a few days afterwards, we went to the coenobium 
of Abba Paul, in order to find further instruction. There were 
more than two hundred resident monks. But in honour of a 
feast, the anniversary of the death of an earlier abbot of the 
monastery, a vast crowd of monks from other coenobia was 
visiting the place. I mention this meeting because I want shortly 
to describe the patience of one monk, his imperturbable gentle- 
ness in the presence of the whole crowd. It is true that this 
conference is concerned with the words of Abba John, who left 
the desert and in humility became again a monk in a coeno- 
bium. Yet I do not think it absurd to digress briefly if, as I 
believe, the story is edifying to earnest men. 

When the crowd of monks was seated by parties of twelve in 
the huge open-air court, one of them was slow in bringing in a 
dish. Abba Paul was walking round and carefully supervising 
the monks who were serving. When he saw the delay, he 
publicly gave the monk such a smack with his hand that the 
iHeb, is:i5;Jer. 8:17; Rom. i : 28; Deut. 32:31, LXX. 



280 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

sound was heard even by people sitting a long way off and with 
their backs turned. The young man took the blow serenely, 
said nothing, gave no sign even of a murmur, did not move his 
lips, indeed did not change for a moment his modesty and 
serenity and colour of countenance: a remarkable instance of 
patience. We had lately come from our monastery in Syria and 
had not been given such clear examples in how to be patient. 
Everyone, and not only our two selves, but the men familiar 
with these practices, marvelled, and even the most advanced 
learnt a particular lesson. For it was not only that his father's 
correction did not disturb his patience. It was the fact that 
although he was made a spectacle to such a great crowd, his 
face showed not even a blush. 17 

2. We found in this coenobium a very old man named John. 
I have thought it right to include what he said, because he was 
a man of such humility. Humility, though it is the mother of all 

foodness and the foundation of the whole house of the spirit, is 
anished out of our own system. So it is not surprising that we 
cannot climb to their moral level. So far from being able to 
bear the discipline of the coenobium until old age, we are 
scarcely ready to endure its yoke for two years and dare to run 
out to a liberty which does our soul harm. And even for that 
short time we seem to submit to the elders not as the rule directs 
but as and how we like. 

When we first saw old Abba John in Abba PauPs coenobium, 
we were struck by his age and natural grace. With downcast 
eyes we began to pray him to show us, ignorant though we 
were, why he had left the free and noble life of the hermit, 
wherein he had won a fame beyond the fame of other men, and 
had chosen to enter the coenobium and bear its yoke. 

John replied that he had been unequal to the hermit's 
discipline, and incapable of following that way to perfection: 
he had therefore gone back to school, to see if he could rightly 
keep the rules of the coenobium. 

We refused to accept this humble reply, and went on 
importuning. At last he began to talk. 

3. "You are surprised that I have left the hermit life. It is 
not at all that I reject it or disapprove of it, I regard it with the 
utmost veneration. First I passed thirty years in a community 

17 Some medieval copyists struggled with interpolations either to defend 
Abba Paul's action (as Caroliruhensis 92 from Reichenau) or to make 
it clear that the action was bad and that Gassian disapproved of it (as 
Parisinus nov. acq. 2170). 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 28l 

and then another twenty as a hermit. And I am very glad of 
those twenty years: at least half-hearted hermits will not be 
able to accuse me of being slothful. But though I found the 
purity of the life, I also found that it was not unmixed with 
bodily anxieties. It seemed better to return to the coenobium 
to aim at a lower target and hit it more easily, and to avoid the 
risk of failing at the effort after a loftier way. It is better to 
make a little promise and keep it than to make a big promise 
and break it. 

If I put forward anything too freely or proudly, please do not 
think it a form of boasting, but out of charity and a care for 
your edification. I think I ought to keep back nothing of the 
truth because you have importuned me so earnestly. It is pos- 
sible you will learn something if I lay aside my humility for a 
little and simply tell you what I am aiming at. I hope you will 
not have to blame me on grounds of vanity: and I hope I shall 
not have to blame myself for failing to tell you the truth. 

4. If there is anyone who delights in the desert loneliness and 
the separation from society; if there is anyone who can say with 
Jeremiah: e l have not desired the day of man, thou knowest'; 18 
I confess that with God's help I was that man, or was on the 
way to being that man. I remember how often the Lord granted 
me to be taken up into a kind of rapture, so that I forgot my 
frail body and my mind lost its sense of material reality, my 
eyes could not see and my ears could not hear. My mind was 
full of meditation and contemplation upon God, so that often 
in the evening I did not know I had eaten food and next morn- 
ing had no idea whether I had broken my fast last night. So 
on Saturday I used to lay out food for seven days: seven pairs 
of rolls of bread in a sort of basket, so that I should know 
whether or not I had eaten. By this method I could not forget 
when the week was ended and the services of the church had 
come round. Even if the raptures of which I spoke should 
interfere with this plan, still the order of work from day to day 
prevented me making this mistake. 

But I pass over the merits of the desert. My subject is not the 
manifold good things to be found there, but the respective aims 
of the coenobite and hermit. I will briefly answer your request 
to explain why I chose to leave the desert, and expound the 
high advantages of the common life which I preferred to all the 
fruits of the desert. 

5. At first there were few hermits in the desert. We had 
r. 17:16. 



282 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

plenty of room and freedom. At first we lived far in the fast- 
nesses of the desert and were often taken up into heavenly 
visions. In those days there was no crowd of visiting monks, no 
need to undertake the distracting burden of hospitality. In those } 
days my spirit burned within me, I hungered for the peace of 
solitude and the life filled with a bliss like the angels. 

But soon a large number of monks began to live- in the 
desert. There was less room, less freedom. And I found that my 
ardour for the contemplation of God began to cool, and my 
mind had to busy itself with all kinds of earthly matters. I there- 
fore determined to fulfil my ascetic purpose in the coenobium, 
rather than become a half-hearted solitary by constantly having 
to look after my bodily needs. I no longer have freedom, I am 
no longer taken up into ecstasies of spirit. But I have this con- 
solation, that I can obey the Gospel in taking no thought for the 
morrow. If I lose the purity of contemplation, I gain by 
having to obey a rule* 

It is a wretched thing for anyone to undertake some art or 
study and never become perfect .at it. 

6. Now I will shortly explain the great benefits I enjoy here. 
I leave it to you, after you have heard my evidence, to jxidgc 
whether the, profit to be iound in the desert can compensate 
for the advantages here: and you will be able to decide whether 
I chose to be shut up in these walls because I disliked the soli- 
tary's purity or because I was aiming at it. 

In this monastery, I do not have to arrange my day's work. 
I am not bothered with buying or selling, I do not have to think 
about storing food. I am not anxious about preparing to receive 
the numerous visitors as well as look after the residents and 
above all I am not subject to popularity nor therefore to the 
temptation to arrogance, which is the worst thing in the desert 
life, and which has been known to do away in God's sight with 
the merit of desert austerities. But passing over the risks of 
spiritual pride and vanity which afflict hermits, I lay the stress 
on a burden which troubles them all, the provision of food The 
present hermits are not content, like the stricter ancients, to do 
without oil: they are even^beginning to be dissatisfied with the 
lax rule of the present generation which enacts that for all 
visitors during the year it shall be enough to provide a pint of 
oil and a measure of lentils. At the moment two or three times 
that amount is believed to be almost too little. Our predecessors, 
though more austere than we in following the rules of the 
desert, were accustomed, when mixing vinegar and pickle, to 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 283 

add a single drop of oil to repel the temptation of vanity. The 
present generation are grown so lax that they break an Egyptian 
cheese to give it taste, pour in more oil than it needs, mix into a 
single flavour two kinds of food each with its proper taste and 
each of which could by themselves be refreshing at different 
meals. They are now beginning to own so much that on the 
excuse of 'hospitality 5 they keep a blanket in their cells I can 
hardly say it without shame. 

I pass over the things which specially afflict the worshipping 
and contemplative mind the frequent meetings with the 
brothers, the duties of receiving guests and bidding them fare- 
well, visits Lo each other, various interminable discussions and 
pieces of business; even when you are at leisure, the mind seems 
taut with expectation of some bother ahead. The result of all 
tliis is that the hermit loses his freedom, is shackled in the 
heavy chain of worry, never finds that ineffable eagerness in his 
heart, and so loses the profit of his way of life. 

Living in a community and among a crowd of men I am 
likewise deprived of this contemplative profit, but at least I 
have peace of soul and freedom from business. If hermits have 
not this quiet, which is indispensable, they will have the 
austerities of the desert without the benefit of it. Possibly there 
might be in the cocnobium some little loss in purity of heart. 
But I shall be satisfied with the compensation of the Gospel 
text, a compensation which surely cannot be worth less than all 
the fruits of the desert, that I should take no thought for the 
morrow. And if to the end of my life I am the obedient disciple 
of an abbot, I may in some measure imitate him of whom it is 
said: 'He humbled himself, and became obedient unto death': 
and so 1 may humbly be able to use his words: *I came not to 
do mine own will, but the will of the Father which sent me.* " * 9 

7. Gcrmanus: "It is obvious that, unlike the many ascetics 
content with the foothills of the two ways of life, you have 
climbed the heights. Wo would know then, what are the res- 
pective goals of the coenobite and the hermit? I suppose that 
this can only be discussed adequately by a man who has long 
experience in following both ways of perfection, and so can 
show us their value and their aim." 

8, John: "I should have defended the absolute assertion that 
the same person cannot be perfect in both ways of life, but I 
know some few exceptions to the rule. If it is difficult enough to 
find a man who is perfect in one of them, how difficult, almost 
10 Phil, *: 8; John 6:38. 



284 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

impossible, to find someone perfect in both. If this has ever 
happened, it cannot be put under any general rule. You cannot 
get a universal rule out of a very few instances, out of the experi- 
ence of a very few. What if a few people have attained a saint- 
liness beyond the common capacity of most men and the frailty 
of normal human nature; we must not draw conclusions valid 
for everyone, and must regard it rather by way of miracle than 
by way of an example to follow. 

As far as I am able, I will now answer your question. 

The coenobite aims at mortifying and crucifying all his self- 
will, at taking no thought for the morrow as the Gospel says. 
It is plain that only a coenobite can reach this perfection: like 
the man whom the prophet Isaiah blesses and praises in these 
words: 'If thou turn thy foot away from the sabbath, from doing 
thy own will in my holy day, and glorify him, while thou dost 
not thine own ways, and thine own will is not found to speak a 
word: then shalt thou be delighted in the Lord, and I will lift 
thee up above the high places of the earth, and will feed thee 
with the inheritance of Jacob thy father. For the mouth of the 
Lord hath spoken it.' 

The hermit aims at freeing his mind from all earthly thoughts, 
and to unite it with Christ so far as his human weakness allows: 
like the man of whom the prophet, Jeremiah, spoke: 'Blessed is 
the man who hath borne the yoke from his youth. He shall sit 
solitary and hold his peace, because he hath taken it upon 
himself.' The Psalmist said: 'I am become like a pelican in the 
desert. I watched and became like a sparrow alone upon the 
housetop.' 20 

These are the two different aims. Unless the follower of each 
way attains his aim, he will gain no good from his hermitage 
or his coenobium. 

9. Each perfection then is partial, not complete. Perfection 
in the full sense is a gift of God, and it is rare indeed. The truly 
perfect man is he who can endure with an equal peace of mind 
the austerities and loneliness of the desert, and the weaknesses 
of his brethren in the community. In neither mode of life is it 
easy to find a complete person. The hermit cannot achieve 
contempt for material possessions, the coenobite cannot achieve 
the pure prayer of the contemplative. 

I know that Abba Moses and Paphnutius and the two 
Macarii possessed both in completeness. They went out beyond 
the other inhabitants of the desert to lonelier places, so far as 
20 Isa. 58:13-14; Lam. 3:27-8; Ps. 102:7-8. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 285 

possible they never sought for company; and yet they put up 
with the frailties of all the people who came to see them and 
profit by them, an almost incessant bother accepted with an 
imperturbable patience. And men supposed that they had spent 
all their lives in learning how to show the usual hospitality to 
their visitors. No one could decide at which kind of life they had 
progressed further. They were great-hearted men, wonderfully 
fitted for either kind of life. 

10. Others begin to become rather like animals, owing to the 
long silence and loneliness, and slink away from man's 
approach. When they are brought out of retirement for a short 
time by visiting brethren, they shy away with obvious signs of 
fright. This usually happens to people who have become 
hermits prematurely and without a good previous training in 
the community life. Their faults are not eradicated, they are as 
poor hermits as they are coenobites, and are blown about here 
and there by puffs from every troublesome breeze. On the one 
side they are annoyed and impatient at meeting other monks. 
On the other side they dislike the loneliness and silence which 
they have chosen, because they do not even know the true 
reason for choosing it, but think its supreme merit to be a way 
of avoiding human company or of seeing human faces.'* 

n. Germanus: "What remedy is there for people like our- 
selves whose weakness consists precisely in this, that we had too 
little instruction in the cocnobium and entered the desert life 
before we had eradicated our faults? How can we attain the 
stable and imperturbable and patient mind? We left school too 
young, before we had fully learnt our lessons, when we went 
away from our cocnobium. Now we arc living in the desert- 
How shall we acquire long-suffering and patience? Living alone, 
we do not meet men who cause us annoyance. How shall con- 
science, in exploring our inward motives, decide whether or not 
we are right in thinking we possess true peace of mind?" 

12. John: "God, who truly heals souls, will certainly offer a 
remedy to those who truly seek it: especially to repentant men 
who are not hopeless or neglectful of their faults nor conceal 
them, nor wantonly refuse the healing of penitence when the 
opportunity is offered; and to men who fly humbly and 
prudently to God to heal the sins they have contracted from 
ignorance or error or necessity. 

If we go into the desert with our faults still hidden within us, 
they no longer hurt others, but our love of them remains. Of 
every sin not eradicated, the root is still growing secretly within. 



286 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

We can decide whether it is alive by certain tests. For example: 
if we receive visitors even for a short stay with the slightest 
trouble of mind, it proves that we still have in us the source 
from which the tumbling stream of impatience flows. Or if we 
are expecting a monk and for some reason he is a little late, and 
our mind is silently indignant with him or annoyed that we 
have so inconveniently to wait for him, it will prove to our 
conscience that the seeds of anger and grievance are still within. 
If a monk asks us to lend him a book or some other loan, and 
we are saddened by the request, or even refuse it, that will 
prove that we are still entangled in the sins of avarice and 
covetousness. If, through reading Holy Scripture or a sudden 
memory, we think of a woman and feel the least lust towards 
her, it shows that lust is not yet extinguished in our body. If we 
compare our own strict discipline with the lax practices of 
another and feel the slightest temptation to puff ourselves, it 
proves that the terrible plague of pride is still infecting us. 

If we see these signs within, we know that it is not the desire 
to sin, but the opportunity to sin, which has vanished. If ever 
we started mixing in society again, these passions would creep 
out of their caves and show that they were not new; visible at 
last, they had been in us all the time. 

In this way even a hermit can discern whether the roots of 
sins are eradicated or not if he tries not to show off his purity 
before other men, but only in the sight of him to whom all 
hearts lie open*" 

13. Germanus; "We see how to discover the signs of weak- 
ness* All our daily experience confirms what you have said. You 
have shown us the evidence and causes of the disease, now we 
would know the cure. The man who will best talk about the 
cure of ill-health is the man who, by the evidence of the 
patients, is most accurate in diagnosis. You have so clearly 
diagnosed the cause of our disease that we have some faint 
hope of a cure. Yet your words have driven us into a despair 
which will destroy our spiritual life. You say that in com- 
munities men acquire the first stages in salvation and none can 
be healthy in solitude unless he has first cured his faults in a 
coenobium. We are afraid that perhaps, as we were imperfect 
when we left our own community, it is now impossible for us to 
be perfect in the desert." 

14. John: "People who really want to cure their illness arc 
sure to find a remedy. We ought to look for the cure of each sitt 
in the same way that we looked for its evidence. Just as I said 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 287 

the faults of ordinary life persist in the solitary's life, so I affirm 
that all the instruments for pursuing virtue and healing are 
available in the desert. If a man discovers, by the signs I men- 
tioned, that he is liable to impatience and anger, he ought ever 
to be training himself in the virtues opposite to these faults. He 
ought to imagine various injuries being offered to himself by 
some hypothetical person, and so accustom his mind to be per- 
fectly humble and submissive in the face of everything that 
wickedness can do to him. He ought to imagine roughness, 
conduct unbearable against himself, and penitently meditate 
on the gentleness with which he should receive it. If he looks at 
the sufferings of the saints or the Passion of the Lord, he will 
see that these wrongs and punishments are less than he deserves, 
and will be readier to bear all sorrow. And at those times, in- 
evitable even in the strictest desert life, when he is for some 
reason summoned to the meeting of the monks, he should 
censor his inner feelings, if he finds that he is silently troubled 
about trivialities, and should accuse himself of all those bitter 
wrongs which his daily meditation has been training him to 
bear. And in self-reproach he should say: 'My good man, are 
you the same fellow who set yourself up to overcome all evil 
while you were at training-school in the desert? Are you the 
man who lately imagined bitter abuse and unbearable punish- 
ments against yourself and fancied that you were strong enough 
to bear them without the mind being disturbed? Is it not 
remarkable that this unconquerable patience has slipped before 
an idle word? How is it that a mild breeze is rocking the house 
which you thought to be built on solid rock? What has hap- 
pened to that silly longing of yours for war when you were at 
peace? You used to say: "I am ready, and am not troubled," 
and with the prophet: "Prove me, O Lord, and try me: search 
out my reins and my heart 1 ': and: "Prove me, O Lord, and 
know my heart: question, me and know my paths; and see if 
there be any way of wickedness in me." 21 Have you prepared 
for war and yet been frightened by a little ghost of an enemy?' 
With these penitential reproaches a man should condemn 
himself and not let the disturbing temptation go unpunished. 
He should fast the more rigorously, watch longer in the night, 
restrain his appetites, and so crucify by exercises the inconstancy 
of mind which ought to have been repressed while he was a 
coenobite* One thing we must hold tightly, to keep a true and 
lasting patience. It is never lawful for us to be angry because of 
21 Ps. 119:60; 26:2; 139:23-4. 



288 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

material loss or mental conflict, since God's law forbids us to 
remember a wrong, just as it forbids us to revenge ourselves. 

What worse fate can befall the soul than the loss, through a 
sudden blinding flare of bad temper, of the clear vision of the 
true and eternal Light, the loss of the contemplation of him who 
is 'meek and lowly of heart 3 ? 22 What should twist a man away 
from his true nature more than the loss of the ability to discern 
between good and evil, to use a sober and disciplined and wise 
judgement? Is it not deplorable that a sane and sober man 
should do what would not be pardoned in a man so tipsy that 
he was partly out of his senses? 

Whoever considers this damage to the soul, will bear every 
variety of loss or injury or punishment of cruel men. He will 
think nothing more damaging than anger, nothing more 
precious than peace of mind and stable purity of heart. To find 
these we ought to lose even spiritual benefits, if those spiritual 
benefits cannot be won without troubling the peace of mind." 

15. Germanus: "You have shown that the cure for diseases 
like anger, gloom, and impatience, consists in setting the opposite 
qualities against them. I should like to know what kind of 
remedy it is possible to bring against the spirit of lust. Surely the 
fire cannot here be quenched by imagining temptations? I 
believe that even to glance at the temptation with the mind, 
let alone increasing the incentive, is fatal to chastity." 

16. John: "The question is a wise one: and even if you had 
not asked it, I was being led naturally to it. I am sure that the 
answer is easy for you, since you have acutely gone ahead of 
what I was going to say. The puzzle of a question is easily 
unravelled when the question itself is put in such a way as to 
imply the right answer. 

For curing the faults which I have been talking about, 
human society, so far from being a hindrance, is beneficial. The 
more often men see they are impatient, the more thoroughly 
they do penitence and the more rapidly do they achieve a 
sound mind. And since there are no incentives to impatience 
and irritation in the desert, we ought to imagine temptations 
to it so as to have a struggle and find a cure more rapidly* But 
against lust, a different method is needed. Not only has the body 
to be deprived of the opportunities, the mind has to be brought 
to forget all about it. For weak spirits it is bad enough to admit 
even a little recollection of it, the sort that arises from remember- 
ing a holy woman or reading a passage of Holy Scripture, And 
22 Matt. 1 1 : 29. 



THE CONFERENCES OF CASSIAN 289 

this was why our elders used wisely to omit passages of this kind 
when younger monks were present. 

To monks who have won through to perfect chastity, there 
are plenty of tests to determine whether their conscience may 
judge the heart to be incorrupt. To a chaste man there is a test 
of the same kind. If he is sure that the roots of the disease have 
been eradicated, he may explore the grace of his chastity by 
making some mental fantasy of temptation. To men who are 
still weak this imaginative exploration is more destructive than 
useful, and must be avoided. If the perfect man can stand un- 
harmed by this kind of fantasy, if his mind and body remain 
unperturbed, he will have a proof of purity. And in this purity 
he will train his mind, and will even think it harmful if some 
necessity forces him into the presence of a woman." 

Here Abba John ended his conference, seeing it was 3 o'clock 
and time for our meal. 



Ill 

The Rule of Saint Benedict 

INTRODUCTION 

FOR THE PLACE OF THE RULE IN EARLY 
monasticism, see the general introduction. 
The best manuscript of the Rule appears to be that of 
Saint Gall 914. Indeed it was argued by Ludwig Traube that 
a copy of the autograph of the Rule was sent from Monte 
Cassino to Charlemagne in the year 787, and that the Saint- 
Gall manuscript is a copy of this copy. This hypothesis has been 
shown to be speculative; and it is no longer possible to rule out 
of account the evidence of a different manuscript tradition, 
represented in particular by the earliest extant manuscript 
(Hatton 48 in the Bodleian Library) which cannot have been 
copied much later than 700. 

It is possible that the Rule was in part a copy of an earlier 
Rule, of which we have either the representative, or the 
descendant by a different line, in the Regula Magistri: of this 
rule the known manuscripts go back to the sixth century. The 
matter is still under examination: materials for following the 
debate will be found in the select bibliography. 

In this translation I took as a basis the Douai translation of 
1 700. But I have revised it very freely indeed, and have sought 
to bring it into line with modern knowledge about the text of 
the Rule. 



290 



TTie Rule of Saint Benedict 

THE TEXT 

Prologue 

Son, listen, to the precepts of your master; take them to your 
heart willingly. If you follow the advice of a tender father and 
travel the hard road of obedience,, you will return to God, from 
whom by disobedience you have gone astray. 

I address my discourse to all of you who will renounce your 
own will, enter the lists under the banner of obedience, and 
fight under the lead of your lawful sovereign, Christ the Lord. 

First, I advise that you should implore the help of God to 
accomplish every good work you undertake; that he, who has 
now vouchsafed to rank us in the number of his children, may 
be no more grieved at our doing amiss. For we ought always to 
use his grace so faithfully in his service, as to give him no occa- 
sion to disinherit his children like an angry parent, or to punish 
for eternity his servants, like a master incensed at their crimes 
servants who have refused to follow him in the way to glory* 

Let us then exert ourselves now- The Scripture awakens us, 
saying: "Now it is the hour to arise from sleep"; and with eyes 
wide open to the light of heaven, and ears receptive to the word 
of God, let us hear what his voice repeats to us every day. 
"Today if you will hear his voice, harden not your hearts." 
And again, "He who hath ears to hear, let him hear what the 
Spirit saith unto the churches." What does he say? "Gome, my 
children, hearken unto me and I will teach you the fear of the 
Lord." "Run while ye have the light of life, that the darkness 
of death overtake you not.*' 1 

The Lord, seeking to draw from the crowd one faithful 
servant, asks: "What man is he that desircth life and would 
fain see good days?" 2 If you reply: "It is I," God answers: "If 

* Rom. 13:11; Ps. 95:8; Matt 11:15; Rev. 2:7; Ps. 34:11; John 12:35. 
2 Ps. 34:12-15. 

29* 



202 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

you will possess the true and everlasting life, keep your tongue 
from evil and your lips from speaking guile. Depart from evil 
and do good: seek peace and pursue it. And when you have 
done this, then my eyes shall be open upon you, and my ears 
shall listen to your prayers, and even before you call upon me 
I will say: 'Behold, I am here.' " Dearest brethren, can we 
imagine anything more tender than this invitation of our Lord? 
See, in his goodness, he points out to us the way of life. 

Let us then gird up our loins; let us walk by faith and try to 
serve him with good works; and thereby let us advance in his 
ways with the Gospel as our guide, that we may deserve to 
behold him who has called us to his kingdom. If we want to 
fix our dwelling there, we cannot arrive thereto without run- 
ning in the ways of virtue. But let us enquire of the Lord with 
the prophet: "Lord who shall dwell in thy tabernacle, or who 
shall rest upon thy holy hill?" Brethren, let us hear the Lord's 
answer to the question, an answer which shows the way to the 
heavenly tabernacle: "He that walketh without blame and 
does right: he that speaketh truth in his heart; he that hath 
kept his tongue from guile, hath done no evil to his neighbour, 
and hath not believed slander of his neighbour." 3 He who drives 
the tempter and his temptations far from his heart, defeats his 
malice, and dashes his rising thoughts against the Rock Christ. 
He who fears the Lord without growing proud of his virtue and 
humbly acknowledges that what is good in him does not pro- 
ceed from himself. He who gives God his due, and with the 
prophet blesses the work of God in himself: "Not unto us, O 
Lord, not unto us, but unto thy name give the glory." The 
apostle Paul found nothing of his own to boast of in his 
preaching: "By the grace of God (says he) I am what I am," 
and again, "He that glories, let him glory in the Lord." On 
this account our Lord in the Gospel tells us: "He that heareth 
these words of mine and doeth them, I will make him like the 
wise man who hath built his house upon a rock. The floods 
came and the winds blew, and they beat upon that house, and 
it fell not, for it was founded upon a rock." 4 

Our Lord expects that our works should ever correspond with 
these declarations of Scripture. Therefore, in consideration, of 
the evils which we have to redress, he has given us the days 
of our life, and prolongs them to afford us an opportunity of 
making peace with him. "Dost thou not know," says the 

3 PS. 15:1-3. 

4 Ps, 115:1; I Cor. 15:10; II Cor. 10:17; Matt 7:24-5. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 293 

Apostle, "that the patience of God inviteth thee to repentance?" 
For our tender Lord assures us: "I will not the death of a sinner, 
but that he should be converted and live." 5 

When we enquired of the Lord about the person who should 
dwell in his tabernacle, we were informed what conditions were 
necessary for it; and it is now ours to perform those conditions. 6 
Therefore our hearts and bodies are to be prepared to fight 
under his command; and we must beseech God to supply with 
his grace what it is impossible for nature to effect alone. More- 
over, if we desire to avoid the pains of hell, and to compass 
eternal life, we must, while we have lime in the body and ability 
to use the opportunity of a religious life, make haste and practise 
now the virtues which will serve us for all eternity, 

To conclude: I am to erect a school for beginners in the 
service of the Lord: which I hope to establish on laws not too 
difficult or grievous. But if, for reasonable cause, for the 
retrenchment of vice or preservation of charity, I require some 
things which may seem too austere, you are not thereupon to be 
frightened from the ways of salvation. Those ways are always 
strait and narrow at the beginning. But as we advance in the 
practices of religion and in faith, the heart insensibly opens and 
enlarges through the wonderful sweetness of his love, and we run 
in the way of God's commandments. If then we keep close to 
our school and the doctrine we learn in it, and persevere in the 
monastery till death, we shall here share by patience in the 
passion of Christ and hereafter deserve to be united with him 
in his kingdom. Amen. 

i . Of the several sorts of monks 
It is well-known that there are four sorts of monks. 
The first is of coenobites, who dwell in convents under the 
direction of a rule and an abbot. 

The second is of anchorites, or hermits. These are not men 
who have hurried away into solitary cells with the indiscreet 
zeal of beginners, but have served a mature probation in mon- 
asteries, and there learnt by the example and help of their 
fellow-monks how to fight the devil; and thereafter are suffi- 
ciently appointed, without any other help than that of God, to 

5 Rom. a :4; EzeL 33 : 1 1. 

* The Oxford manuscript of the Rule ends the Prologue here with: "and 
if we perform that duty, we doubtless shall become the heirs of heaven.*' 
But the evidence of Regula Magistri is now to be added to the evidence 
from other manuscripts of the Rule (especially Sangallensis) that this 
shorter version of the Prologue was not original. 



WESTERN ASCETICISM 

enter the wilderness and fight a single combat against the sins 
of the flesh and the ill thoughts of the mind. 

The third kind of monks, a perniciou5 kind, is that of the 
Sarabaites. These, without any probation of rule or experience 
(which test men as a furnace tests gold), live up to the practice 
of the world. Like lead in a furnace, they live softly and pliably: 
and by their very tonsure they are reproached of their infidelity 
to God. They dwell two or three together, or one alone; 
shepherdless, in no other fold but that of their own will, have 
no other law but what is agreeable and pleasing; they measure 
the proportion of holiness by their own choice and ideas, and 
call unlawful what they dislike. 

The last sort is of those called Gyrovagi or Wanderers, whose 
whole life is a ramble from province to province, staying three 
or four days in each place; ever in motion and never settled, 
slaves to their pleasures, mere epicures, worse even than the 
Sarabaites, 

The wretched ways of all these are fitter to be buried in 
oblivion than to be the subject of our discourse, and I pass them 
over. My aim is with God's help to give rules to the most 
vigorous kind, that of the Coenobites. 

2. What qualifications are required for an abbot? 

An abbot qualified to govern a monastery, ought always to 
remember the name he bears, and to maintain by his good life 
the title of superior: for he is esteemed to supply the place of 
Christ in the monastery, being called by his name; according 
to the apostle: "Ye have received the spirit of the adoption of 
sons, whereby we cry Abba, Father"; 7 and therefore the abbot 
ought not to teach, establish, or command anything contrary to 
the law of the Lord, but so to deliver his ordinances and teaching 
that they may work on the minds of his disciples like a leaven or 
seasoning of divine justice. 

Let the abbot always remember that at the dreadful day of 
judgement he is accountable for the obedience of his disciples 
as for his own teaching. He is to remember that whatever the 
Father of the family finds ill in the flock, shall lie at the shep- 
herd's door. He shall not be declared guiltless in the Lord's 
judgement unless he has taken all the pains he can for a dis- 
obedient and turbulent flock, If he has used his utmost care to 
cut out their sins, he may say to the Lord with the prophet: "I 
have not hid thy justice within my heart: I have declared thy 
7 Rom. 8 : 15. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 

truth and thy salvation: but they have despised and rejected 
me." 8 And eternal death shall be the punishment of them that 
have been disobedient to his care. 

When anyone takes upon him the office of abbot, he is to 
instruct his disciples in two ways. That is: he is to lay before 
them what is good and holy, more by example than by words: 
to teach the law of the Lord by word of mouth to such as are 
of a quicker comprehension, and by example to those of harder 
hearts and meaner capacities. He ought to create by his conduct 
an aversion from the thing which he condemns in his dis- 
course; then he will not himself prove a castaway while he 
preaches to others, and will avoid God's reproach: "Wherefore 
dost thou declare my righteousness and take my testament into 
thy mouth? For thou hatest discipline, yea and hast rejected my 
exhortation"; and, "thou hast seen a mole in thy brother's eye, 
and hast not seen the beam in thine own." 9 

He is not to be partial, or to love one more than another, 
unless upon consideration of greater virtue or obedience. He is 
not to prefer the frceborn monk above the slave, except some 
other reasonable cause intervene. In such case it is allowable 
that the abbot should dispose of persons as he judges expedient 
and fair. Otherwise everyone is to keep his proper place; 
because, whether slaves or freeborn, we are all one in Christ, 
and we have all enlisted in the same service under one common 
Lord who is no respecter of persons. The only reason why God 
puts one man above another is because the one lives a better 
life and is humble. Therefore the abbot's charity must extend 
equally to all, and his discipline be impartial, to each according 
to his merits. 

In his teaching the abbot is ever to observe this rule of the 
apostle: "Reprove, beseech, correct": 10 which consists in a 
judicious timing: to mix gentleness with sternness: at one time 
to show the severity of a master, at another the tenderness of a 
father: to use rigour with the irregular and the turbulent* but 
win to better things the obedient, mild, and patient. I warn 
him to reprove and chastise the careless or contemptuous. 

Nor is he to dissemble the faults of those that go amiss, but 
to do his utmost to root them out as they begin to grow; always 
mindful of the danger of Eli the priest of Shilohu Those who are 
of nobler character and arc more capable of understanding, he 
is to admonish twice. But mere profligates, stubborn, proud, or 



8 P$. 4oiio; Isa. x :a. *Ps. 50:16-17; Matt. 7:3. 

10 II Tim. 4:3. 



296 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

disobedient, the moment they begin to do amiss, must be re- 
claimed by the rod. The abbot must know what is written: 
"The fool is not corrected by words": and, "strike thy son with 
the rod, and thou shalt deliver his soul from death." n 

The abbot ought ever to remember what he is and what is 
meant by the name he bears, and to know that more is required 
of him to whose charge more is committed. Let him reflect how 
difficult and perplexing a business he undertakes, at once to 
govern many souls and to be subject to as many humours: to 
suit himself to everyone with regard to their capacity and con- 
dition; to win some by fair means, others by reprimands, others 
by dint of reason: that he may not suffer damage to his flock, 
but rather rejoice at the increase and improvement of it. 

Above all, he is not to dissemble or undervalue the care of 
souls committed to his charge, for the sake of temporal concerns, 
which are earthly, transitory, and fleeting; but ever to reflect 
that the government of souls is his business, and that he is 
accountable for them. And if perhaps the monastery have too 
little money, he is not to be disturbed thereat; but to remember 
how it is written: "Seek ye first the kingdom of God and his 
righteousness, and all these things shall be added unto you"; 
and again, "Nothing is wanting to them that fear him." 12 

Let him further reflect that he has undertaken the care of 
souls, and is to prepare his accounts: let him be sure that at the 
day of judgement he will be answerable for as many souls as 
he has brothers, as well as for his own. If he is ever in dread of 
the severe examination which he is to undergo for the sheep com- 
mitted to him, he will be as careful about himself as he is about 
his charges: and so he will together cure the sins of others by 
his government, and amend the faults in his own life. 

3. The manner of assembling the community in council 
Whenever any matter of moment is to be debated in the 
monastery, the abbot is to assemble the whole community, and 
to lay open the business before them: and after having heard 
their opinions, and maturely debated with himself, he may 
resolve on what he judges most profitable. 

We have for this reason ordained that the whole community 
shall be assembled, because God often reveals what is best to 
the young. The brothers shall give their opiixion with humility 
and submission, and not maintain their judgement with 
vehemence, but leave all to the disposal of the abbot, and jointly 
11 Prov. 18:2; 29 : 19; 23 : 13-14. 12 Matt. 6 133; Ps, 34 ; xo. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 2Q7 

assent to what he decides fit. Yet, as it is the duty of the disciple 
to obey his master, so it is no less the part of the master to decide 
according to the rules of equity and prudence. 

All are to observe the Rule as their guide, and no one is 
rashly to deviate from it. No one in the monastery is to be 
biased by his self-will, nor may anyone argue with his abbot 
with heat when at home, or at all when abroad. If he does, he 
shall be liable to regular chastisement. Nevertheless the abbot 
himself is to act in everything with a regard to the Rule and 
in fear of God; knowing that in all his proceedings he is to give 
an account before the truly impartial Judge. 

If any matter of lesser consequence is to be decided for the 
advantage of the house, he is only to consult the elders: accord- 
ing as it is written: "Do thou nothing without counsel, and thou 
shalt not repent when thou hast done." 13 

4. Of the instruments of good works 
First, to love the Lord God with all the heart, with all the 

soul, and with all the strength. 
Next, to love the neighbour as oneself. 
Next, not to kill. 
Not to commit adultery. 
Not to steal. 
Not to covet. 
Not to bear false witness. 
To honour all men. 
Not to do to another what we would not have done to 

ourselves* 

To renounce oneself, in order to follow Christ. 
To chastise the body. 
Not to seek after pleasure. 
To love fasting. 
To relieve the poor. 
To clothe the naked. 
To visit the sick. 
To bury the dead. 
To help those that are in trouble. 
To comfort the afflicted. 
To eschew the ways of the world. 
To prefer nothing before the love of Christ. 
Not to give way to anger. 
Not to lay up revenge. 
" Ecdcsiasticus 32 : 19. 



298 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Not to cover deceit in the heart. 

Not to make a pretended peace. 

Not to forsake charity. 

Not to swear, for fear of being perjured. 

To speak truth from the heart as well as the mouth. 

Not to return evil for evil. 

Not to do an injury: but to bear one with patience. 

To love our enemies. 

Not to return curse for curse, but rather a blessing for it. 

To suffer persecution for righteousness' sake. 

Not to be proud. 

Not given to wine. 

Not given to too much eating. 

Not to sleepiness. 

Not to laziness. 

Not to complaining. 

Not to detraction. 

To repose all trust in God. 

To attribute all the good we have in us to God, and not to 

ourselves. 
To acknowledge all evil to be our own, and to impute it to 

ourselves. 

To fear the day of judgement. 
To dread hell. 

To long in the spirit for eternal life. 
To keep death every day before our eyes. 
To keep a continual watch over our actions. 
To be convinced that God sees us wherever we are. 
To dash evil thoughts, as soon as they arise in the heart, 

against the Rock Christ; and to discover them to our 

spiritual father. 

To preserve the tongue from evil and wicked talk. 
Not to love much talk. 

Not to love vain talk, or such as occasions laughter. 
Not to love much or raucous laughter. 
To listen willingly to the reading of holy books. 
To use frequent prayer. 
To confess to God every day in prayer, with tears and sighs, 

our past offences. 

To amend those sins for the future. 
Not to accomplish the desires of the flesh. 
To hate our own will. 
In all things to obey the abbot's command, although (which 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 

God forbid) he act contrary himself: being mindful of the 

precept of the Lord which bids us: "Do what they say, not 

what they do." 14 
Not to want to be called a saint before we are, but first to be 

so, that it may be said of us with greater truth. 
Every day to live up to the commandments of God. 
To love chastity. 
To hate nobody* 
Not to be addicted to jealousy. 
Not to be envious. 
Not to love contention. 
To avoid ambition. 
To venerate the elders. 
To love the younger. 

To pray for our enemies, for the love of Christ. 
To be reconciled to those who have quarrelled with us, 

before the sun go down. 
And never to despair of God's mercy. 

These are the instruments of spiritual progress. If day and 
night we employ them, and at the day of judgement commend 
them into the hands of God, we shall be crowned with the 
reward he has promised "which neither eye hath seen nor ear 
hath heard, nor hath it entered into the heart of man what 
things God hath prepared for them that love him." 15 

The best place to practise these things is the monastery with 
its seclusion -provided that we remain steadily in the com- 
munity and do not leave it. 

5* Of obedience 

The first degree of humility is a prompt and ready obedience. 
This is fitting for them who love Christ above all else. By reason 
of the holy duty they have undertaken, or for fear of hell, or for 
eternal glory, they make no more delay to comply, the very 
instant anything is appointed them, than if God himself had 
given the command. Of these the Lord said: "At the very 
sound of my voice he hath obeyed me." And again he declared 
to them that teaeh: "He that hcarcth you, hcareth me." l * 

They who arc of this temper abandon all, even to their very 
will; instantly clear their hands and leave unfinished what they 
had begun; so that the command is carried out in the moment 
it is uttered- Master and disciple are lent wings by the fear of 
n Matt 23 -.3. i* I Cor. a sg. i* Ps. 18 -,44; Luke 10 s t6. 



300 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

God and the longing for eternal life, and so the command 
obeyed in a flash. 

It is for the sake of obedience that they enter into the narrc 
way of which the Lord said: "Narrow is the way that leade 
unto life." 17 The "narrowness" of the way is opposite to t 
broad way suggested by self-will and desire and pleasure: a 
they follow it by delighting to dwell in a community, to 
subject to their abbot, and to follow the judgement of anoth 
Such men live up to the practice of our Lord, who tells us: 
came not to do mine own will, but the will of him that se 
me." 18 

This obedience will be pleasing to God and man, when it 
performed with no fear, no delay, no coldness, no complaii 
no reply. The obedience we pay to superiors is paid to God: i 
he tells us: "He that heareth you, heareth me." And it is to 
done with willing heart, "because God loveth a chccrJ 
giver." 19 When the disciple obeys unwillingly, with a grud 
in heart or mouth, though he does the thing, yet he is so I 
from being pleasing to God, who sees reluctance in the hca 
that he acquires no merit, but only incurs the penalty of the 
that murmur, till he has made a due atonement. 

6. Of silence 

Let us do as the prophet says: "I said, I will take heed un 
my ways, that I offend not with my tongue. I have set a guaj 
upon my mouth. I held my tongue, and was humbled, and kc 
silence from good words." 20 Here the prophet shows that 
for the sake of silence, we ought sometimes not to speak what 
good; much more are we obliged to avoid all evil talk, for fe; 
of the punishment due to sin. Therefore, frequent leave to ta 
is not to be granted to those who are advanced in perfection 
although the subject be good and holy and edifying. Becaui 
it is written: "In much talk you shall not avoid sin"; and els< 
where, "Life and death are in the power of the tongue." 21 , 
belongs to the master to speak and teach, it is the duty of tt 
disciple to hear and obey. 

And therefore, if anything is to be asked from the superio 
it must be with humility and submission. As for scurrility, id! 
jests or silly talk, I order that they be never heard in. the mor 
astery. 

17 Matt. 7:14. i John 6 : 38. w 11 Cor. 9 : 7. 

20 PS. 39:1-2. 21 p r ov. 10:19 and 18:21. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 30! 

7. Of humility 

Brethren, the Scripture asserts that "everyone that exalte th 
himself shall be humbled, and he that humbleth himself shall 
be exalted." It shows us thereby that all exaltation is in some 
measure the pride which the prophet tells us he took care to 
shun: "O Lord, my heart is not exalted, nor mine eyes lifted 
up: I have not aspired to great things, nor wonders above 
myself," And his reason for it is : because (says he) : "If I had not 
thought humbly of myself but had exalted my soul, thou wouldst 
have driven away my soul like an infant weaned from the breast 
of its mother." 22 

Therefore, brethren, if we want to attain true humility, and 
come quickly to the top of that heavenly ascent to which we 
can only mount by lowliness in this present life, we must 
ascend by good works, and erect the mystical ladder of Jacob, 
where angels ascending and descending appeared to him. That 
ascent and descent means that we go downward when we 
exalt ourselves, and rise when we are humbled. The ladder 
represents our Hfe in this world, which our Lord erects to heaven 
when our heart is humbled. And the sides of the ladder represent 
our soul and body, sides between which God has placed several 
rungs of humility and discipline, whereby we are to ascend if 
we would answer his call. 

The first degree, then, of humility is, to have the fear of God 
ever before our eyes : never to forget what is his due, and always 
to remember his commands: to revolve in the mind how hell 
burns those who have contemned God, and how God has 
prepared eternal life for them that fear him: to preserve our- 
selves from the sins and vices of thought, of the tongue, the eyes, 
hands, feet, self-will and fleshly desires. Man ought to think that 
God always looks down from heaven upon him, and that all he 
does lies open to his sight, is daily told him by the angels. The 
prophet shows this truth, when he describes God as present in 
our thoughts,' "searching the heart and reins"; and, "Our Lord 
knows the thoughts of men"; and again, "Thou hast understood 
my thoughts a great way off": and, "The thought of man shall 
confess to thee." That he may ever watch the perverscness of 
his thoughts, let the right-minded brother continually repeat 
in the language of his heart: "Then I shall be without blemish 
before him, if I keep myself from mine iniquity." 23 

22 Luke 14:11; Ps. 131 :i-2. 

23 ps* 7 ; 9; 94: 1 1 (Regula Magistri and a few MSS add the second half of 
the versicle); 139:1; 76:10; 18:23. 



302 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

As for our own will, we are forbidden, to pursue it by these 
words of the Scripture; "Turn away from thine own will"; and 
we are required to ask of God in prayer, that his will may be 
done in us. We have reason to be convinced that we ought not 
to be guided by our own will, when we take account of what 
the Scripture tells us: "There are ways which to men appear to 
be right, whose endings nevertheless plunge us into the very 
depth of hell." And again, when we reflect fearfully upon the 
character given to the negligent: "They are corrupt and become 
abominable in their own pleasures." 

As regards our sensual desires, we must remember that 
God is ever present; as the prophet says to the Lord: "All my 
desire lies open before thee." 24 So unlawful desires are to be care- 
fully avoided, because death lurks behind the door at the very 
entrance to pleasure: whence the Scripture forbids us to 
"pursue our lusts." 25 

If then the eyes of the Lord observe both the good and the 
wicked, and God looks down from heaven upon the sons of 
men, to see if there be any that understand or seek after God; 
and again, if night and day our guardian angels give an account 
of what we do to the Lord; we must, every moment, be on our 
guard, lest God, at any time, should surprise us, as the Psalmi$t 
terms it, "leaning towards evil and rendered unprofitable"; 
and sparing us in this life (because he is good and waits for our 
becoming better) should reproach us in the next; "These 
tjiings didst thou do, and I kept silence." 2<J 

The second degree of humility is, if anyone, not wedded to 
his own will, finds no pleasure in the compassing of his desires; 
but fulfils with his practice the word of our Lord: "I came not to 
do mine own will, but the will of him that sent me." The Scrip- 
ture also says: "Pleasure hath it? penalty, but need winncth a 



crown." 



The third degree of humility is, when anyone submits himself 
with obedience to his superior for the sake of the love of God, 
after the example of the Lord, of whom the apostle says: "He 
was made obedient even unto death," 

The fourth degree of humility is, when anyone, in the practice 
of obedience, meets with hardship$, contradictions, or affronts, 

24 Ecclesiasticus 18:30; Prov. 16:255 Ps, 14:1; 38:9. 

25 Ecclesiasticus 18:30. 

2<JProv. 15:3; Ps. 14:3; 53:2-3; 50:21. 

?7 John 6 :s8. The second text is not from the Bible but From (e.g.) Acta 
Martyrum. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 303 

and yet bears them all with a quiet conscience and with patience, 
and continues to persevere. The Scripture says: "He who per- 
severes to the end, the same shall be saved/* and again: "Let 
your heart be strengthened, and wait for our Lord." And to 
show that the faithful servant ought to suffer every trial for 
God, the Scripture speaks in the person of those that suffer: 
"For thy sake we are killed all the day long: we are accounted 
as sheep for the slaughter/' And afterwards, in full assurance 
of their reward, they say with happiness, "But in all these 
things we are conquerors through him that loved us." In 
another place the Scripture-tells us: "Thou, O God, hast proved 
us: thou hast tried us with fire, as silver is tried. Thou hast led 
us into the snare, and loaded us with afflictions." And to show 
that we ought to live under a superior, it goes on, "Thou hast 
set men over our heads." 28 

So these sufferers live up to the command of God, bearing 
injuries and adversity with patience. But more: Struck on one 
cheek they offer the other. They give away their coat to him 
that takes away their cloak. Forced to walk one mile, they go 
two. They bear with false brethren, like Paul the apostle. They 
bless them that curse them. 

The fifth degree of humility is, humbly to confess to the abbot 
every unlawful thought as it arises in the heart, and the hidden 
sins we have committed. The Scripture advises this, saying: 
"Reveal your way to God and hope in him": and again: 
"Confess to God because he is good: for his mercy endureth 
for over*" 29 And in the prophet: "I have made known my sin 
to thee, and have not covered my iniquities. I have said, I will 
declare to God my own iniquities against myself: and thou hast 
forgiven the wickedness of my heart." 30 

The sixth degree of humility is, if a monk be content with 
anything though never so vile and contemptible; and to think 
himself inadequate, and unworthy to succeed in whatever he 
is commanded to do; saying with the prophet: "I was brought 
to nothing and knew nothing. I am become like a brute beast 
before thee, yet I am always with thee." 31 

The seventh degree of humility is, when one does not merely 
call oneself the least and most abject of all mankind, but believes 
it, with sincerity of heart: humbling oneself and saying with the 
prophet: "I am a worm and no man: a scorn of men, and the 
outcast of the people." "I have been exalted, humbled, and 



28 Matt io;as>; Ps. 271x4; Rom, 8:36-7$ Ps. 6 

20 Ps. 37:5; 106:1. 30 Ps. 32:5. si p s . 73:31-3. 



304 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

confounded/ 9 And again: "It is good for me that thou hast 
humbled me, that I may learn to keep thy commandments." 32 

The eighth degree of humility is, when a monk does nothing 
but what is countenanced by the constitutions of the monastery, 
or the example of the elders. 

The ninth degree of humility is, when a monk controls his 
tongue and keeps silence till a question be asked. For the 
Scripture teaches that "in much talk you will not avoid sin- 
ning"; and "the talkative man shall live out his life hap- 
hazardly." 3 3 

The tenth degree of humility is, not easily to lay hold on 
occasions of laughing. For it is written: "He who laughs loud is 
a fool." 34 

The eleventh degree of humility is, when a monk discourses 
with moderation and composure, mixing humility with gravity; 
speaking few words, but home, and to the purpose; not raising 
the voice. "The wise man is known because he speaks little." 35 

The twelfth degree of humility is, when the monk's inward 
humility appears outwardly in his comportment. And wherever 
he be, in the divine office, in the oratory, in the monastery, in 
the garden, on a journey, in the fields wherever he is sitting, 
walking or standing, he is to look down with bowed head con- 
scious of his guilt, imagining himself ready to be called to give 
account at the dread judgement: repeating in his heart what 
the publican in the Gospel said with eyes downcast: "Lord, I 
am not worthy, sinner that I am, to lift up my eyes to heaven"; 
and with the prophet "I am bowed down and humbled on 
every side." 36 

After he has climbed all these degrees of humility, the monk 
will quickly arrive at the top, the charity that is perfect and 
casts out all fear. And then, the virtues which first he practised 
with anxiety, shall begin to be easy for him, almost natural, 
being grown habitual. He will no more be afraid of hell, but 
will advance by the love of Christ, by good habits, and by 
taking pleasure in goodness* Our Lord, by the Holy Spirit, will 
deign to show this in the servant who has been cleansed from sin. 

8. Of the divine office during the night 

In the winter time, that is from the first day of November 
until Easter, having regard to different circumstances, they shall 

32 Ps. 22:6; 88:15; 119:71. 33p r0 v. 10:19; P S - *4o:n, 
3* Ecclesiasticus 21 .-20. 

33 From the Sentences ofSixtus, a book of proverbs and moral sayings. 
36 Luke 18 : 13; Ps. 1 19 : 107. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 305 

rise at 2 o'clock in the morning, that they may have time to 
rest till after midnight, and the time of digestion be past. What 
time remains after the office is done, they may use in studying 
the psalms and lessons if they do not yet know them thoroughly. 
From Easter to the first of November, they shall so arrange 
the night office as to leave a very short interval after it (so that 
the brothers may go out for the needs of nature) and then begin 
Lauds at break of day. 

9. How many psalms are to be said at the night office? 
In the winter, they shall first say three times the versicle: "O 
Lord, open thou my lips, and my mouth shall show forth thy 
praise": then recite Psalm 3 and the Gloria. Afterwards Psalm 
94 is to be sung with an antiphon, or at least sung: then the 
hymn of St Ambrose: then six psalms with antiphons. Then, 
after the versicle, the abbot is to give the blessing. And when 
all are in their seats the brothers shall read by turns three 
lessons out of the book upon the lectern: after each they shall 
chant three responsories. Two of the responsories shall be said 
without the Gloria. After the third lesson, the cantor shall say 
the Gloria. As soon as he begins to say it, all shall rise from their 
scats out of honour and reverence to the Holy Trinity. At the 
night office they shall read the inspired books of the Old or New 
Testaments, and also the commentaries written upon them by 
those fathers who are celebrated, Catholic and orthodox. After 
these three lessons with their responsories, six other psalms are 
to be sung with Alleluia: then a lesson out of the apostle, to be 
said by heart: afterwards the versicle, and the litany, that is, 
Kyrie Eleison. And so shall end the night office. 

10. The manner of the night office during summer 
From Easter to the first of November the same distribution 
of psalms is to be observed as aforesaid: except that the lessons 
out of the book shall be omitted by reason of the shortness of the 
nights in summer, and one lesson of the Old Testament shall 
be said by heart in place of the other three, and a short respon- 
sory follow. The rest must remain as before, so that there be 
never fewer than twelve psalms said in the night office, besides 
the third and the ninety-fourth psalms. 

1 1 , The manner of the night office on Sundays 
On Sundays they shall rise earlier to the night office, and 
shall observe this order. After six psalms as above, and the 
versicle, everyone shall sit, each in his place, and they shall read 



306 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

from the book (in the manner we have already mentioned) 
four lessons with their responsories, so that the Gloria be only 
sung by the cantor at the fourth responsory. And as soon as the 
Gloria begins, everyone shall rise from his seat out of reverence. 
After these four lessons, six other psalms shall follow in order, 
with their antiphons and versicle like the earlier psalms. Then 
they shall read four more lessons with their responsories, in the 
same way as before. Next they shall say three canticles from the 
prophets, as the abbot shall appoint: these shall be sung with 
Alleluia. Then, when the versicle has been said and the abbot 
has given the blessing, they shall read four lessons more of the 
New Testament, according to the same order. After the fourth 
responsory the abbot shall begin the hymn Te Deum laudamus. 
After that the abbot shall read the lesson from the Gospel, 
everyone standing in reverence, and at the end of it they shall 
all answer Amen. Then the abbot shall add the hymn Te decet 
laus: and after the blessing they shall begin Lauds. 

This order for the night office on Sundays shall be observed 
throughout the year, summer and winter: unless (though God 
forbid) they should chance to rise late, and so be forced to omit 
something of the lessons or responsories this is carefully to be 
avoided. But if it should happen notwithstanding, he whose 
negligence caused it shall make due satisfaction to God in the 
oratory. 

12. The manner of saying the office of Lauds 
At Lauds on Sundays they shall recite, first, Psalm 66 without 
an antiphon; next Psalm 50 with Alleluia. Then Psalms 117 and 
62; then the Canticle Benedidte: and the Laudate Psalms: then the 
lesson from the Apocalypse, to be said by heart: the responsory, 
the hymn of St Ambrose, the versicle> the canticle from the 
Gospel, the Kyrie Eleison, and so end. 

13. Qnferias the office of Lauds shall be in the manner fol- 
lowing. Psalm 66 shall be said, without an antiphon as on 
Sundays, and leisurely, that all may be present at Psalm 50, 
which must be said with an antiphon. Then they shall say two 
other psalms in this order On Mondays, Psalms 5 and 35; 
Tuesdays, Psalms 42 and 56: Wednesdays, Psalms 63 and 64; 
Thursdays, Psalms 87 and 89: on Fridays, Psalms 75 and 91: 
on Saturdays, Psalm 142, and the Canticle of Deuteronomy 
divided into two Glorias. On other days they shall say one 
canticle out of the prophets, one on each day, according to the 
custom of the church at Rome. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 30? 

After this shall follow the Laudate Psalms: a lesson of the 
apostle, to be said by heart: responsory; hymn of St Ambrose: 
canticle of the Gospel: Kyrie Eleison, and so end. At the hours 
of Lauds and Vespers they shall always end with the Our 
Father, to be said aloud by the president so that all may hear. 
This is because of the animosities and scandals which are wont 
to arise in monasteries, By the promise they make to God when 
they say in the prayer; "Forgive us as we forgive," the religious 
may abolish this vice amongst themselves, At the other hours 
only the last clause of the prayer shall be said aloud, and all 
shall answer: "but deliver us from evil." 

14. The order of the night office on the festivals of saints 
On the festivals of saints, or other solemnities, they shall 
observe the same order as on Sundays: except that they shall 
say the psalms, antiphons, and lessons proper for the day. But 
the number shall be kept as before. 

15, At what times Alleluia is to be said 

From the holy feast of Easter till Whitsuntide, Alleluia is to 
be said with both the psalms and the responsories; but from 
Whitsuntide to the beginning of Lent, only with the second six 
psalms at the night office. Every Sunday, except in Lent, the 
Alleluia shall be said with the Canticles and the psalms of 
Lauds, Prime, Tercc, Scxt, and None: and Vespers with an 
antiphon. The responsories are never to be said with Alleluia 
except from Easter to Whitsuntide. 

i6 How the divine office is to be performed through the day 
"Seven times a day have I praised thee," said the prophet, 
We shall perform this consecrated number of seven if we offer 
prayer (the duty of our profession) at the hours of Lauds, 
Prime, Tercc, Sext, None, Vespers, and Compline, It was of 
these day hours that he said: "Seven times a day have I praised 
thee." Elsewhere the same prophet makes mention of the night 
office, "at midnight I rose to confess to thee," At these times, 
therefore, let us render praise to our creator "Tor the judgements 
of his justice"* 7 that is, Lauds, Prime, Tercc, Sext, None, 
Vespers, Compline: and let us rise at night to confess to him. 

17, How many psalms are to be said at these hours? 
The Psalms of the night office and of Lauds arc appointed: 
we now proceed to the other hours. At Prime they shall say 

37 Ps* 1 19 ; 164 and 6a. 



308 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

three psalms with a Gloria after each. The hymn of this hour 
shall be said after the versicle, CC O God make speed to save me," 
before the psalms begin. Then, at the end of the three psalms, 
they shall say one lesson, versicle, Kyrie eleison, and so end. 

The same order shall be observed at Terce, Sext, and None: 
beginning with the versicle, "O God make speed to save me," 
the respective hymn of the hour, three psalms, lesson, versicle, 
Kyrie Eleison and so end. If the community be numerous, they 
shall be sung with antiphons. Otherwise, not. 

At Vespers they shall say four psalms with their antiphons. 
After these psalms, a lesson, with its responsory: the hymn of 
St Ambrose: a versicle: the Canticle of the Gospel, Kyrie 
Eleison, Our Father, and so end. 

At Compline they shall recite three psalms only, without 
antiphon and plainly. Afterwards the proper hymn: lesson: 
versicle: Kyrie Eleison, and the blessing to end. 

1 8. After what order the psalms are to be said 

First, shall be said the versicle, "O God, make speed to save 
me: O Lord, make haste to help me," and Gloria: afterwards a 
hymn proper to each hour. 

For Sunday Prime they shall say four divisions of Psalm 1 18. 
At the three other hours, Terce, Sext, and None, three other 
divisions of the same Psalm 118. 

For Prime on Mondays, they shall say three psalms (1,2 and 
6) : and so every day until Sunday, they shall continue to say 
at Prime three psalms, choosing them in order till Psalm 19 is 
reached, but always dividing Psalm 9 and Psalm 1 7 into two. 
By this means they shall always begin the night office of Sunday 
with Psalm 20. 

For Terce, Sext, and None on Mondays, they shall employ 
the nine remaining divisions of Psalm 118, three at each hour. 
The whole of Psalm 1 18 being thus said in the two days Sunday 
and Monday; on Tuesday, for Terce, Sext, and None, they shall 
say three psalms at each hour, chosen from Psalm 119 to 
Psalm 127 which makes nine psalms. These are to be repeated 
every day till Sunday at the same hours. The order for the 
hymns, lessons, and versicles, shall not vary on any day. 

So shall they always begin Psalm 1 18 on Sunday. 

Vespers shall be sung every day with four psalms, taken from 
the psalms numbered 109 to 147, except those which are taken 
up for the other hours, namely Psalms 117 to 127, 133 and 142: 
apart from these exceptions all these psalms are to be said at 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 309 

vespers. And because there are three less than there should be, 
they shall divide the longer psalms into two, namely Psalms 1 38, 
143 and 144. But because Psalm 116 is very short, it shall be 
joined with Psalm 115. Apart from psalms, the rest of the 
Vesper office lessons, responsories, hymns, versicles, and can- 
ticles, shall be as I have said. 

At Compline they shall always repeat the same psalms: 4, 90, 



These are the arrangements for the psalmody at the day 
offices. The remaining psalms are to be distributed equally 
among the seven night offices, dividing the longer psalms and 
always assigning twelve for each night. 

Notwithstanding, we hereby declare that if anyone does not 
approve of the present distribution of psalms, he may appoint 
otherwise, if he thinks better: provided he takes care that the 
whole psalter, of a hundred and fifty psalms, be sung every 
week, and that they begin it again at the night office each 
Sunday. It is a mean devotion if monks should in a week sing 
less than the whole Psalter with the usual canticles. We read 
that our holy fathers bravely recited the Psalter in a single day; 
God grant that we, their degenerate sons, may do the like in 
seven. 

19. How we ought to sing 

We believe God is everywhere, and his eye beholds the good 
and wicked wherever they are: so we ought to be particularly 
assured of his special presence when we assist at the divine 
office. Therefore we must always remember the advice of the 
prophet, "To serve God in fear": "to sing wisely": and that 
"the angels are witnesses of what we sing." 38 Let us then reflect 
what behaviour is proper for appearing in the presence of God 
and the angels, and so sing our psalms that the mind may echo 
in harmony with the voice. 

20. What reverence is needed for prayer? 

If we want to ask a favour of any person of power, we pre- 
sume not to approach but with humility and respect. How much 
more ought we to address ourselves to the Lord and God of all 
things with a humble and entire devotion? We are not to 
imagine that our prayers shall be heard because we use many 
words, but because the heart is pure and the spirit penitent. 
Therefore prayer must be short and pure, unless it be prolonged 
3Prov. 15:3; Ps. a:n; 47:7; 138:1. 



310 WESTERN ASCEJTICISM 

by a feeling of divine inspiration.. Prayer in common ought 
always to be short., and when the sign is given by the superior^ 
all should rise together. 

21. Of the deans of the monastery 

If the community be numerous, they shall make choice of 
religious persons of good reputation and exemplary lives, and 
appoint them deans. They shall govern their respective charges, 
according to the laws of God and the commands of their abbot. 
They are to be so qualified that the abbot may safely entrust 
part of his duty to their hands. 

They shall not be elected according to their seniority, but 
with regard to their conduct and their wisdom in teaching. 
And if perhaps one of them be found blamable for pride, and 
does not make amends even after three rebukes, he shall be 
removed from office: and another, worthy, shall be substituted 
in his place. 

As regards the prior, we ordain the same. 

22. How the monks are to sleep 

Each monk shall sleep in a Separate bed. In arranging the 
dormitory the abbot shall take account of seniority and spiritual 
progress. If possible, everyone shall sleep in the same room. 
But if their numbers do not permit; then they shall sleep by 
tens or twenties, with their seniors among them to take care of 
them. A lamp shall burn in the room throughout the night. 

They shall sleep in their habits, and girt with their girdles 
or cords: not with knives at their side, or they might hurt Iherti- 
selves in their sleep. Thus they will be ready to rise the instant 
the bell rings and hurry to be first at the divine office, yet witli 
all gravity and composure. The younger brothers shall not have 
their beds near each other, but split up among the Seniors. As 
they rise for the office, they shall softly exhort each other, to 
take away the excuses of those who are sleepy. 

23. Of excommunication imposed for faults 
If any of the community prove rebellious, disobedient, proud, 
or tntirrtitiring, or contemptuously disobey the holy Rule or the 
commands of his elders, he shall be admonished, according to 
the precept of our Lord, once and then twice by the seniors in 
private. If notwithstanding he does not mend his ways, he shall 
be publicly rebuked. If then he remains incorrigible, and under- 
stands how great the penalty is, he shall be excommunicated. 
If he be obstinate, he shall be liable to corporal punishment. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 

24. The measure of excommunication 

The excommunication or correction ought to be in pro- 
portion to the fault committed, and the judgement of it shall 
depend on the abbot's discretion. If anyone be found guilty of 
lesser faults, he shall be deprived of the common task: in the 
following way. Persons thus deprived shall not conduct psalm 
or antiphon in the oratory, or read any lesson until satisfaction 
is made. They shall eat their meal alone, after the community 
has done. For example, if the community dines at noon, the 
delinquent shall eat at 3 o'clock: if they at three, he shall not 
eat till the evening, and this until he has deserved his pardon by 
a due atonement. 

25. Of greater faults 

The brother who is convicted of greater faults shall be sus- 
pended both from the table and from the oratory. None of the 
community shall keep company or converse with him. He shall 
pursue alone the work enjoined to him, in tears of penance, 
meditating the terrible saying of the apostle "Such a person is 
made over to Satan, for the destruction of the body, to the end 
the soul may be saved at the day of the Lord." 39 He shall eat 
alone, when and what the abbot thinks fit. He shall not receive 
the blessing from anyone that passes by; nor shall the meat be 
blessed that is given to him. 

26, Of them who company without leave with excommunicated 

persons 

If any brother, without the abbot's order, presume to con- 
verse at all with an excommunicated person, or send a message 
to him, he shall incur the same punishment, 

27. What care the abbot is to take of those that lie under 

excommunication 

Let the abbot use his utmost care on behalf of those that do 
amiss: for "they that be whole need not a physician, but they 
that arc sick/' And therefore he ought to employ his whole 
address, like an experienced physician, and dexterously convey 
experienced elders to them, who know how to encourage the 
wavering brother and win him insensibly to humble himself 
and make amends; and to give him comfort, that ho may not 
"be overpowered with excess of grief." As the apostle says: "Let 
charity be redoubled towards him," 40 and the prayers of all be 
offered for him* 
w I Cor. 5:5, 4 Matt. 9 : i a; II Cor* * : 7-8. 



312 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

For the abbot is to be solicitous about delinquents; he is to 
take all pains and use all his wisdom to prevent any of his flock 
from perishing. He must know that he has taken his office not to 
tyrannize over souls that are well, but to take care of souls that 
are sick. Let him stand in awe of the reproach which God 
menaces by the mouth of the prophet: "You chose what seemed 
thriving and likely: and you cast away what was weak and in- 
firm." 41 And he should imitate the example of the good 
shepherd who left ninety and nine of his flock in the mountains, 
and went to seek the one which was gone astray, and took so 
much compassion on its weakness that he deigned to lay it on 
his sacred shoulders and bring it back to the flock. 

28. Of those who will not amend after frequent correction 
If a brother, after frequent corrections for any fault, or even 
after excommunication, does not amend his ways, he shall be 
punished with more severity, that is, with the rod. And if still 
he remains incorrigible, or if (God forbid) he grow proud and 
takes upon him to justify his proceedings, then the abbot must 
do what the prudent physician does. 

If he has endeavoured to soothe his distemper with the heal- 
ing balm of good counsel, and the remedy of holy Scripture, 
and if he has applied the more violent medicines of excom- 
munication and the rod; and still he sees that all his efforts are 
of no avail; let him try his greatest means, prayer by himself and 
his community, that God, who can do all things, may vouchsafe 
to work the cure. 

But if this also has no effect, then let the abbot use the 
surgeon's knife, and sever the infected member from the com- 
munity. As the apostle says: "Drive away the evil man from 
among you": and again: "If the unfaithful man goes away, let 
him go" 42 and then one diseased sheep will not infect the 
flock. 

29. Whether they who leave the monastery are to be 

received again? 

The brother who by his own fault goes out of the monastery, 
and desires to return, shall first give caution for his sincere 
amendment of the fault for which he left the place, and then 
be received into the lowest rank, to make trial of his humility. 
And if he does the same again, he shall be admitted to the third 

4i Ezek. 34 13-4. 42 I Cor. 5 : 13 and 7 : 15. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 313 

time; but after that, he must know that all further entrance shall 
be refused. 43 

30. What correction is proper for children? 
Government ought to be suited to everyone's age and 
capacity: and therefore the faults of children or younger people, 
who do not understand how great is the penalty of excom- 
munication, are to be corrected with severe fasts or whipping. 

31. What qualities are required in the cellarer of the monastery? 

The cellarer of the monastery shall be chosen out of the com- 
munity, discreet, mature in his behaviour, and sober: no glut- 
ton; not proud, factious, truculent, slow, or prodigal; but one 
who fears God, and who can act like a father to the whole com- 
munity. He is to take care of everything: to do nothing but what 
the abbot commands: to observe orders: and not to irritate the 
brethren. If a brother chance to demand anything unreasonable 
of him, he is not to be contemptuous in his refusal, but to refuse 
reasonably and humbly. He is to be careful of his own soul, and 
remember that St Paul says: "He that has done his duty well, 
gains for himself a good degree." 44 He is to show a particular 
concern for the sick, children, strangers and the poor, as being 
accoxmtablc for them at the day of judgement. 

He is to regard the movables and estate of the monastery as 
sacred like the vessels on the altar: to undervalue nothing: to 
observe a middle way between meanness and prodigality: not 
to waste the property of the monastery, but to act with modera- 
tion, and with regard to the abbot's command. 

In particular he is to be humble: so that when he has not the 
wherewithal to grant what is asked, at least he may afford good 
words; remembering that the Scripture said: "A good word is 
above the greatest gift." 45 

He shall have under his care whatever the abbot appoints, 
and not meddle with anything he forbids. He shall give the 

43 There is a difficulty of interpretation here, complicated by a textual crux 
among the manuscripts as the scribes and commentators struggled to 
make clear what was meant, or what they thought was meant. Was the 
monk who was driven out for a fault allowed three chances of returning, 
or was it simply three chances for the monk who left the monastery 
voluntarily? Many modern commentators think the second. Many early 
scribes thought that the first is what was meant. 

44 I Tim. 3 : 13. 45 Ecclesiasticus 18 : 17. 



314 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

brothers their usual allowance without any grudging or reluc- 
tance; for fear of giving offence, and of what the Word of God 
threatens to those who "scandalize any of the little ones." 46 

If the community be numerous, he may be allowed assistants, 
to render the duty of his employment easy and less perplexing. 
Whatever is to be asked or given, shall be done at appointed 
times, so that no one in the household of God shall be troubled 
or irritated. 

32. Of the tools and property of the monastery 
The abbot shall choose some of the brothers, on whose life 
and conduct he can rely, and make them responsible for the 
goods of the monastery tools, clothing and the rest, any of the 
property that he thinks right. 

He shall keep an inventory of these things himself: so that 
when the brothers succeed one another in these places, he may 
know what he is giving and what he receives back. And if any- 
one is found to have impaired the goods of the monastery by 
being slovenly or neglectful, he shall be corrected: and if he 
does not amend, he shall incur punishment in accordance with 
the rule. 

33. Whether monks ought to have any property? 
The vice of possessing property is particularly to be banished 
from the monastery. No one may presume to give or receive 
anything without the abbot's leave, or to possess anything 
whatever, not even book or tablets or pen. The monks' bodies 
and their wills are not at their own disposal. They must look to 
all their needs to be supplied by the common father of the 
monastery. No one may have anything which the abbot does 
not give or permit. "Everything shall be in common" as the 
Scripture sayst "nor shall they presume to call anything their 
own." 47 And if anyone be found inclined to this especial vice, 
he shall be told of it once and twice: and if he do not make 
amends he shall be liable to punishment, 

34. Whether everyone ought to have the same? 
The Scripture tells us: "It was divided to every man severally, 
as he had need." We distinguish partiality (which may God 
forbid) from a consideration of infirmities. He that needs less, 
should give God thanks and not be vexed. He that needs more, 
has an occasion to humble himself for his own infirmity and no 
46 Matt. 18 : 6. 47 Acts 4 : 32 and 35. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 315 

reason to grow proud for being an object of pity. And by this 
means every member may live in peace. 

Above all there must be no grumbling, for any reason, by 
word or sign. The grumbler is to be severely punished. 

35- Of the weekly officers in the kitchen 

The brothers are to serve by turns; and no one is exempt from 
duty in the kitchen, unless he be hindered by ill-health or cm- 
ployed on some business for the good of the monastery. From 
this service a monk learns charity and gains a greater degree of 
merit. Notwithstanding they shall provide assistance for the 
weak, to take away all occasion for grievance; and in general, 
everyone shall have help, with regard to the circumstances of 
the community and the situation of the place. 

If the community be numerous, the cellarer shall be exempt 
from the kitchen, as well as those (aforesaid) who are more 
profitably employed. The others shall serve each other in 
charity, 

He who has finished his week, on Saturday, shall clean every- 
thing, and wash the towels which the brothers have used to dry 
their hands and feet: and, with his incoming successor of the next 
week, he shall wash the feet of the whole community. He shall 
restore to the cellarer the vessels which belong to his office, and 
restore them clean and undamaged; and the cellarer shall 
deliver them to the next man, so that he may keep a weekly 
check upon them. 

An hour before meals the weekly officer may be allowed to 
take a drink and a piece of bread above the usual allowance, 
and so be able to serve his brothers at meals without complaint 
or too great hardship. But on great festivals he shall abstain 
until the end of the office. 

On Sundays after Lauds, the weekly officers ending and 
beginning shall kneel down before the whole community in 
the oratory and ask their prayers, The officer who has ended 
his week shall say this verse: "Blessed art thou, O Lord, who hast 
helped me and comforted me"; 48 and after this has been said 
three times, he shall receive a blessing. Then the officer who is 
beginning his week shall say the verse: "O God, make speed to 
save me, O Lord, make haste to help me"; and after everyone 
has repeated this three times, he shall receive his blessing 
enter upon his duties. 

48 p s . 86:17. 



316 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

36. Of the sick brothers 

The care of the sick is to be put before everything else. They 
are to be tended as Christ himself, who tells us: "I was sick and 
you visited me," and "Inasmuch as you have done it unto one 
of the least of these, you have done it unto me." 49 

The sick on their side are to reflect that the attention paid 
to them is for the honour of God, and they are not to be a 
grievance to those that tend them, by demanding too much. 
Yet even, if they ask too much, they are to be borne with, for 
thereby they are a means to a greater reward. 

The abbot is to take great care that they do not suffer by the 
negligence of those who look after them. An infirmary, apart, 
is to be appointed for their care, and one to look after it who 
fears God and is diligent and solicitous. 

The use of baths may be allowed to the sick as often as may 
be fitting; but for those who are well, and, particularly, young 
people, only seldom. 

The sick who are very weakly are to be allowed to eat meat 
to help their recovery. But as soon as their health is re-established, 
they are to abstain like the rest. 

The abbot is to take great care that the sick be not neglected 
by the cellarer or those that look after them. The fault of his 
disciples is, in some measure, his own fault. 

37. Of old men and children 

Although nature of its own accord is inclined to take pity 
on old men and children, yet it is better they should be provided 
for by the authority of the Rule. Their weakness is always to be 
considered, and the rigour of the rule about eating is not to be 
enforced. They shall be shown tenderness, and given leave to 
eat before the proper times. 

38. Of the weekly reader 

There shall be reading during meals. The reader shall not 
be anyone, whoever happens to pick up the book: one person 
shall read for a week, beginning on Sunday. As he enters on his 
week, after the office and the Communion, he shall ask everyone 
for their prayers that God may preserve him from the spirit of 
vanity. In the oratory he shall begin the verse: "O Lord, open 
thou my lips, and my mouth shall show forth thy praise" and 
everyone shall repeat it three times. Then he shall receive the 
blessing, and so enter upon his office. 
*>Matt. 25:36-40. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 317 

Complete silence shall be kept during meals. There shall be 
no whispering: no one is to say anything except the reader. The 
brothers are to supply each other with what they need in the 
way of food and drink, so that no one needs to ask for anything. 
If anything is lacking, they are to ask for it by a sign, not by 
speaking. 

No one is to ask questions about what is read or about any 
other subject, so that no one will have to answer. The one 
exception is if the superior wishes to say a few words that are 
edifying. 

The weekly reader may take a little food before he begins to 
read, so that he may share in the meal with sanctification, and 
so that he does not find difficulty in fasting a long time. He can 
eat after the community meal, with the brothers who during 
that week are serving in the kitchen. 

Not all the brothers in turn are to read or to sing; only those 
whose reading or singing edifies the listener. 

39. Of the quantity of food 

I am of the opinion that for normal nourishment, whether 
they are eating at noon or 3 o'clock, two dishes will be sufficient 
at each meal. This is to provide for the weakness of different 
people, so that the brother who cannot eat one dish may per- 
haps be able to eat the other. All the brethren, are to be content 
with these two hot dishes: and if fruit or young vegetables can 
conveniently be had, they may be allowed a third. 

A full pound of bread shall suffice for a whole day, whether 
they dine and sup, or have only one meal. If they sup as well as 
dine, the cellarer shall keep a third part of the bread for the 
evening. 

Notwithstanding, it shall be in the abbot's power to increase 
the allowance, if he thinks fit, for those with heavier work. Yet 
he must take care to avoid excess or sudden temptation to 
gluttony. For nothing is so contrary to the life of a Christian as 
overeating: as our Lord said: "Take heed lest at any time your 
hearts be charged with surfeiting." 50 

The same quantity is not to be given to the younger children: 
they should be given less than the others, and always be frugal. 

Except the very weak, no one shall eat meat at any time. 

40. Of the quantity of drink 

"Every man hath his proper gift from God, the one after 
this manner, and another after that." 51 So it is a nice point to 
so Luke 21 134. 5i I Cor. 7:7. 



318 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

prescribe a certain measure of food and drink for others. Not- 
withstanding, having regard to the weakness of the sick, I am 
of opinion that a hemina 52 of wine every day will suffice, Yet 
be it known to those whom God has granted the gift of absti- 
nence, that they shall have an especial reward. 

If the necessity of the place, or the hard work, or the heat 
of the summer, makes them need more, it shall be in the power 
of the superior to add to the allowance: yet always with caution, 
that they may not fall to the temptations of satiety and drunken- 
ness. Although we read 53 that wine is never for monks, it is 
hard to persuade modern monks of this. At least we must all 
agree that we are not to drink to satiety, but with moderation. 
"For wine makes even wise men to fall into apostasy." 54 

Where the poverty of the place prevents this measure being 
available, but much less, or even none at all; the monks there 
ate to bless God, and not complain. 

I give this especial instruction, that no one shall complain. 

41. What hours are most convenient for meals? 

From Easter to Whitsuntide the community shall dine at 
noon and sup in the evening. But from Whitsuntide to the end 
of the summer, if they are not working in the fields or troubled 
by an excessively hot summer, they shall fast on Wednesdays 
and Fridays until three in the afternoon. On other days they 
shall dine at noon. When working in the fields or oppressed by 
heat, they shall dine at noon every day, if the abbot thinks fit. 
But he must so moderate and dispose everything that souls may 
be saved and that the brothers may do their work without 
having good reason to complain. 

From September i4th until the beginning of Lcnt> the com- 
munity shall always eat at three in the afternoon. In Lent, and 
until Easter, they are to eat in the evening, but at such a time 
that they do not need lamps, and the meal may be finished in 
daylight. At all times, they must so manage the hour of the 
meal, whether they dine or sup, that it is in daylight, 

42. Of silence after Compline 

Monks at^ all times ought to study silence, but most of all 
during the night. Throughout the year, whether they are having 
supper or fasting, a similar rule shall apply. In the time of year 

52 Quantity unknown. Probably between a pint and half a pint. 
$* In Vitae Patritm V. 4.3 1 : see page 53 above. 
* 4 Ecclesiasticus 19 : 2. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 319 

when they are having suppers, as soon as they rise from the 
table, they shall assemble in one place, and one of them shall 
read the Conferences or The Lives of the Fathers; or at least some 
book which will edify the listeners. They are not to read the 
first seven books of the Bible or the book of Kings, because that 
part of Scripture is not profitable to weak understandings at 
such a time: these books are to be read at other times. 

If it is a time of year when they are fasting, they are to leave 
a short interval after Vespers, and assemble as before for the 
reading of the Conferences. The reader shall read four or five 
pages, or as much as time allows. During this interval, anyone 
who has been occupied on special duties has time to join the 
assembled brothers. 

When they arc all present, they shall say Compline. And after 
Compline, no one shall be allowed to speak. If any be discovered 
to break this rule of silence, he shall be gravely punished: unless 
it be on account of guests and their needs; and even then it must 
be done with composure and moderation and gentleness. 

43- Of those who come late to the divine office or to table 

As soon as the bell rings, everyone shall leave the work he 
has upon his hands and hasten to the office, as quickly as he 
can, though without rudeness and so that there is no place for 
jesting. Nothing shall be put before the work of God. 

If anyone comes to the night office after the Gloria of Psalm 94 
(a Psalm which, with this in mind, we wish to be recited very 
slowly), he shall not take his place in the choir, but stand lowest 
of all, or in a place apart appointed by the abbot for the 
negligent: so that he may be seen by the abbot and the com- 
munity, until he do public penance at the end of the divine 
office. 

I have thought it right that they should stand in the lowest 
place or in a place apart, so that the very shame of being seen 
by everybody may reform them. For if they remain outside the 
oratory they may be inclined to return to bed again and sleep 
or at least to sit down outside and trifle away the time, and so 
give the evil spirit his opportunity. Therefore they arc to enter 
the oratory, so that they are present for part of the office, and 
may amend for the future. 

He who comes late to the hours of the day office, after the 
versicle and the Gloria of the first psalm, which is said after the 
versicle, shall stand in die lowest place, as above, and not 
presume to join in choir till he has made satisfaction; unless the 



32O WESTERN ASCETICISM 

abbot gives him absolution and leave to join in even so, on 
condition that he makes amends for his fault. 

He who does not come to meals before grace is ended (for 
all shall say grace together and pray together and all sit down 
together to table) shall be rebuked twice for his negligence: and 
if he does not amend, he shall not be admitted to the common 
table, but shall eat apart from the rest, and his allowance of 
wine shall be taken from him till he has made satisfaction and 
mended his ways. The same penalty shall be inflicted on him 
who is not present at the grace which is said after meals. 

Nor shall anyone presume to eat or drink, but at the hour 
appointed. But if the superior offers him something and he re- 
fuses it, he shall receive nothing whatever at the time when he 
does want what he first refused, or indeed anything else; until 
he has made atonement. 

44. How excommunicated persons are to make satisfaction 
He who for a great fault is suspended from oratory and table, 
shall lie prostrate at the door of the oratory during the divine 
office; saying nothing, but lying there, with his head touching 
the ground, at the feet of everyone as they come out. This he 
shall repeat until the abbot declares that he has made satis- 
faction for his fault. And when he is allowed by the abbot to 
come into the oratory, he shall throw himself at the feet of the 
abbot and the whole community, to ask their prayers. Then, if 
the abbot commands, he shall be received into the choir in a 
place appointed him; but he is not to lead a psalm or read a 
lesson or take any other individual part in the office, until 
further order from the abbot. 

At the end of every office, he shall prostrate himself where 
he stands, until again the abbot judges him to have made 
satisfaction and bids him desist. 

They who for lesser faults are only deprived of the table, shall 
make satisfaction in the oratory till the abbot commands other- 
wise. They shall do it until he gives them the blessing and says: 
"It is enough." 

45- Of those who make mistakes in the oratory 
If anyone, while reciting a psalm, responsory, antiphon, or 
lesson, make a mistake, unless he humble himself by making 
reparation before all, he shall incur a greater punishment* For 
he would not retrieve by humility what he did amiss by neglect. 
Boys for this fault shall be chastised. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 32! 

46. Of those who fail in any other matters 
If anyone, being employed in the kitchen, store, refectory, 
akehouse, garden, or anywhere else, commits a fault, breaks 
r loses anything, or in any way fails in his duty, and does not 
nmediately declare his fault and offer himself of his own accord 
D make amends before the abbot and the community; when it 
; discovered by another, he shall be more severely punished. 
But if the fault be a hidden matter concerning the soul, he 
lall only reveal it to his abbot or spiritual elders, who know 
ow to heal their own wounds as well as the wounds of others, 
nd will not disclose and publish them abroad. 

47. Of the duty of ringing for offices 

The abbot ought to undertake the charge of ringing to the 
ivinc office night and day, or to entrust it to a brother who is 
unctual, so that everything may be done at the proper times. 
The leading of the psalms and antiphons shall be done by 
lose appointed thereto, in their order after the abbot. No one 
lall presume to sing or read who has not skill enough to do it 
tith edification. It is to be done with humility and composure, 
nd in the fear of God, and by the persons whom the abbot 
ppoints. 

48. Of daily labour 

Idleness is the enemy of the soul. Therefore the brothers 
lust spend a fixed part of their time in sacred reading, and 
nother fixed part in manual labour. 

From Easter to September I4th they shall go out and work, 
t any necessary task, from 7 a.m. until 10 a.m. or thereabouts, 
rom 10 a.m. until about noon, they shall employ their time in 
sading. 

After dinner at noon, they may rest on their beds in silence, 
f anyone would rather read a book, he may, provided he does 
ot disturb others. 

The hour of None is to be advanced, and said about 2.30 p.m. 
nd afterwards they shall return to their work until Vespers. If 
tie circumstances or the poverty of the place require that the 
lonks cut their corn themselves, they must not look upon it 
s a grievance. For they are truly monks if they live by the work 
f their hands, as our forefathers and the apostles have done 
eforc them. Yet all is to be done with moderation, by reason 
f weak constitutions. 



322 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

From September i4th to the beginning of Lent they are to 
read quietly until 8 o'clock: then Terce shall be said: and from 
Terce to None they shall work at their appointed tasks. As soon 
as the first bell for None goes, they are to stop work and get 
themselves ready in time for the second bell. After the meal they 
are to apply themselves to reading and to learning the psalms. 

In Lent, they are to read from break of day until 9 a.m., and 
then work at their different tasks until 4 p.m. During Lent they 
are each to take one book of the Bible, 55 and read the whole of 
it from beginning to end: these books are to be distributed at 
the beginning of Lent. Particular care should be taken that 
one or two of the elders be deputed to go round the monastery, 
and oversee the monks at the times appointed for reading, to 
discover if any of them be bored, or idle, or trifling away his 
time with frivolous talk instead of serious reading, unprofitable 
to himself and an interruption to others. If (though God forbid) 
any such person be found, let him be rebuked, twice if necessary ; 
and if he then does not amend, he shall be punished in accord- 
ance with the Rule, severely enough to make the others afraid. 
No one shall converse with another brother at improper times. 

On Sundays all shall employ their time in reading, except 
those who have been given special duties. If there be anyone 
so negligent and slothful that he neither can nor will meditate 
or read, he must be employed about some other work which 
he can do, and must not be idle. Those brothers who arc sick 
or of tender constitutions must receive consideration from the 
abbot, and be employed in a craft or work suitable to their 
strength, that they may not be altogether idle, nor burdened 
with labour beyond their powers and so driven away from the 
monastery. 

49- Of the observance of Lent 

The whole life of a monk ought to be a continual Lent. But 
because this perfection is so uncommon, at least I advise every- 
one, during the holy season of Lent, to practise particular 
purity of life, and redeem their negligences of other times. This 
will be rightly performed if we control our faults, and betake 
ourselves to prayer with tears, to reading, to compunction of 
heart and to abstinence. 

55 The older translations said: "one book from the library," the Latin 
being de bibliotheca. But there is now strong evidence that bibliot/ieca means 
Bible, divided into various codices. Gf. A. Olivar in Rev. Arch. Bibl, y 
s,$5 (1949), pp.513-22: Mundo in Revue Btntdictine, i95O,pp. 65-92, 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 323 

Therefore, in Lent, everyone must of his own accord add 
something above his usual practice; for example by offering 
more prayer in private, by taking less than usual in food and 
drink, so that everyone may, with comfort in the Holy Ghost, 
make a voluntary sacrifice to God of something beyond what 
is normally appointed him. This means that each shall deprive 
his body of something in eating, drinking, sleeping, talking and 
the little liberties of merriment and discourse; and he is to look 
forward, with a pure joy of spirit, to the holy feast of Easter. 

Each shall make known to the abbot what he is offering up, 
and so it is to be done with the abbot's prayers and approval. 
For what is done without the consent of him who is their 
spiritual father, shall be looked upon as presumption and 
vanity, and not regarded as gaining merit. Everything must be 
done with the abbot's approval. 

50. Of brothers who work far from the oratory, or who are on 

journeys 

The brothers who, with the abbot's knowledge, are em- 
ployed a great way from the oratory and cannot return at the 
usual time for offices, shall say the office at their place where 
they labour, in the fear of God and on their knees. In the same 
way those who are travelling shall keep the proper times for 
the office, and discharge their duty to God as well as they can 
by themselves. 

51. Of those who make short journeys 

The brothers who go out on any account whatever, with the 
intention of returning the same day, shall not, under pain of 
excommunication, presume to cat away from the monastery, 
though invited to do so, unless they have the abbot's leave. 

52. Of the oratory of the monastery 

The oratory must be a place suited to its name, and not used 
for any other business or purpose. When the divine office is 
ended, everyone is to go out in complete silence, and reverently 
before God, so that if a brother wants to remain for private 
prayer, he may not be disturbed by the ill-conduct of another. 
If at any other time anyone wants to pray by himself, he is to 
enter quietly and say his prayers: not in a loud voice, but in 
penitence and sincerity of heart. Except for the purpose of 
private prayer, no one shall remain in the oratory at the end of 
the office, lest he should, as we said, be a hindrance to another. 



324 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

53. The manner of entertaining guests 

All guests coming to the monastery shall be received as 
Christ himself: for he will one day say: "I was a stranger, and 
you took me in." 56 And everyone shall receive due honour, 
especially clerics 57 and pilgrims. 

As soon as he hears that a guest has arrived, the superior, or 
some of the brothers, shall meet him with all the kindness that 
charity suggests. They shall pray together, and then salute 
each other with the kiss of peace. They shall not give the kiss 
of peace until they have prayed, to make sure that the visitor 
is not one of the devil's devices. 

The salutation shall be given with deep humility, whether the 
guests are arriving or departing. It shall be with a bow or with 
a prostration on the ground, for Christ is to be adored in them 
and is being received as the guest. 

After their welcome, the guests are to be led to the oratory. 
Then the superior, or a monk appointed by him, shall sit with 
them. He shall cause the Scripture to be read before the guest, 
for the sake of edification, and afterwards shall entertain them 
kindly. 

The superior shall be dispensed from fasting out of regard to 
the guest, unless it be a particularly important fast which 
cannot be broken. But the brother shall continue to fast as 
usual. 

The abbot shall pour the water over the guest's hands; and 
he, and the community, wash the feet of all the guests. After 
they have washed them they shall say the verse: "Lord, we have 
received thy mercy, in the midst of thy temple." 58 

They shall take particular care to entertain the poor and the 
pilgrims with more than common kindness, because Christ is 
most of all received in their persons. The awe which we have 
of the rich makes it natural for us to honour them. 

The kitchen that serves the abbot and the guests shall be 
separate from the other* In this way guests; who are always 
coming to the monastery, cannot disturb the community when 
they arrive at irregular hours. This kitchen shall be served by 
two brothers, who take office for a year at a time, and under- 
stand the duty well. They shall have assistance when they need 

56 Matt. 25:35. 

37 Domestici fidd. Some older translations wrote "Catholics," but this is 

probably meaningless in the context. "Monks" is another possible 

meaning. 
* Ps. 48:9. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 325 

it, so that they may serve contentedly. When they have little 
to do, they shall go out to work elsewhere, as they are ordered. 
And in all other offices of the house, the same consideration 
must be shown, to furnish assistants when need requires; and 
when there is nothing to do in their own work, they shall do 
what is appointed elsewhere. 

The guest-room shall be entrusted to the care of a brother 
whose soul is possessed with the fear of God. It shall contain 
sufficient beds decently furnished. In all things the house of 
God is to be administered by wise men in a wise way. 

Without leave, no one shall company or converse with 
guests. But if he chances to meet and sec a guest, he shall 
salute him humbly, as I said, and after asking his blessing, shall 
pass by, saying only that he is not allowed to talk with a guest. 

54. Whether monks ought to receive letters or anything else? 

It is not allowable for any monk, without the abbot's leave, 
to send or receive letters, or presents, or any little tokens from 
their relations or from anyone else whatsoever, not even from 
each other. And if he is sent anything by his relatives, he shall 
not presume to accept it, till he has given notice to the abbot. 
If the abbot orders him to accept it, the abbot may dispose of 
the thing afterwards to whom he pleases: and the brother, to 
whom it was sent, shall not take it amiss, or he might expose 
himself to the temptations of the devil. 

Whoever disobeys these regulations, shall bo liable to punish- 
ment in accordance with the Rule. 

55. Of the clothes and shoes of the brethren 

The brothers shall be furnished with clothes suitable to the 
situation and climate of the place where they live. More is re- 
quired in cold countries and less in hot. This is left to the abbot's 
discretion. 

For temperate climates we are of the opinion that it is 
enough for each monk to have a cowl (the cowl for winter shall 
be of thicker stuff, that for the summer thin and worn) a tunic, 
a belt 59 for their work, shoes and stockings. 

The monks are not to be disturbed at the colour or coarseness 
of these clothes, but to be content with what the country pro- 
duces and can, be had cheaply. 

The abbot shall take care that their habits be not too short, 
but of the right size. 

59 The Latin is Scapulare. For its meaning, sec the convincing note by Dom 
Justin McCann, pp. 199-3. 



326 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

When new clothes are given out, they shall there and then 
restore the old ones, to be laid up in the wardrobe for the poor. 
It is enough for each to have two cowls and two tunics, for 
change at night and for the convenience of washing. More than 
two would be superfluous: if anyone has more than two, the 
extra should be taken away. And they are to return their 
stockings, or anything else that is old, when they are given new 
ones. 

Those who are to make a journey shall be allowed clean 
drawers from the wardrobe, and shall restore them, washed, 
when they return home. Their clothes for journeys shall be 
somewhat better than ordinary; furnished from the wardrobe, 
and to be restored on their return. 

For bedding, this shall be enough: a mattress, blanket, 
coverlet and pillow. The beds shall be frequently inspected by 
the abbot, to see that they contain no private property. If he 
finds anything for which he has not given leave, the culprit shall 
be subjected to severe punishment. 

To root this vice of private property entirely out of the 
monastery, the abbot shall allow everything that is necessary: 
cowl, tunic, stockings, shoes, belt, knife, pen, needle, handker- 
chief, tablets. Thus there will be no pretence of need. Yet the 
abbot is always to remember what is said in the Acts of the 
Apostles: "distribution was made to everyone according as he 
had need." 60 And in the same way he is to consider the in- 
firmities of the needy, without having regard to the ill-will or 
the envy of others. But he must be mindful that God will deal 
with him according to his works. 

56. Of the abbof stable 

The abbot shall always eat with guests and pilgrims. When 
there are only a few guests, he may invite whom he pleases of 
the brothers, provided he take care to leave one or two of the 
elders with the community, for the maintenance of discipline. 

57. Of the craftsmen of the monastery 

If there are monks in the community skilled at any craft, 
they shall work at it with humility, if the abbot allows them. 
But if anyone grows proud, and values himself upon his skill, 
and thinks himself profitable to the monastery, he must be 
taken off his work and not allowed to practise it; unless perhaps 

*o Acts 4 135. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 327 

he humble himself and the abbot may think good to employ 
him again. 

If any of their handiwork is to be sold, let those who make the 
bargain take care to get no unfair advantage, and remember 
the example of Ananias and Sapphira: for they, or any others, 
who try to turn the common goods of the monastery to a dis- 
honest profit, would incur the death of the soul as Ananias and 
Sapphira did of the body. 

In the price of goods, they must take care to avoid 
avarice, and must sell at a little cheaper rate than men of the 
world sell, "that in all things God may be glorified." 6l 

58. The manner of receiving men into the monastery 

When anyone presents himself to be admitted as a monk, they 
shall not easily give him entrance; but, as the apostle advises: 
"Make trial of the spirits, to see if they are of God." 62 If he is 
importunate and goes on knocking at the door, for four or five 
days, and patiently bears insults and rebuffs and still persists, 
he shall be allowed to enter. He shall stay in the guest-room for 
a few days. Thence he shall go to the cell where the novices 
study and cat and sleep. 

An elder, who has the address of winning souls to God, shall 
be appointed as the director of the novices. He is to watch over 
them carefully, and thoroughly examine whether they truly 
seek God, whether they arc sincere in the worship of God, in 
obedience, in bearing trials. The novice shall be warned of ail 
the hardships and difficulties on the road which leads to God. 

If he promises to persevere in, his resolution, at the end of two 
months they shall read this Rule to him, from beginning to end, 
and say to him: "Here is the Law under which you wish to be 
Christ's soldier. If you can observe it, enter: if you cannot, 
freely depart." If he remains firm, he shall be led back to the 
novices' cell, and his patience shall be further tried. 

At the end of six months, the Rule shall be read to him that 
he may know what he is undertaking. And if he persists, after 
four months the Rule shall be read a third time. And if, upon 
matxtrc deliberation, he promises to observe the whole Rule and 
to obey whatever commands he is given, he shall be admitted 
as a member of the community, and he shall know that by the 
Law of the Rule it shall not thenceforth be in his power to quit 
the monastery, nor to shake off the yoke of the Rule, which he 

I Peter 4:11. & I John 4: i. 



328 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

might have accepted or refused during so long a time for 
deliberation. 

The person to be received shall make public profession in the 
oratory, of his stability, amendment of life, and obedience. The 
promise is to be made before God and his saints, so that if at 
any time he breaks his promise, he may know that he will 
surely be damned by God whom he is mocking. 

He shall write down this promise in the form of a petition in 
the name of the saints whose relics are there, and of his own 
abbot. He shall write it with his own hand: or, if he cannot 
write, another shall do it at his instance, and he shall add his 
mark and with his own hand lay it upon the altar. As he places 
it on the altar, he shall say this verse: "Receive me, O Lord, 
according to thy word, and I shall live: and let me not be 
disappointed of my hope." 63 The whole community shall 
repeat this three times, and end with the Gloria. Then the novice 
shall throw himself at the feet of all, to ask their prayers; and 
afterwards he shall be looked upon as a member of the com- 
munity. 

If he has any property, he shall first distribute it to the poor, 
or make it over to the monastery by a formal donation, without 
any reservation for himself. He knows that for the future he is 
not even master of his own body. 

While he is still in the oratory, his own clothes shall be re- 
moved, and he shall be clad in the clothes of the monastery. 
But his clothes shall be kept in the wardrobe; so that if ever 
(God forbid) he should be enticed by the devil and consent to 
leave the monastery, he can be stripped of his habit and turned 
out. 

His petition, which the abbot took from off the altar, is not to 
be returned to him, but preserved in the monastery. 

59^ Of the sons of rich and poor, offered to God in the monastery 
If a nobleman makes an offer of his son to God in the 
monastery, and the boy is young, his parents shall write the 
petition (as before); and, making a gift to the monastery, 64 
they shall wrap the child's hand and their petition, iix the 
altar-cloth, and so deliver him to God, 

Ps. 119:116. 

* 4 Cum oblatione. The difficulty of this interpretation is the final sentence of 
the chapter, where the destitute are also supposed to make a gift. Never- 
theless it still seems the most probable meaning in the context Another 
suggestion is "at the offertory" in the mass. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 329 

As regards their property, they must promise under oath in 
their petition, that neither they, nor their agent, nor any other 
person, will ever give any piece of private property to him, 
or even give him the opportunity of acquiring it. 

But if they want to give alms to the monastery for their own 
merit before God, they may make a conveyance of what they 
please to the monastery, and (if they wish) reserve the income to 
themselves. In this way there will be no breach open whereby 
the boy (which God forbid) may look forward to owning 
property and so be drawn into ruin as I have known happen. 

The poorer shall do the same. Those who have nothing at all 
shall simply make the petition, and with an offering tender 
their boy, in the presence of witnesses. 

60. Of priests who may wish to live in the monastery 

If a priest asks to be received into the monastery his request 
shall not be allowed without due consideration. But if he 
persists in his petition, he is to know that he must keep the whole 
Rule. He shall be exempted in nothing, and so will better 
answer the question: "Friend, why earnest thou hither?" 6S 

Notwithstanding, he may take place after the abbot, give 
blessings, conduct services, if the abbot so ordains. Otherwise 
he is not to undertake anything whatever. He is to remember 
that he is bound to observe discipline according to the Rule, and 
is particularly to give a good example of humility. 

If there is a question of order, or any other matter, to be 
settled in the monastery, he must expect to be in the place 
which is his due according to the time when he entered the 
monastery, ' and not the place which is granted him out of 
respect to his priestly office. 

If any other ecclesiastic has the same desire to join the com- 
munity, he shall be allowed a moderate place; provided that 
he makes a promise to keep the Rule and to persevere. 

6 1, How pilgrim monks are to be received? 
If a pilgrim monk arrives from a distant country, and wants 
to live as a guest in the monastery, and is content to submit 
to the ways of the place as he finds them, without troubling the 
house by demanding more than is customary; he may be 
admitted for as long as he pleases, 

If he reasonably and humbly and charitably represents that 
something is wrong and should be redressed; the abbot shall 
26:50, 



33O WESTERN ASCETICISM 

maturely deliberate upon it, and consider whether God did not 
send him there for that intent. 

If afterwards he wishes to remain there, he is not to be re- 
fused. For while he was a guest, they have had an opportunity 
of seeing his way of living. But if they have remarked anything 
disorderly or vicious, so far from admitting him to the com- 
munity, they shall politely desire him to depart, for fear that 
others will be misled by his bad example. 

If on the contrary he does not deserve to be sent away, not 
only shall he be admitted to the community if he requests it: 
they shall invite him to stay and teach the others by his ex- 
ample. Wherever we are, we serve one Lord, fight under one 
sovereign. 

If the abbot finds that he deserves to be advanced, he may 
give him a higher place in the community. The abbot may also 
do this with priests and ecclesiastics, as above, provided he sees 
that their good life deserves that consideration. 

But the abbot is to take care that he does not admit to his 
monastery any monk of a known monastery without the consent 
of his abbot or credentials from him. For it is written: "Do 
not to another, as you would not have done to yourself," 66 

62. Of the priests of the monastery 

If an abbot wants to advance any of his monks to the order 
of priest or deacon, he shall make choice of persons worthy of 
the office. The person ordained must be careful to avoid vanity 
or arrogance, and not to take upon him anything that the 
abbot does not command. He is to remember that he has only 
a greater obligation to keep discipline according to the Rule. 
Because he is a priest, he is not to forget obedience to the Rule 
and good order, but is to advance more and more on the way 
to God. 

He must always expect to have his seniority from the day of 
his entry into the monastery, and not that which belongs to the 
service of the altar; even if the community and the abbot want 
to promote him in consideration of his good life. He is neverthe- 
less to understand that he must keep the Rule appointed for 
deans and priors. If he acts otherwise, he shall not be looked 
upon as a priest but as a rebel. 

If after frequent rebukes he does not amend, the bishop shall 
be brought in to see his faults. If not even then does he amend, 
and his faults are manifest, he shall be dismissed from the 
<tf Tobit 4 : 15. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 33! 

monastery. Yet his disobedience must be refusal to obey the 
Rule. 

63. The order of precedence in the community 

Their places in the monastery shall be determined by their 
time of entry, the goodness of their life, and the decision of the 
abbot. The abbot is not to disturb his flock, which is a trust, by 
using an arbitrary power to do anyone an injury, but must 
ever remember that he is to give account to God of his decisions 
and actions. 

According to the precedence which he has determined, or 
which they observe amongst themselves, they shall go to the 
kiss of peace, receive the Holy Communion, lead the Psalms, 
and take their place in the choir. Wherever they are, age shall be 
neither here nor there in determining precedences; for Samuel 
and Daniel, though but children, were made judges of elders. 

All, except those whom for particular reasons the abbot has 
degraded or advanced, shall take their place according to their 
date of entry into the community. For example, he who comes 
to the monastery at 8 o'clock shall know that he is junior to 
him who came at 7 o'clock, whatever his age and rank. 

But boys arc to be kept under discipline to everyone. 

The junior monks are to honour the seniors, and the seniors 
to love the juniors. In talking to one another, no one may call 
another by his own name. But the seniors shall call the juniors 
"brothers," and the juniors shall call the seniors "Reverend 
fathers." And because the abbot is esteemed to be in the place 
of Christ, he shall be called "Lord and abbot," not as his own 
due, but out of honour and love to Christ. The abbot ought to 
reflect, and behave in a manner worthy of so great an honour. 

Wherever the brothers meet, the junior shall ask the senior's 
blessing. When the senior passes by, the younger shall rise to 
give up his scat; and he shall not presume to sit down again 
till he is bidden by the senior: according to the words of Scrip- 
ture "in honour preferring one another," 67 

Little children! and boys shall keep their regular places in the 
oratory or at meals. Elsewhere they shall be supervised and 
under discipline, until they come to years of discretion. 

64. Of the abbofs election 

In the election of the abbot, they shall observe this method, 
That person shall be constituted and received abbot, whom 
the whole community has unanimously elected in the fear of 
*7 Rom. 13:10. 



332 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

God: or whom a part of the community, though a minority, 
has chosen with greater prudence. 

The person to be appointed is to be chosen for the goodness 
of his life and the excellence of his wisdom, even though he 
be the last in the house according to seniority. 

If it should happen (God forbid) that the whole congregation 
should unanimously conspire to elect a person to support them 
in their ill practices, and their disorder grow notorious to the 
bishop of that diocese, or to the abbots or other Christians of the 
neighbourhood, they are to prevent the success of the con- 
spiracy and appoint an abbot who will be a faithful steward 
over the house of God. They shall be assured of a good reward 
if they do it with pure motives and zeal for God: and that they 
will be guilty of sin, if they neglect to interfere in these circum- 
stances. 

The person elected must reflect how weighty a burden he 
undertakes, and who will demand an account of his administra- 
tion. He must remember that he is more obliged to profit his 
flock than to preside over them. 

He is to be well-versed in Holy Scripture, so as to know how 
to bring forth from his treasure things new and old. He is to be 
chaste, sober and merciful. He is ever to put mercy above 
justice 6S that he may himself deserve mercy at the hand of God. 

He must hate sin, and love the brothers. And when he is 
forced to punish them, he must use all discretion and modera- 
tion, and so will not shatter the vessel by trying to scour it too 
clean. He must be aware of his own frailty, and remember that 
it is forbidden to break the already bruised reed. 69 We do not 
mean that he should countenance the growth of vice; but that 
he use discretion and tenderness as he sees it expedient for the 
different characters of his brothers. He is to endeavour much 
more to be loved than feared. 

He must observe a calmness in his ways, and not be uneasy, 
nor overmuch wedded to his own notions: not jealous nor too 
suspicious, for then he will never be free of worry. He must be 
cautious and circumspect in his commands; and he is to exam- 
ine his commands to see whether they are in accordance with 
God's will or arise from worldly motives, and is to use restraint, 
remembering the discretion, of Jacob: "If I make my flocks go 
further, they will all die in one day." Discretion is the mother 
of virtues. He must follow the example of Jacob and others, and 

M Gf. James 2 : 13. ? Gf. Isa. 42 13; Matt. 12:20. 

70 Gen. 33 : 13. It is possible that the sentence means "he is to use discretion, 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 333 

so adjust his measures, that the strong may be led to press on- 
ward, and the weak may not be disheartened. Above all he is 
to observe this Rule in every point: so that when he has faith- 
fully discharged his duty, he may hear from the mouth of the 
Lord the words said to the good servant who gave his fellow- 
servants wheat in due season: "Verily I say unto you, he will 
set him over all his goods." 71 

65. Of the prior of the monastery 

The appointment of the prior frequently causes great dis- 
orders in monasteries. There are some people who succumb to a 
wicked spirit of ambition, look upon themselves as a second 
abbot, and usurp a dictatorial authority: hence breed scandals 
and factions in a community* This happens especially in com- 
munities where the prior is appointed by the same bishop, or 
the same neighbouring abbots, who appoint the abbot. It is 
easy to see how absurd this system is, for the method of his 
appointment gives him occasion to grow proud from the 
moment he takes office, since it suggests to him, temptingly, that 
he is exempt from the abbot's authority: for, he says to himself: 
"you and the abbot derived your authority from the same 
people." So arise animosities, quarrels, detraction, jealousy, 
dissension, disorder. While the abbot and the prior are at vari- 
ance, their souls must needs be exposed to danger. And the 
monks, who become partisans, and flatterers of the one side or 
the other, promote their own ruin. But the originators of the 
faction are chiefly responsible for the danger into which 
everyone is running. 

Therefore I have thought it expedient, for the keeping of 
peace and charity, that the abbot should control the appoint- 
ment to every office in his monastery. If possible, he shall make 
use of deans to administer the monastery as he shall direct. If 
there arc many commanders, no one will grow arrogant. 

But if the circumstances of the place require it, or the 

whether his commands concern spiritual matters or temporal matters." 
But I think this is an improbable use of the phrase secwidum saeculum. 
Saeculum is used with a bad meaning in the Rule, chapters i (servants 
saeculofidem}, 4 ("Saecuti actibus sefacere alienum"). The use in 7 ("scala . . . 
est vita in scuculo"} is probably, but not quite certainly, neutral. I do not 
think Benedict would have conceived of "secular actions" in the mon- 
astery as opposed to * 'spiritual actions." See especially his instructions 
that all the common goods of the monastery are to be treated like the 
vessels upon the altar, 
7i Matt. 24:47. 



WESTERN ASCETICISM 

amunity requests, humbly and reasonably, that a prior be 

>ointed, and if the abbot judges it to be expedient; then the 

>ot is himself to appoint a prior, choosing the person himself 

T taking the advice of brothers who fear God. 

"'he prior shall respectfully perform whatever the abbot 

imands, and do nothing against his wish and arrangement. 

? higher his office, the more exact he ought to be in observing 

Rule. 

f the prior be found to have grave faults, or is puffed up 

hi pride, or is proved to be contemptuous of the holy Rule; 

s to be admonished, up to four times. If he does not amend, 

shall be liable to punishment in accordance with the Rule. 

e does not then amend his ways, he shall be deposed from 

office, and another, who is worthy, shall be chosen in his 

;e. If afterwards he disturbs the quiet of the house and prove 

>bedient, he shall be turned out of the monastery. 

r et the abbot must not forget that he must give God an 

Dunt of all his decisions; he must not let himself be influenced 

ealousy, which can consume the soul like a fire. 

66. Of the porters of the monastery 

.t the gate of the monastery they shall place aa old man of 
e, who understands to take messages and to deliver them, 
has maturity enough to make him mind his business. He 
it have a cell by the gate, that he may be always nearby 
nswer knocks. As soon as he hears a knock, or the voice of a 
yar, he shall say: "Thanks be to God" or "Bless ye the 
d": and then answer the business quickly, in the fear of 
I, in charity, and with perfect civility. If he needs help, he 
r be allowed one of the younger monks, 
he monastery ought to be so arranged that, if possible, it 
' have all necessaries within its precincts water, a mill, a 
len, and the wherewithal to work at several trades. Then 
monks will have no occasion for rambling abroad, which is 
good for their souls. 

wish this Rule to be read often in the community. Then no 
her can excuse himself upon the score of ignorance. 72 

67. Of brethren sent on journeys 

[onks who are to be sent on a journey shall commend 
oselves to the prayers of the community and of the abbot, 
iis was almost certainly the end of an earlier draft of the Rule. The 
needing chapters have nothing to correspond with them in Regula 
zgistri. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 335 

Absent monks shall be always commemorated at the end of the 
divine office. 

The day they return home, they shall lie prostrate on the 
floor of the oratory at the end of all the offices, and ask the com- 
munity's prayers that God will please to forgive the faults 
which they may have been surprised into committing on their 
journey, through sight or hearing of evil, or through idle talk. 
No one shall presume, under pain of punishment according to 
the Rule, to relate what has happened to him outside the 
monastery, for this may occasion many evil consequences. The 
same penalty shall be incurred by him who presumes to leave 
the cloister and go anywhere at all, or do anything however 
unimportant, without the abbot's leave. 

68. If a brother be ordered to do something impossible 
If a brother is ordered to do something difficult or impossible 
he shall receive the order with good temper and submission. 
If he sees that it is altogether beyond his power, he may 
patiently wait an opportunity to show his superior why it is 
impossible, provided he do it in a humble and not in a rebellious 
spirit. If, notwithstanding his plea, the superior persists in the 
order, the brother is to be persuaded that it is for his good, and 
in charity, trusting in God's help, shall obey. 

69. That no one in the community ought to defend another 
Great care is to be taken that no monk presume to defend 
or protect another, even though they be kinsmen. Great scan- 
dak can ensue. If any be found guilty on this point, he shall be 
severely punished. 

70. That no one shall strike another irregularly 
To take away all occasion of presumption in the monastery, 
we order that no one at any time shall presume to excom- 
municate or strike another, unless he have the abbot's authority. 
"Let offenders be publicly rebuked, as a fearful example to 
others." 73 

But everyone shall have a hand in the education and discip- 
line of children up to the age of fifteen: yet they are to be dealt 
with reasonably and with restraint. Anyone who exercises 
discipline upon those older than fifteen, without the abbot's 
leave; and anyone who is heated with the children and does not 

73 1 Tim. 5:20. 



336 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

control himself, shall be punished according to the Rule. It is 
written: "Do not to another what you would not have done to 
yourself." ? 4 

71. That the brothers are to be obedient to each other 
Obedience of its own nature is a thing so good, that they are 

to pay it to each other as well as the abbot; being assured that 
by this way of obedience they will come to God. Leaving aside 
the commands of the abbot or the priors appointed by him 
(which take precedence of all private instructions), we declare 
that the junior are to obey the senior, with readiness and 
charity. If anyone makes trouble, he is to be corrected. 

If a brother, for whatever reason trivial though it be, is 
rebuked by the abbot or by one of his seniors even if he is 
conscious that his senior is offended or moved at him, however 
mildly he shall on the spot throw himself at the feet of the 
senior and remain there, by way of satisfaction, until the 
vexation be gone and he receive the senior's blessing. If anyone 
scorns to do this, he shall be liable to corporal punishment. If 
he is obstinate, he shall be expelled from the monastery. 

72. Of the right jealousy which monks ought to ham 
There is 'a bitter and wicked jealousy which separates from 

God and leads towards hell. But there is a rightful jealousy 
which separates from sin and leads towards heaven and eternal 
life. This is the jealousy monks ought to practise from motives 
of charity: namely, "to prefer one another in honour," 75 They 
are to bear with patience the weaknesses of others, whether of 
body or behaviour: and strive with each other in being obedient. 
They shall not follow their own good, but rather the good of 
their brothers. They shall be charitable, with a pure heart, 
towards their brothers. They shall fear God. They shall love 
their abbot with a sincere and humble affection. They are to 
put nothing at all before Christ; whom we pray to lead us 
together to eternal life. 

73. That this Rule does not contain the whole law of righteousness 
I have written this Rule with the object of showing that 
monks who keep it have at least something of virtuous charac- 
ter, and must have begun to live a truly good life. But men 
aspire to the perfect life; and for them there are the teachings 
of the holy fathers, which will lead those who follow them to 
74 Tobit 4 : 15. 75 R O m. 12:10. 



THE RULE OF SAINT BENEDICT 337 

true perfection. What page even sentence of the inspired 
Old and New Testaments is there that is not an excellent rule 
of life? What book of the holy Catholic fathers is there that does 
not point out the nearest way to come to our Creator? The 
Conferences of the fathers, their Institutes and Lives] the Rule of 
our father. Saint Basil these are instruments to help the monk, 
who follows them, to lead a good life; to us, idle and neglectful 
sinners, they are a reproach and shame. 

Whoever you are, who desire to advance apace to the 
heavenly country, practise first, through Christ's help, this little 
Rule for beginners. And in the end, under God's protection, 
you will climb those greater heights of knowledge and virtue 
to which the holy fathers beckon you. 



APPENDIX 

Notes to The Sayings of the Fathers 
The Text 

As is explained in the introduction, this is not intended to be a 
full apparatus: but is intended to secure, so far as is possible in the 
present state of knowledge, that the translation represents the text as 
it was in the sixth and seventh centuries and not the text as it 
became established in later medieval tradition. 

The following manuscripts, with their abbreviations here used, 
have been of service: 

B Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale 1221 (9850-2), fol. 5-107: this 
manuscript came, almost certainly, from the house of St 
Medard at Soissons and can be dated by a remarkable frontis- 
piece to the years 695 to 711. It contains l.i to XV, 39: and 
was the best manuscript to be consulted by Roswcydc. The 
volume was at one time in the library of the Bollandists. 

G Cologne Chapter Library 165. The manuscript is a semi- 
uncial which has been dated in the sixth or seventh century. I 
incline to think that this dating is too early, and that the early 
eighth century is more probable: but the manuscript is in any 
case an early authority of importance. In some scribbling on 
the last folio occurs the name Hilduinus episcopus: Hilduin 
was Bishop of Cologne in 842-9. The manuscript ends at X.68. 
It stands in close relationship with B above, 

D Brussels, Bibliotheque Royale 8126-8, foL 62-148, of the ninth 
century. Its affinities are not with B but with M. It was seen, 
though not used carefully, by Rosweyde, and ends at XV. 1 6, 

M Milan, Biblioteca Ambrosiana F.84 sup. The manuscript was 
from Bobbio and appears to be of the eighth century. With 
many omissions it contains extracts from almost every part, and 
is therefore of particular importance for the later parts (after 
XV.39) which no other pre-Carolingian manuscript (unless W 
be pre-Carolingian) reaches. 

P Paris, Bibliotheque Nationale Lat. 5387, a MS. of Colbert: 
dating from the end of the ninth century. This is the latest of 
the group of manuscripts here consulted, apart from those at 

338 



APPENDIX 339 

Monte Cassino and in the Bodleian. But it is important as a 
good manuscript which has preserved nearly all the original 
text apart from the first few folios which have been lost (it 
begins at III. 3). 

R Rosweyde's text, editions of 1615, 1617, ^28 and reprinted 
with a few slips by Migne in PL 73. The edition was a great 
advance on all its predecessors, because Rosweyde had con- 
sulted two good manuscripts, B and D above. But the curious 
thing is how little he allowed the good readings to affect his text 
at crucial points. The B manuscript's readings would have 
made several passages intelligible to him, and the evidence of 
the other early manuscripts proves that these more intelligible 
meanings were not subsequent corrections but were the original 
text. Yet it must be remembered that R represents a good 
tradition. R alone is almost certainly wrong: R in support is 
not to be despised. 

S London, British Museum, Additional MSS. 15350. This is a 
cartulary of the Priory of St Swithin at Winchester, originally 
in the Chapter Library at Winchester, At each end are pasted 
fragments of parts XIII and XIV in an uncial hand, not later 
than the eighth century. 

W Wiirzburg, University Library Mp.th.qu.30, an Anglo-Saxon 
minuscule said commonly to be of the eighth century, though I 
incline to the view that it may well be ninth century. This 
manuscript has a very long lacuna in the middle, and is in 
some ways the least reliable of the early manuscripts, that is if I 
may judge only by the internal evidence of the quality of 
readings which it provides. 

I have also examined six manuscripts of later date, useful 
mainly for detecting how ancient are the divergencies of the 
Textus Receptus from the early manuscripts: three from Monte 
Cassino (143, 400, 463: here abbreviated as A 1 , Aa, A3), all of 
the eleventh century and closely akin: and three from the Bod- 
leian Library, all of the twelfth century Hatton 84 fol. 27 
112, probably from France (O 1 ): Douce 351 fol. 6-153 (OS) 
and Bodleian 386 fol. 58-162 (O 3 ). 

Syr Parallels in the Syriac texts translated by Wallis Budge, Th$ 
Paradise of the Fathers, volume ii (1904). 

G Parallels in the Greek Apophthegmata, in the version printed by 
Cotelier in Ecdesiae Graecae Monumenta, 1677-86 and reprinted 
by Migne, Patrologia Graeca, volume 65. 

There are also certain parallels, not without importance, in 
the Coptic fragments printed by G. Zoega, Catalogus Codicwn 
Copticorum (Rome 1810), pp. 288-341. 

For a further list of manuscripts see A. Siegmund, Dig 
JJberliefermg der grieck. christl. Literatur In der lat. Kwche (1949), 
pp. 136-8. 



34 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Parti 

The titles to the different parts, though early, are not original. 
The correct title of the whole is Adhortationes Patrum in profectu 
monachorum, as the uncial MSS. show. 

For Part I: 

BMCRD are complete. 

P does not begin until the middle of 1 1 1. 3. 

W contains 1-4, 8-10, 12, 14-16, 19, 22-3. 

2. M has an odd reading for R's neque poemteris etc: neque poeniteat 

de re peritura et contine linguam tuam et ventrem. 
Continens R Gonterens W 

3. exigit RM requirit BC 

virtute, linguae continentiam, et castitatem corporis R 
vertutem de lingua et castitatem de corpore BG 
vertutem linguae continentia et castitatem corporis W 
veritatem, linguae continentiam M 

6. quoniam quicumque semetipsum necessitatibus subjecerit atque 

coegerit R 
qui per omnia sibi ipsi violentus est adversum desideria sua B 

(and probably C, but illegible) 
quicumque semetipsum necessitatibus, artioris vitae sumpserit 

M 

7. BC om. abstinendi, homines fugiendi. M=R 

8. Johannes Nanus RBCW Johannes pusille stature M 
in castitate linguae BG 

in puritate et munditia linguae RMD 
in jejunio in patientia R 
in jejunio in poenitentia BCWAiA^OiO^G 
M goes straight from non irascens to includens te in sepujchro 
and omits the long section. 

9. in subjectione et praeceptis RM 
in subjectione BC 

10. proposito mentis RM intentione mentis BC 
prius RMD primus BC 

11. hoc fac, et custodi cor tuum RBC 
hoc faciat cor tuum M 

12. B has here and in a few other places (e.g. 1.15) Dixit abbas 

Pemen pastor 
14. paupertas, tribulatio, et discretio RMD 

paupertas et tribulatio BCW 
1 6. in ipsa hora R yeniens in ipsa hora BCMW 
19. in hominem R in animam BCWD 
21. tibi male loquitur RBMD de te male loquitur C 

facias alicui calumniam RM calumnieris BCD 

te in calumniam ducit R contemptum BCM 



APPENDIX 341 

22. neque curiose agere RM om. BC 

Superbire corde RBC superbe sapere corde M 

his est monachus RBG his est omnibus monachus M 

Part II 

M omits altogether. 
P does not begin until 111.3- 
BGR are complete. 
W has cc. 1-3, 7-8, 12-14, 16. 

i . revolvuntur R resolvuntur BOW 

5. habentes sonum R non habentes sonum BC 

7. una matrona virgo R una virgo BC 

Canopo [Canopo RGSyrAiOO*] campo B cf. VP iii.65. 

facias mare R fiat mare BC 

Oro Deum RBCW G Syr A 1 O 1 O*. The less ferocious Ora is a 

fault of the Migne edition. 
12. posito a lacu BC posito a puteo R 

14. Sit ... agat ... sit BCWA 1 sis ... agas ... sis R 

15. semper R om. BCD 

16. in solitudine discesserat BC in eremo RW 
diceretBCWD dissereret R 

Part III 

BCR are complete. 
P begins in the middle of III.3. 
M has III.4-i8 tucked surprisingly between IV.30 and IV.3I 

(ff. 12-15). 
W has III 1-4, 7, 15-16, 20, 22, 24, 26. 

1. suarum RD om. BG 

2. Abbatem Antonium W 

3. mundi istius vanitas BRW cf. DG suavitas C 

dolorc sine mitigatione et infinitas lacrimas animae BC 
dolore et sine mitigatione infinitas lacrymas habentes animae R 
incurras BP curras W corruas R 

5. ante oculos BPC 

6. in charitate om. M agapem MPD 

9. Macharium maiorem MPC Macharium RBDG 

lacrimae nostrae corpora nostra MBPCDG 
ii , M omits the last sentence, 
voluptates P voluntates al. 

14. turpibus om. M 

15. capitio RWBD cucullo P collo (corr. cocollo) M 

1 6. In all the early MSS. R's Syncletica is spelt Syncletice, Sin- 

cleticCj Sincleticen, Sinclitice. 
inprimis MPCWD impium (corr. impiorum) B impiorum R 

17. CoeUtus MBPGD celeriusR 



342 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

1 8. In the middle of III. 18 M goes straight on with IV. 31, It is 
therefore clear that M was already copying a manuscript with 
its folios out of order, for the first words of IV.3 1 are not miss- 
ing in M: they are to be found before 111.4- 

20. hunc condemnatus es venire BG 
hunc condemnatus venisti P 
condemnatus est venire W 

hunc condemnatus jussus es venire R 
huiusmodi visitationem BGP visionem RD 

21. SimulBPR sibi G 

22. veniat ei timor BC venit et timor RD 

23. coram coelo et terram BGP coram coeli et terrae Domino R 

25. is omitted by PW 

27. tribulatur anima mea BGP tribulant animam meam R 

Part IV 

BG are complete. 

P is complete except for 9, 31 A, 39. 

M has IV.8, io, 15-17, 20, 22-3, 25-8, 30, 31, SIB, 310-3. 
R complete except for SIA, 313, 310, 310, 3iE. 
W omits 2-6, 8, 10, 12, 15-24, 26, 29, 31, SIA, 313, 34-7, 52-4, 57, 
59-60, 64-6, 69. 

i. comitatum DPCG comitem R 

8. parvissimum MBCPD parvum RO 1 

9. The omission of 9 from MPW is possibly due to the similarity in 

the beginning of 9 and 10. Venit aliquando. 

12. adplicuissent . . . voluissent . . . eis . . . attulistis . . . posuistis 
BGP (but P has accessissent for adplicuissent). 

15. venisset gavisi sunt adinvicem MPGDG 
venissent gavisi sunt adinvicem B 
venisset adinvicem R 

1 6. This is one of the sharp divergences of readings: 

Gellia . . . tectum ecclesiae PMSyr 
cella . . . tectum ejus DBCRO 1 O 2 O 3 
M's support for the later P, and the Syriac, show the high quality 

of P. 
22. valde MP fortiter RGD 

24. Esium R Aesium BG Paesium P Cassian 

26. vocaretur MPD vacavit BCRG 

31. vinum omnino monachoruxn non est BP Rule of St Benedict 

a (ch. xlv) 

vinum monachorum omnino non est RO X O 2 O 5 
vinum monachorum non est MD 

The phrase is important, because the dating of the Rule of 
St Benedict in part depends on it. 

After R's 31, some of the early manuscripts contain a group 



APPENDIX 343 

of sayings which must have dropped out of R. The Latin text is 
as follows: 
3 1 A, Dixit iterum abbas Pastor: Abominatio est domino omnis 

corporea quies. BCD 
3 IB. Dixit iterum abbas Pastor: Anima nullo alio humiliatur nisi 

sibi subtraxerit panem. [nisi si sibi BC nisi sibi PMD] 
310. Iterum dixit quia si recordetur homo verbi quod scriptum est, 
ex ore tuo justificaveris et ex ore tuo condemnaveris eligit 
magis magisque tacere. [magis unusquisque tacere P justifi- 
caveris et ex ore tuo PWSyr (om. B)] 

3 ID. Dixit iterum senex quia frater interrogavit abbatem Pambo si 
bonum est laudare proximum. Et respondit ei bonum est 
magis tacere. [Pastorem M Pambo DPWCBG tacere MPWGD 
facere B] 

3 IE. Frater interrogavit abbatem Pastorem, dicens quomodo debeo 
esse in communi conversatione fratrum. Dixit ei senex, Qui 
sedet inter fratres debet omnes fratres tamquam unum 
inspicere; et custodire os suum et oculos suos; et sic poterat 
requiescere. [So PMBC in communi omni conversatione W] 
34. superfluum CR supcrfluo B transitorium P 
36, celebratio BGR sacrificium P 

onidium P cf. G enidium G in idtum B modicum R 
42, animalia alia acriora medicamenta a se expellunt C 
animalia medicamentis acrioribus expelluntur P 
animalia acriora medicamenta a se expellunt GWD 
44, After os suum, P adds: et vivificat animum suum 
46. repperitur PBCW rapitur R 
48. in coelis coram excelso coronabitur PC 

in coelis corona ab excelso coronabitur BRWO 1 
54. cripta BGR chameram P 
59. farinis lenticulae pulmcntum BG 
farina lenticulae pulrnentum P 
farinula lenticulam et zippulas R 
rafanelaeum R trafaneleon C oleum de radicum semine P 

63. copadium BCRW particulam P 

[Here is an instance of the tendency of P to modernize 
language which the copyist did not fully understand (similar 
cases in IV 59, 67, 68) . This instance is clearly wrong because 
the change makes the story unintelligible*] 

64. manducassent singuli binos paximates BCP 
manducassent singulos paximates R 

alios binos paximates PC alios duos B alios denos DRSyr (!) 
P ends: Ecce igitur quantum victu suo propter Dominum vere 
monachi subtrahebant 

67. sirisculam BC surisculam RW vasculum P 
Conscquar BCP consequatur W consequi merear R 

68. iam senem BCRW iam vetulam P 



344 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

70. Convocati BCRW congregati P 

PartV 
[The Brussels Manuscript has a separate division for IV 66-70 

and henceforth numbers the parts one more than the textus recep- 

tus.] 

BP give a long title for V. Incipit relationis diversae pro cautela 
quae adhibendo nobis est contra insurgentia in nobis forni- 
cationum bella. After V.4, in addition to the first words of the 
apophthegm, P has a heading De cogitatione fornicationis. 

PC are complete. 

B has three folios missing: one from the middle of V.i8 (earn quae 
corruerat) to near the end of .23 (de hoc ipso et dixit ei); one 
from the middle of V.37 (in inferioribus partibus Aegypti) to the 
middle of .38 (veniens sacerdos dixit) and one from the middle 
of V.40 (patres ut potentes) to the middle of .41 (omnibus et 
nisi quia). 

R has all but SA. 

W has 1-5, 7-14, 16-28, 29-41: a surprisingly complete collection 
forW. 

M begins in the middle of V.4 (inferis converte bellum), and has 

4-7, 9-14, 1 6, 18-20, 28 (part), 30-33, 35-40. 
2A. Dixit abbas Johannis formae brevis quia satiatus si vel cum 
infante loquatur iam fornicatus est in cogitatione sua BCPW 

4. cum valde a fornicationis daemone BCPW male R 
Ubi vadis MBCP quo R 

5. Cyrus MBPW Cirus C 

6. pictores BRCP pectoris M 
consensum et opere ipso peccatum BPC 
cursum et opere M 

consensum et opera peccati R 
8. Continue semper paratus PC 
continue semper paratus BW 
semper paratus R 

10. A fornicationis daemone BCW 
a fornicationibus daemonum R 
a fornicatione vitio demonum M 

11. tectulum MBCPD lectum RW 

13. veni ad me et increpa eum et ita increpatus abscedit BPW 

veni ad me et ita proditus abscedit M 

veni ad me et prode eum et ita proditus abscedit P 

omnino corruebas deorsum MW 

omnino corrueres deorsum RP 

domino corruebas deorsum BC 

denuo corrueres deorsum B corr. 
16. in platea per tabernam MPBWC 

in platea aut per tabernam R 



APPENDIX 345 

17. numquam alienum vas BG 

non igitur alienum vas W 

non atque alienum vas P 

noti alienum vas R 

rumpatur BPCW rumpetur R 
yg. dilectaretur C delectabatur WR 

voluptate cuperet in P 

voluntarius caderet in M 

20. etsi laboro tamcn ponderis hujus laboris fructificare me sentio. 

Sed hue magis roga MP 
etsi laboro video tamcn pondere laboris hujus fructificare me. 

Sed hoc magis roga G (and W, but quasi for etsi, and ex 

pondere) cf. D 
quia si laboro, tamen ex pondere laboris hujus considero 

fructificare me. Sed hoc roga R 

21. isti . . . qui PC istae . . . quae R (unintelligently) istas . . . qui 

W 

22. dispensationem CWP dispositionem R 

23. attulit R accepit PW habens secum G 
innotuit PC innotui WR 

24. fundebatur BPCW reversabatur R 
26. carnalis BD carnales C curialis PWR 

incurrit diaconus ille BPWR diabolus C 

28. consulendo BR consolando PCW 
in temptationem fornicationis M 
in cogitationem fornicationis BC 
in fornicationcm PWR 

Ecce puto MRW Ecce puta BPCD 

29. Dei sancti BPC Dei magni et sancti R 

30. ablactare MBC segregare PWR 

31. M omits Et scandalizatus est . . . dico tibi vale discedens, and 

still has a coherent narrative. 

32. The manuscripts show R's text to be faulty here. See 

DBPCWMO^Syr. tamen non extorquent. Tuum ergo est 
et suscipere et non suscipere [BC tuum ergo est cum dei 
adjutorio hujusmodi a te repellere cogitatum]. Scis autem 
quid fecerint Madianitae? Qui ornaverunt filias suas, et 
statuerunt eas in conspectu Israhelitarum. Non tamen alicui 
extorserunt ut miscerentur cum eis sed qui voluerint incur- 
rerunt in eis. Alii autem indignantes comminati sunt, et cum 
interitu eorum qui pracsumpscrant, ulti sunt fornicationem. 
Ita agendum est de fornicatione, quae in cpgitatione 
ascendit. Respondcns autem frater dixit sene, Et quid faciam? 
Qiuia fragilis sum, ct superat me passio haec. Ille autem dixit 
ei, Intcntus csto ad hujusmodi dcmones, et quando initium 
faciunt loquendi in corde suo . . . , etc. as R ^ 

(M ends at suscipere et non suscipere. It is clear that R's 



346 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Respondens autem frater . . . esto ad hujusmodi . . * has 
been misplaced.) 

33. Si ergo jactetur in nobis et non adquiescentes deo nostro 

adjuvante proiciamus illam a nobis facile rumpitur. Si autem 
jactatam super nos cum dulcedine susciperemus adquiescentes 
ei conversa fit fortis ut ferrum et difficile rumpitur. Neces- 
sarium igitur est . . . 

[MBPGWD : deo nostro adjuvante om. MPRj probably primitive.] 
projiciamus MBPCR proficiamus W dulcedine P 
cum dulcedine MBCW fit BP sit GW om. M 
Necessarium . . . spes salutis, om. M 
corona BPCWR coronam perpetuam M 

34. completum RPW om. BG 

35. infirmanti dependere MBPGW infirmanti deferre R 
inoboedientiae meae MR inoboedientiae BPGW 

36. pessime a demone fornicationibus. Quattuor enim demones in 

specie MBPGWD 
pessime a daemombus. In specie R 

37. solus in cella MPCWD solus in ecclesia R 
velut lapidea MPGWD velut lapis R 

39. Magnam rem fortiter egisti BC 
Magnam rem implere potuisti P 
Magnam rem fortiter gessisti R 

ordo monachorum. Et ita placuit deo donare mihi salutem et 
egressus sum et factus sanctus monachus. DMBCPSyr (sanctus 
MBG sum PD) 

40. admirans MBPCW adjurans R 

41 . admirandus, inexpertus tamen hujusmodi insidiantes astutiae, CD 
admirandus, cum experientiam calliditates diabolicas non 

haberet P 

admirandus ignotus tamen hujusmodi insidiantis astutiae W 
admirandus, ignotus tamen habere hujusmodi insidias astutiae 

R 

totum annum intente PWR unum annum intente C 
exsultans spe PWR exultans ipse BG 
revelatum est de transitu suo BPGW relatum est de transitu sue 

R 



Part VI 
The title in B is: 

Incipit capitulum de non possidendo in quod oportet et cupiditate 
vitare. 

P De non possidendum in quo oportet. 
M Incipit de non possidendo in quo oportet cupidilate calcariu 
C has no break as usual 
W has a space but no title. 



APPENDIX 347 

BPR are complete. 

C is (for C) surprisingly incomplete: it contains i, 5-6, 8-1 1, 13-14, 

16, 20-22, 
M has the major part of VI. I, and then the rest of the book is lost in 

a lacuna until VU,5. 
W contains r, 5-7, 11-12, 1:5-17, 20-22* 

6. maius omnibus BCW magis omnibus P melius omnibus R 

7. praedica invicino PW cf, SyrG praedica invico BD praedica 

jejunium R et praedicant abbas per tres dies P da eum illi 
fratri B 

8. sectabat BCDG insequebatur P spectabat R 

10. destitisti BG perdidisti P desiisti R 

11. Pistamoni BCP Pisteramoni R 
turbela BP turbule C turbatione R 

19. magnus de longinquo G magnus ignotus BR 

20. Obtulit BPCW Attulit R 

2 1 . pedem tuum, totum corpus tuum putrefiet PCW 
pedem tuum, corpus tuum putrefiet B 

pedem tuum, putrefiet R 
constituerunt ut BPCW 
constituerunt diem ut R 

Part VII 
Title in BP: 

Incipit narrationes diversae ad patientiam et fortitudinem nos 
aptantes 
R is complete. 

BP are complete except for R's 24. 
G contains i, 3-6, 8-9, n-23 3 2 5~47- 
M beginning after its lacuna in the middle of 5, has 6-9, *5-i6A, 

19, 22-3A, 25, 28, 30-4, 36-9,, 4i~3A, and then there is another 

lacuna from VII 4jA to near the end of VIII. 17. 
W contains i, 3, 5-6A, SB, 10, 12, 15-17, 25, 27, 30-3, 35^-45. 

It will be noticed that R's 24 is absent from all the early M$S 

8. Video me quietum MOW vide hominem quietum R 

9. ostium MBPRD hospicium C 
fessus R om. MBCP 

ingrediens mane MBGP egrediens mane R 
de manibus istis egreditur MP 

11. quam grave et quod BC quam grave quod PR 

12. inveniretur, cunctis occidcrent BPGW om. cunctis R (G shows 

the original to have been contis) 
Adoro lesurn Christum filium Dei vivi BPGW adoro filium 

Dei vivi R 

Crucifixit pcccatum et qui occidit mortem BPCWG 
crucifixit et occidit mortem R 



348 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

13. signum monachi BPG virtus monachi R 

15. mutes MBPCWR (muta appears to be a Migne miscopying) 

1 6. Dixit iterum: multi stimuli sunt diaboli. Cum paupertate PG 

M ends the chapter at visitavit te Deus. 
Si per salutem corporis non vincitur, inegritudinem mittit, et 

cum delectationibus seducere MBPCW (cf. G) 
Sin autem satietatem corporis immittit, et cum delectationibus 

seducere R 
residuum quod sequitur mereatur ut inducamur BPCW 

(mereamur, B. corr.) (residuum est W) 
residuum est quod sequitur, ut inducamur R (induamur C) 
Perfectus enim eris per hujusmodi tribulationes trinitatis BG 
Perfectus enim reddens per trifurium hunc tribulationem P 
Perfectus enim eris per hujusmodi tribulationes WR (tribula- 
tionem R) 

17. Omnia nobis proficiebant ad destruendam corporis desideria 

quoniam jejunia BPGW 
Omnia nobis pro destruendo corporis desiderio necessaria sunt 

quoniam jejunia R 
Non cogitemus quia BGW 
Nunc cognovimus quia P 
Non contristemur, quia R 

19. Sexaginta annos BPCRSyr xl annos M 

20. Supervenientium tibi. Instruere manifesto viatoris exemplo 

quern cantandi intentio nee sarcine molestiam nee laborem 
sentire permittit itineris P 
BC = R but praegravatus qui flatando et C 

praegravatus qui flando et B 
22. M omits the introduction to the anecdote: 
Frater quidam erat in cella BPCR 
Frater quidam erat in loco qui dicitur cellas M 
nemo eum . . . invitabat BPCR 
nemo eum in eclesia . . . pro caritatem invitabat M 
24. R only 

27. The appearance of the name Arsenius (when the last proper 

name was Hyperichius) suggests that this was intended by the 
compiler as the beginning of a new little collection; and from 
the subject matter of the next few apophthegms, the collection 
was evidently upon the subject of accidie. But there is no 
manuscript evidence in support of this possibility. 

28. cxtaediaris BCWR taedium patens M taedium patereris P 

30. gestiatMP stringaturC striniatur B cf. D strinuaturW vaga- 

turR 

31. ab aqua ilia milia quinque MBPCWSyr ab aqua ilia R 

32. temppre tentationis MBPWR tempore tribulationis G 

33. laboris et patientiae opus BCW labor et patientia opus PR 
35. ita et monachus vel qui R monachus vel om. BG 



APPENDIX 349 

37. quod vult BPCW quantum vult R 

39. omnem temptationem MBPGW tentationem R 

40. regulam monachi MBPCW regulam monachilem R 
invenit eum nihil operantem BC 

invenit eum nihil operatum PWR 

42. adjudicavit MBPWR adjuvavit C 

exegerimus R exigerimus M exierimus BGW sciremus P 

43. instruens MBPW instituens R om. G 

47. mittit gratiam suam et ipse tibi est consolatio, si in caritate BG 
mittit gratiam suam et satisfaciet tibi si in veritate PD 
mittit angelum et gratiam suam, et ipse tibi est consolatio, si in 
caritate R 

Part VIII 

BPCR are complete: remarkable for G. 

M begins after its lacuna at the end of VIII. 17 and contains 19-23. 
W contains 1-4, 9, 11-14: and then the long lacuna of W, from 
VIII.i4toXVL 1 6. 

1. Venite ambulate PC venite et videte B venite ambulate B 

corr. Ambulate R 

2. spoliata PCW despoliata R spoliatur B 

4. presbyter nihil nisi panem BPGW presbyter nisi panem R 
Frater aliquid mihi opus est BC frater aliquis factus est P 
Frater aliquis mortuus est W frater aliquis motus est R 
miscuit BPCWR miscui B corr. 

6. in alienis verbis BPC ahenis vcrbis R 

8. indignus sis etiam vivere BPG [sit C] indignum jam vivere R 

12. habui effugere spiritum PWR habui spiritum BG 

13. plorare BPGW flere R 

15. in montem Abbatis Antonii BPG in montem R 
quando discessurus BPC quia discessurus R 

1 6. et dicendi sermonem BPC edicendi sermonem R 

1 8. ingressu BPR egressum G 

19. manifestatus MBPC manifestus R 

20. semen BPR germen G 

Dixit iterum sicut impossibile est ut saecularem gloriam 
habentes caelestem fructum faciant, sic etiam qui veram 
humilitatem habent celestem gratiam merentur M 

21. edebantBPCR aedificabant M 

22. surrexissent BPR surrexisset MC 

vitae in id quodcumque fratribus invenisset BC 
vitae in id quod cum fratribus invenissel R 
vitae in adventu fratrum MP 

23. Providentia CR prudentia MBD 

Humana prudentia omnem vigorem irrterioris hominis amputat 
et relinquid eiwn aridixm MD 



350 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Part IX 
Title: 

De eo quod non oporteat judicare quemquam MBCR indagare P 
BP are complete. 
CR are complete except for 1 2 A. 
MD contain i, 3, 5, 8-9, 11-12. 
W is in the long lacuna. 

1. pertulitMBPC tulit R 

2. Surgit autem abbas bisarion BC surgens enim abbas besarion P 

surrexit autem Besarion R 

3. addixisti BPR adduxisti G judicasti M 

4. Moysem, ut veniret BPG 
Moysem, dicentes ut veniret R 
vetustam BPC vetustissimam R 

portant BC portavit secum et venit P post se portavit R 

6. prodiderimus BPR prodegerimus C 

7. in ipsis locis BPC in ipsius locis R 
fossatum BR fossata C caretam P 

videns eum senex afflictum BPR afflictum om. C 

videre desidero BPC videre volui R 

sursum sursum in coelo, ego autem deorsum deorsum BPCG 

Sursum in coelo, ego autem deorsum R 

8. quietem MBPC requiem R 

9. Pior MPRD prior BG 

11. bibere et non bibebat MBPG 
bibere et non poterat R 

12. mane manducantem MBPG comedentem R 

facta est celebratio missarum MBPR facta cst missarum G 

sermonem otiosum BC sermonem odiosum R 
1 2 A. Vir quidam sanctus cum vidisset quemdam pcccantcm flevit 
amare, et dixit, iste hodie ego crastina. Verumtamen quali- 
tervis peccet aliquis ante te non judices eum scd judica te 
magis esse peccatorem quam ilium BP [B vidisset P audisset 
B quam ilium P quam earn] 

PartX 

R omits 7iA, 713, 710, IOSA, 1033, 1030. 
C is complete from 1-68 and then ends altogether. The ending of C 

at X.68 is probably not fortuitous for M begins X.6g with a big 

initial. 

P, surprisingly, omits 3 and 51 A. 

B has lacunas between 19 and 25, 76 and 78, 85 and 96. 
W is in its long lacuna. 
M contains 1-2, 6, 8, 10-11, 13, 15-16, 19, 27, 31, 35, 38, 44, 47, 

5> 5* B > 53-6i, 64-7, 69, 74-6, 80, 85-8, 90-2, 94, 96-8, 102-3, 
1030, 109-11, 113-14. 



APPENDIX 351 

1. conterentes MBPR continentes G 

2. relaxare rigorem PR relaxare vigorem BC 
5. ex tanta eruditione et scientia BPC 

excitali eruditione et scientia R (probably thinking of excitati 
in 4) 

7. parvam holoscellam BG parvum. holosculum P 
parvum holus in cella R B con. 

8. discipulus om. B 

aestus nimis candens BC aestus grandis MPR 
operario monacho MBPC operatic monacho R 

1 1 . sunt corporalis labor BPG 
corporahs laboris M 
labor corporis R 

intentus etiam et assiduus in labore MBG 
intentus et jam assiduus in labore P 
intentus etiam assidue ad laborem R 

12. Agatho cum factus fuisset BPC Agatho cum fuisset R 

13. mortuum BPC mortuos R 

non placet Deo BPGR non placet alicui MD 

14. noluit mihi facere sagenam BP 

noluit mihi facere C noluit facere sagenam R 

15. potes mente tua aurum quod videris velut lapides reputare 

MBPCD 
aurum quod videris potes velut lapides reputare R 

1 6. comede parum cotidie MBPR 
comede panem cotidie parum C 
Salvus MPR sanus BC 

1 8. habeas de infirmitate corporis aliquid, oportet sustinere R 
habcns de infirmitate corpus aliquam culpam oportet ope 

sustinere C 
habcns de infirmitate corpus aliquam culpam oportet sustinere 

incurrcns per infirmitatem carnis oportet sustinere P 
fuerit ct ammonitus BC furatus ct ammonitus PR 
20. solitudo PC sollicitudo R 
22. Rcliquerunt fratres PC Reliqucrunt homines R 
24. opus anhnae velut in transitu. Et quod erat velut in. transitu 

factum cst opus PC 
opus animae, velut cum in transitu factum est opus R 

27. cum usque inane aflligi DMBPCGSyr eum affligi R 

28. surgo PR surrexcro B aurio C 
contristetur etiam nullo suscipiente BC 
etiam contristetur nullo sumerxte R 
etiam conturbctur nullo suscipienti P 

29. statimBPC cito R 

expediunt passiones BC expedit passiorxes PR 



352 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

36. corpusculum meum ne infirmarer BP 

corpusculum meum ne infirmaret G 

corpus meum ne infirmarer R 
39. Venit de peregrinis BP 

venit ad peregrinis C 

venit ut peregrinus R 

de Scripturis inquirit BPC 

de Scripturis loquitur R 

aperi os meum de his et imple B 

aperi os meum de his et implebo CG 

aperi os meum et imple P 

aperiam os meum de his et implebo R 
41. secus BC securus P securis R 

sine PCR senem B 

aut putrefiunt BPC et putrefiunt R 
46. non possum non seminare BPC non possum seminare R 

idem ipsum opus BPC istud opus R 
48. homo et negaverit, dicens non peccavi BPC 

homo et non negaverit, dicens peccavi R 

50. delavat MBPC delet R puteo BPCR canali MD 

51. ideo dixit BPR ideo dico C 

52. etiam unius BC etiam si unius PR 

56. mihi haereditas MBCD mihi omnis haereditas PR 
ecclesiam illic sibi DMBPCSyr 

ecclesiam clerici sibi R 

57. corporeis BC corpori PR 

delegaveris BR delectaveris P denegaveris C 

60. repercutiens BPC percutiens R 
dicit et ipse BPC die ei et ipse R 

61. iam non sto BC iam non ero PR 
qui erat abbatis Agathonis BG 

qui erat abbatis Agathonis discipulus R [P omits the clause] 

63. Qualimodo BPC Qualis homo R 

64. conversatio bona B convcrsationum bonum G 
conversantium bonorum PR 

65. prestat BPC praestabit R 

Bonae quidem sunt operationes MPD 
Bonum quidem est operari BC 
Bonum quidem operaris R 

66. bonum BPC bona R 

At X 68 the Cologne manuscript ends. 

69. operantes MBP laborantes R 

70. sensibiles PR insebiles B insatiabiles B. corr. 

71. taedium quidam appellaverunt B taedhxm appellaverunt PR 

After BPR's 71, BP have a series of additions, 
71 A. Dixit iterum bonum est quidem non irasci. Si autem evencrit, 
nee spatium diei huic passioni concessum est. 



APPENDIX 353 

7 IB. Dixit enim, non occidat sol super iracundiam vestram. Tu 
autem expectas donee tempus vitae tuae occidat, nescis 
dicere sufficit diei malitia sua. Quarc odio [Odio B: odium P] 
habes hominem qui te ftibi P] nocuit? Non est enim ipse qui 
nocuit sed diabolus. Odire [odisse P] ergo debes aegritudi- 
nem non aegrotum. 

710. Dixit iterum: periculosum namque [namque om. P] est si ille 
qui per activam vitam non venit temptet ut doceat. Sicut 
enim si quis domum habeat fragilem et suscipiat peregrinos, 
magis nocuit eis dc ruina domus; ita et isti nisi prius caute 
se sub activae vitae exercitatione aedificaverint, etiam 
audientes se secum pariter perdunt. Quoniam sermonibus 
quidem vocaverunt ad salutem morum autem malitia 
potius nocuerunt. 

72, diabolica PR diabolica pericula R 
sin dubio P manifestum est quia BR 
per mediocrcm abstinentiam. Omni ergo tempore conversa- 

tionis BP 
mediocri tempore conversationis R 

74. in me ignorantem, inveni januas M 

76. monachus quidam MPR Symmachus quidam B 
Aegyptius mollibus rebus et colligatis virgis habere graticium 

in quo requiesceret ct pellcm stratcrn sub ipso, et modicum 
capitale sub caput ejus P 

Aegyptius vestitum mollibus rebus, et budam de papyro, et 
pellem stratarxx sub ipso, ct modicum capitale de cartica sub 
caput cjus R 

77. quacritur B Deus quaerit R 

79. non fecerit opus loci BP non fecit fructum loci R 

80. voluntatom BRD voluptatcm P 
scientem P scilum R sciolum MD 

8s. localibus PR vocalibus B 

83. manserit cum operario si sapit proficit: etsi non proficit, non 

tamen dcscenclit inferius videndo operantem P 
manserit cum operario proficit: etsi non tamen descendit 

inferius, B 
manserit cum operario proficit: etsi non proficit, non tamen 

descendit inferius R 
85. tantum cogitantibus dc peccato BP 
tantum cogitationibus de peccato MD 
tantum est dc cogitationibus quam de peccato R 
egcrat RD acgrotaret M 
retulitMP retail RD 

91. humilitatcxn ct caritatem MPD huxnilitatem R 

92. mitte in eo oleum, et flucns refundc oleum et pone P c MD 
tnitte in co oleum, ct acccndc intus stupam, et refundc oleum, 

ct pone R 



354 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

93. lumina P lumen R 

senex ille seduxit P senex ille falsator seduxit R 

94. expoliasti P expulisti MRD 

95. personam PR porsonam Migne 
est causa culpae P est causa R 
nolumus salvari P volumus salvari R 

96. opus suum R psalmodiam suam PD 

97. de labore MBPD de labore fatigatos R 

opus Dei et postea dixit cessemus MB [B dicens] 

opus Dei et posuit ea quae habebat et dixit R 

labore estis MBP 

labore estis fatigati R 

panern siccum et sal MPR posuit panem siccum B 

fugerent occulte BPR fugerunt M 

After 103, in MBPD apophthegms not in R, 

1 03 A. [BP] Dixit senex quia in heremo etsi laborant Sancti sed 
acceperunt iam aliquam partem quietis. Hoc autem dicebat 
pro eo quod erant liberi a saecularibus curis. 
IO3B. Dixit iterum senex quia [P. qui] si scit monachus esse aliquem 
apud quem proficere possit sed [B. om. sed] necessarium 
[necessaria DM] corporis cum labore habet ac [B, hac"| 
propterea non vadit [P. audit] ad eum, hujusmodi monachus 
non credit esse Deum. 

1030. frater quidam interrogavit parvulum [B. infantcm] mona- 
chum dicens, Bonum est loqui [B. loquere] an taccrc? Dicit 
ei puer ille, si sunt verba otiosa, dimitte ea [P. cos]. Si autcm 
bona, fac locum [P. loco] bono et loquere [fac bonum locum 
et loquaere bona M cf, D]. Verumtamen vel si bona sunt 
verba, non diu protrahas sed cito incide quod loqucris et 
quiescis (quiesce DM) 
105. seorsum et seorsum R curri P 

107. ore dicere R ore docere B 

1 08. oportet hominern habere interius operationem suam. Si cnim 

in opere Dei occupamur , , , P 

109. immoderate comedere MPD impatienter R 
jejunassent primo vel secunda die inanis effect! sunt MD 
jejunassent primum valde inanes effecti sunt P 
jejunassent primo aporiati sunt BR 

1 10. solitarius sum MPD solitarius volo esse R 

in. projice eum in se MPD projice cum in terram R 
1 12. mori cum ipso MBP morari cum ipso R 
115. sudario B subhumerale P superhumerale R 

Part XI 
B is complete. 

P has lacunas from i~8 (middle), 18 (middle)~3i (middle), and 
3?h-43a are misplaced in the middle of X.g6. 



APPENDIX 355 

R omits 2 A, i4A, 24A, 31 A, 42 A, 42:8, 420. 

M has IA, 2, 8s, 11-13, i4A, 15, 17-20, 23, 26-31, 35, 38-40, 42, 

42A, 420, 43, 44, 46-9, 51-2. 
W is still in its great lacuna. 

2. Custodiam magnam MRD magnam am. B 

4. Eseo B Arsenio R 

5. mundo is to B mundo hoc R 

6. divinam B divinitatis R 

1 1 . reputat BMD imputat R 

14A. Dixit qui supra abbas Johannis brevis quia similis sum homini 
sedenti sub arbore magna et adtendenti bcluas multas et 
plura serpentia ad se venientia. Et cum se viderit quia non 
potest stare adversus ea festinat ascendere in arborem ut 
salvetur. Ita ct ego scdes in cella mea et adtendo malignas 
cogitationes super me. Et cum non praevaleo adversus eas 
confugio per orationem ad deum et ita salvus efficior ab 
insidiis inimici. 

ascendere in arborem ut salvetur BP 

fugire M 

per orationem MPD ad orationem B 

15. ut se invicem lucraretur in bonum MPB (bono B) 
unde invicem lucrarentur bono R 

1 6. octaginta et quinque P LXXXV B octoginta R 
sicut egrcderis ita ingrediaris B 

sicut egredieris ita ingredi P 

sicut ingrcderis ita egrcdiaris R 
1 8. dormitarct MPR B con. dormiret B 

cum spiritualium rerum sermo fieret MBP 

cum spirituales res faceret R 

somno relicti sunt B somno rcluctati sunt R 

(P's lacuna begins just above, the words being "impugnatorem 

autem.") 
20, ad me veniat pro aliquid rcsponsi veremur conloqui invicem B 

vcnit ad me pro aliqua re necessariam veremur conloqui 
invicem M 

ad me vencrit pro aliqua re veremur invicem R 

tacere. MRD agere B 

si. nostram ct sobrietatc diligentiam adhibcmus, non inveniemus 
BP (adhibcamus P) 

nostram timorc Dei et sobrietatc, non invcnimus R 
22. prime scorsum BP primus corum R 
24A. Dixit itcrum quia si facia t homo coelum novum et terram 

novam non potest (potcrat P) essc sccurus BP 
25. Contcmptiosus P contcntiosus R intentiosus B 

29. per diem MBPD per idem R 

30. cxacerbabat R cxacerbabat deum MPD 



356 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

31. eum de adversaries mails B 

cum adversarius P 

eum de adversarii mails R 

eum adversarii M 

3 1 A. Dixit sancta sincletice: fill omnes salvari novimus, sed propter 
neglegentiam nostram a salute deficimur. BP 

33. deprimitur BP opprimitur R 

34. David psalmista BP psalmista R 

in mari quaedam petrosa sunt, quaedam vero bestiis plena 

quaedam autem et tranquilla BP 
in mari quaedam vero periculis plena, quaedam autem et 

tranquilla R 

clamando et vigilando PR clamando B 
37. custodierit bene cor BP custodierit cor R 
audit B videt P audit et videt R 
oleo et lychneo om. P 
convalescunt BP invalescunt R 
nixum B myxum R stuppam P 

39. vixit MBRD dixit P 

40, MD add (what alone can make sense of the apophthegm) after 

perdidit. Qui autem tempus perdiderit non potest invenire pro 

eo quod perdidit. 
42A. Dixit senex quia oportet hominem custodire opus suum ne 

pereat. Nam si aliquis operetur multa et non conservet ea non 

proficiet. Alter vero si parum operetur et conservet hujus opus 

stabit MBP cf. D. 

Alter vero PD Alterutro M Si autem alter P 
42B. Dixit senex a modico usque ad magnum opus quae ago. Ex 

fructu eorum intellego quid pariunt sive in cogitationibus sive 

in actibus meis BP 
42C. Dixit senex dormiente te aut surgente vel aliud quid faciente 

si fuerit deus ante oculos tuos in nullo te inimicus poterit 

deterrere. Etsi tails cogitatio manserit in homine etiam del 

virtus manet et in eo. MBPD 
420, Dixit senex surgens mane die ad teipsum labora corpus ut 

pascaris sobria esto anima ut adprehendas hereditatem BP 
45. Interior homo . . . exteriorem BPSyr 

exterior homo . . . interiorem R 
47. nihil cogites MBP nihil vanum cogites R 
quiescens in lecto MBPD quiescens R 

49. inluminati fuerint oculi MBP non fuerint clausi oculi R 

50. monachi R nomina BP (cf. note in Migne PG 65, coL 265) 

51. didicit versutias MPRD vicit versutias B 
54. semper timeat MBP semper teneat R 

Part XII 

BPR are complete. 
M omits only 4. An unusually complete tradition. 



APPENDIX 357 

2. exalationem MD exhalationem R exaltationem BP 

3. quattuor dies MD 

4. Sicut scriptum est, ora autem BP ora autem R 
8. fieri MBPD efficiere R 

10. Domine adjuva MBPD adjuva R 
14. fugit MB statim fugit PRD 

Part XIII 

BPR are complete. 
M omits 4, 8, n. 
The fragment of S begins at 9. 

3. septies BM sexies DPR Cassian 

4. clericis ecclesiae quid illic est P 
clericis quid illic est B 

clericis ecclesiae quae illic est R cf. G 

8. pergentes BP divertentes R 

9. arbor est hie cui curvante genu et orante quo inclinata BPS 
ipsum sequamur et nos BS ipsum sequamur MPR 

11. volens pulsare et intrare BPS volens pulsare R 

[S has pulsare et, and the remainder is cut off by the binder. 
But the number of missing letters proves that S must have read 
et intrare.] 

12. Quando habui dedi MBP quando habui praebui R 
prima die MBPS quadam die R 

cum accepisset MBPS cum acccpissent R 

14. Praesbiter B Abba presbyter MP Abba R 

15. ostium MBPS hospitium R 

abundantia MBPD [S concealed in binding] Egestate R 
lam non habet MBSD lam non habeo PR 
glorificaverunt BS glorificavit MPRD 

Part XIV 

BPR are complete. 

A folio of M has fallen out between 5 and n. 
S has only the first few words of i, as far as Abbas ctiam Alexander. 
S also has preserved 10 (near end) to 17. 

i. lenius et modestc MPRD lenius B 

custodire sermones B custodire sermonem MPD 
custodirc mandatum R modo adhuc complevi MBP 
modo complevi RD 

3. mane veniret MBP mane rediret B 

4. expecta me B expecta MPRD 

5. scriptor MPD scriptor antiquar' B 
scriptor antiquarius R 

6. mihi illud ultra dicas BP mini illud dicas R 



358 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

8. fieris BP fies R 

13. Dicebant senes EPS dicebat senex MR 

14. mandatis BPMS mandato R 

1 6. quod iubes MBPSD quomodo iubes R 
conplexata est eum et coepit BS 
conplexa est eum et coepit MP 
complexa eum coepit R 

1 8. Amplexatus est eum et osculabatur MBP 
amplexatus est eum R 

Part XV 

P is complete. 

R is complete except for SSA; the excellent B manuscript, complete 

to 39 except for the omission of 24, unfortunately comes to an 

end at 39. 
M has a large lacuna from the first lines of i to the middle of 14 and 

another from the beginning of 31 to the beginning of 66, It then 

has 73, 76, 79, 81, 83, 85-6, 88-9- 
W is still in its long lacuna. 

i. dilatantur BD ditantur PR 

5. soliti erant BP solebant R 

6. usus est BP utebatur R 

7. cogitationibus tuis interrogas P 
cogitationibus suis (con. tuis) interrogas B 
cogitationibus suis R 

9. P includes at the end of 8 the first sentence of BR 9 
projecit se etiam senex BPD projecit se senex R 
loqui me saepe DBPSyr loqui me semper R 

10. longinquo BPD longaevo R 

fecit et ita dormivit consummans BP 
fecit consummans R 

11. quattuor ingressi sunt templi PD 
quatuor ingressus sunt templi B 
quatuor ingressus sunt ad aditum templi R 

12. petentes PRD paenitentes B 

14. ut faciant orationem PRDG ut faciant operationem B 
mandatum . . . expellit BPDG mandata . . . expellunt R 

19. meipsum semper sine cessatione BP 
meipsum sine cessatione R 

20. Aliquando MBP Quando R 
sicut mos est PR sicut Moyses B 

Dixit autem Abba Theodorus, JPerdiderunt monachi ingenui- 
tatem [reverentiam P] et non dicunt, Ignosce MPBG (om< R) 

21. diaconus MPR monachus B 
si non vis ministrare B 

24. Unexpectedly omitted by B 



APPENDIX 359 

25. nullam causam in conceptu M 

nullam causam in conspectu BPR 
31. contenebant B contemnebant PR 

42. archiepiscopus P episcopus R 

43. Vade, quidquid vides P quidquid vides R 

49. humilitas P humililas monachi R 

50. duntiam cordis P summitates cordis R 

51. sapientiam habet el non csi succensus ignem verborum dei sicut 

el Joseph resolvatur cum acceperit principatum, Multae 
enim horum cum sint tcmptaliones in medio hominum. 
Bonum cst cnim P 

52. perfectioni mcac P pcrfectio animae R 

54. Sed nee tune ita de te sentias quia si omnia P 
Sed nunc si ita de te sentias quasi omnia R 
dissolvit P rcsolvet R 

55. et intelhgcntior R om, P 

scriptum est enim qui se putat stare videat ne cadat sale 
conditus P 

scd esto spiritual! sale conditus R 
59. sermoncs P cogitationcs R 

quia ncc nos potuimus id custodire ne faciat istud. Inveniamus 

nos postea id ipsud iacicntcs P 
62. quousque expoliarct P quo spoliaret R 
64. inventus cssct in ccclesia P tcntus esset in ccclesia R 

iactatur P inscctatur R 
67. tcmptamur R non temptamur P 

75. contcmiics P condenincs R 

76. te minorem facies MR cum timorem facis P 
perturbant MP perturbat R 

80. tcinporum in sordid is cogitationibus ut cum cas adsumcre 

aspic imuSj nos ipsos P 
inodici boni opens R boni opcris P 
82. At the end of 8i>, P has: 

Monachus aliquis vulncratus a quodam tenens manum ad 
vulneris prostravit sc ad pedes percutientis sc etgratias agcus 
deo. 
85. notiiiam R fiducia MP 

ex hoc fiduciarn sumes et desiderare R 
ex hoc desiderare MP 
88. pax magna P pax maxima R 



Part XVI 
R is complete, 

P has a folio missing between the middle of 16 and the middle of 19. 
M has i, 3-7, 9-10, 12, 17-19. 
W*s lacuna ends at 16. 



360 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

None of the early MSS. contains 20. Rosweyde printed it as a 
separate Vita, PL 73, 661-2* F. Nau showed (Histoire de Thais, 
Annales du Musee Guimet\ that the hero of the story is not Paphnutius 
but Sarapion the Sindonite. 

r. valet tantum quantum PM valet pretium quod R 

6. onerandum MP carricandum R 

13. cf. Moschus Pratum Spintuale 212 

14. superveniunt R superbiunt P 

1 6. libicus genere PSyr rusticus genere R 

Part XVII 
WR are complete. 
P begins at 3. 

M omits 7, 11-12, 15-16, 19, and has a lacuna from the middle of 
20 to XVIII 19. 



SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY 

The Sayings of the Fathers 
A, EDITIONS 

Text in Vitae Patrum books V-VI, edited by Heribert Rosweyde, 
1615, 1617, 1628: reprinted, and most accessible, in Migne 
Patrologia Latina, vol. 73, columns 851-1024. 

B, LITERATURE 

W. Bousset, Apophthegmata Patrum, Tubingen, 1923. 
J. Bre"mond, Les Peres du desert, Paris, 1927. (With introduction by 

Henri Br&nond.) 
Cuthbert Butler, The Lausiac History of Palladius, Texts and Studies 

series, voL vi, Cambridge, 1898. 
J. C. Guy, "Remarques sur le tcxte des Apophtegmata Patrum" in 

Recherches de science religieu$e > 1955, pp. 252-8. 
J. O. Hannay, The Spirit and Origin of Christian Monasticism > London, 

1903- 

K. Heussi, Der Ursprung des Monchtums, Tiibingen, 1936. 
P. Ladeuze, Le Cmobitisme Pakhomien> Louvain, 1898. 
H. Leclercq, Article "C&iobitisme" in Dictionnaire d'ArMologie 

chrttienne et de Liturgie. 
L. Th. Lefort, Les vies copies de saint Pachome et de ses premiers successeurs, 

Louvain, 1943. 
H. Lietzmann, The Era of the Church Fathers (A History of the Early 

Church 9 vol. iv), English translation, 1951, 
W. K. Lowther Clarke (translator), The Lausiac History of Palladium, 

London, 1918. 
The Ascetic Works of Saint Basil, London, 1925. 

A. Siegmund, Die Vberlieferung der griech. christL Literatur in der lat. 
Kirche, Munich, 1949. 

B. Steidle (editor), Antonius Magnus Eremita^ Studia Anselmiana 38, 
Rome, 1956. 

Helen Waddell, The Desert Fathers^ 1936. 

E. White, The History of the Monasteries of Nitria and of Scete, New 
York, 1932. 

F. A. Wilmart, **Lc Receuii latin des Apophtegmes" in Revue 
Btntdictine) i922,jpp. 185-98. 

H. B. Workman, The Evolution of the Monastic Ideal) London, 1913. 

361 



362 WESTERN ASCETICISM 

Cassian 
A. EDITIONS 

The best edition is that of M. Petschenig in the Vienna Corpus, 
vols. 13 and 17 (1886 and 1888). The older edition of A. Gazet 
(Douai, 1616, reprinted in Migne, Patrologia Latina, vols. 49-50) is 
not to be despised, because of the care and range of its annotations. 
E. C. S. Gibson translated most of the works of Cassian in the series 
of Nicene and Post-Nicene Fathers, vol. XI (Oxford, 1894), and gave 
the translation a valuable preface. 

B. LITERATURE 
M. Cappuyns, Article "Cassien" in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et de 

Gfographie ecclesiastiques. 

O. Chadwick, John Cassian, Cambridge, 1950. 
S. Marsili, Giovanni Cassiano ed Evagno Pontico, Studia Anselmiana, 

Rome, 1936. 
M. Olphe-Galliard, Article "Cassien" in Dictionnaire de Spirituality 

d'Ascttique et de Mystique. 

Saint Benedict 
A. TEXT 

The text of the Rule, according to the Sangallensis 914 manu- 
script, is printed by Ph. Schmitz: the new amended edition (Mared- 
sous, 1955) has a useful introduction by Christine Mohrmann on the 
language of Saint Benedict. Diplomatic edition of Sangallensis 914 
by Morin in 1900. The text by B, Linderbauer (1928) is useful. Two 
other editions, both by English Benedictines, are important: one by 
Cuthbert Butler (revised edition 1927 and 1936), an edition, with 
good notes and references: the other by Justin McCann (1951) with 
excellent introduction and notes. 

For the textual history of the Rule, L. Traube's classic Textge- 
sckichte der Regula S. Benedicti (1898, second edition 1910) is still worth 
reading. For the recent attack on it see B. Paringer in Revue 
Benedictine, 1951, pp. 81 ff. The diplomatic edition of the Regula 
Magistri (ed. H. Vanderhoven and F. Masai; Publications de 
Scriptorium, vol. iii, Brussels, 1953) is indispensable. For a recent 
survey, with bibliography, of the argument over the priority of the 
Regula Magistri, see G. Penco "Origine e sviluppi della questione 
della Regula Magistri" in B. Steidle (ed.), Antonius Magnus Eremita 
(Rome, 1956), pp. 283-306. 

B. LITERATURE 

Cuthbert Butler, Benedictine Monachism, 2nd edition, London, 1924, 
J. Chapman, Saint Benedict and the Sixth Century, London, 1929. 
J. McCann, Saint Benedict, London, 1937. 

Ph. Schmitz, Article "Benoit de Nursie" in Dictionnaire d'Histoire et 
de Geographie eccUsiastiques. 



INDEXES 



GENERAL INDEX 

It u not always possible, particularly in "The Sayings of the Fathers" to determine whether 
references to the same name are references to a single person or to two or more people of the 

same name 



Abelard, Peter, 224 

Abraham, disciple of Agatho, 1x8 

Abraham, disciple of Sisois, 42, 55 

Abraham the Simple, 260 

Abraham (possibly one of the above), 

108, 149 

Achillas, 49, 107-8 
Acta Martyrum, 302 
Adelphius, too 
Acsius, i32;cf. pp. 342, 355 
Any, Bishop of Oxyrhynchus, 160 
Agatho, 49, 78, 83, 106-7, **8, 131, 

141, 165, 182 
Alaric the Visigoth, 190 
Alexander (with Arsenius), 149, 157 
Alonius ( Allots), 53, 132, 165 
Ambrose of Milan, St, 25, 305, 308 
Ammoi ( Ammoy), 50, 131-2 
Ammon (Ammonius, Ammonas), 43, 

83, 108-9, 176, 177 
Ammon, disciple of Poemcn, 1x5, 117, 

*35 

Ammon of Raythu, loo-x 
Ammon of Nitria, 182 
Anastasius, 175 
Anthropomorphites, 234 
Antinoe, 75 
Antony, St, 18, xg, 22, 23, 24, 25, 30, 37, 

38, 40, 48, 55, 59-60, 77, 82-4, 92, 

96-7, 100, X02, 105-6, 140, 156, 167, 

181-2, 2x3, 229, 267 
Anub, hermit (disciple of Poemen), 45, 

54, 113, 115-6, 159 
Apollos, 6o-x 
Apophthcgmata, 31 JOT., 271 
Arcadius, Emperor, 158 
Archebius, Bishop of Panephysis, 246-7 
Ares, 149 



363 



Aristotle, 259 

Arsenius, 40, 41, 43, 44, 48-9, 77, 91, 

97. 106, 109, 131, 138, 141, 149, 

156-9, 167, 187 
Athanasius, St, Bishop of Alexandria, 

1 8, 25, 30, 46 
Athrem (with Hpr), 166 
Augustine, St, Bishop of Hippo, 25, 26, 

207, 257 

Babylon, near Memphis, 150^-60 
Basil, St, Bishop of Caesarea in Gappa- 

docia, 17, 25, 26, 27, 29, 30, 80, 337 
Benedict of Nursia, St, 25-31, 35, 151, 

191, 290 JfF. 

Benjamin, presbyter, 50 
Bernard of Clairvaux, St, 224 
Bessanon, 83, xo2> 141, 187 
Bethlehem, 25, 195, 264 
Bobbio, 29, 338 
Butler, Dom Cuthbert, 33, 119 

Cacsarius, St, Bishop of Aries, 30 

Ganopus, 41, 159 

Gassian, John, 23, 25-6, 29, 31, 34, 38, 

49. 5* 52, 60, 79, 98, 134, 144-5, 

150-2, 1 90 n. 

Castor, Bishop of Apt, 190, 193, 214 
Gaxton, William, 36 
Cellia, 50, 51, 54, 58, 79, 87, xoi, 127, 

176, 184 

Celtic Monasticism, 29-30 
Ccrdoj 14 
Ghaeremon, 246 ff. 
Ghame, 39 

Charlemagne, Emperor, 290 
Chrysostom, St, John, Bishop of 

Constantinople, 190 



364 INDEXES 

Clement of Alexandria, 20, 22 

Clysmatus, 166 

Golumbanus, St, 29-30 

Copres, 162 

Cotelier,J. B.,36, 339 

Cyprian, 20 

Cyrus of Alexandria, 62 



Damian, Peter, 35 

Daniel, disciple of Arsenius, 48, 49, 77, 

106, 109, 158-60 

Daniel (hermit with Ammoi), 132 
Diolcos, town in Egypt, 45, 264 
Dioscorus of Nanusias, 50 
Dulas, 141 

Elias, 44, 102 
Ephraem, 109 
Epiphanius, St, Bishop of Cyprus, 50, 

142, 174-5 

Epiphany, Feast of, 233 
Euchites (a=Messalians), 142 
Eulogius, 97-8 
EulaHus, 173 
Eunomius, Arian, 259 
Eustathius of Sebaste, 17 
Evagrius of Pontus, 37, 42, 44, 50, 78, 

106, 109, 132, 141, 160, 176 

Felix, 46 

Festal letters, 234 

Gaul, Asceticism in, 25 
Gebalon, 163 
Gelasius, 175-6 
Germanus, monk, 195 fF, 
Gerontius of Petra, 60 
Gregory the Great, St, 29, 30 
Gregory the theologian, 37 
Gyrovagi, 294 
Guy,J. C.,34, 3 6 

Halkin, F., 36 

Helladius, hermit in Egypt, 50 

Helladius, monk in Provence, later 

Bishop of Aries, 193, 214 
Heracleon, Lower, in 
Hilarion, 50, 182 
Hilduin, Bishop of Cologne, 338 
Honoratus, St, Bishop of Aries, 25, 29 
Honorius, Emperor, 158 
Hor, 46, 51, 166 
Hybistion, 62 
Hyperichius, 46, 56, 80, 87, 121, 137, 

152, 167, 183 

Ireland, 29 

Ircnacus, St, 15 

Isaac, presbyter in Cellia, 51, 79 



Isaac of the Thebaid, 102, 112 
Isaac, 2146. 

Isaiah, hermit (with Achillas), 49 
Isaiah (with Poemen), 115 
Isaiah, hermit, 42 

Isidore, priest of Scete, 51, 85, 134, 161, 
274-6 



Jacob, monk, 45 
Jacob, monastic steward, 79 
Jerome, St, 13, 18, 25, 26, 30, 
224 



34 36, 



John, Archbishop (probably of Alex- 
andria, A.D. 482), 97 
John Chrysostom, see Ghrysostom 
"ohn, disciple of Ammoi, 50 

bhn, hermit, 38, 44, 51-2, 159, 182 

bhn of Lycopolis, 141, 191 

bhn of the Thebaid, 162, 176 

bhn the Persian, 78 

bhn the Short, 38, 51, 60, 84, no-n, 
132-3, 149-50, 161-2, 176 

John the sub-deacon, 35, 187 
ohn (with Abba Paul), 150, 279 ff. 
ohn (with Theodore of Pherme), no 
oseph at Panephysis, 97, 103, 105, 

in-12, 115, 144, 247, 264 
Joseph, disciple of Poemen, 115 
Joseph of Thebes, 38 
Joseph (with Antony), 156 
Joseph (with Lot), 142 
Justin Martyr, 15 



Kemmer, A., 142 
Kingsley, Charles, 36 

Lausus, 1 19 

Lent, 322 ff, 

Leontius, Bishop of Frejus, 193, 314 

L6rins, island of, 25, 29 

Lietzmann, H., 142 

Longinus, 112 

Lot, hermit, 135, 142 

Lucius, 83, i z 2, 142 

Lucius, Arian bishop, 270 

Macarii, The, 18, 45, 53, 84, 112, 143, 
162-3, *77> *88, 259-60, 284 

Macarius (with Agatho), 106 

Macarius (with Theodore of Pherme), 
78 

McGann, Dom Justin, 325 

Machetes, 134 

Mark, disciple of Arsenius, 106 

Marseilles, 190 

Martin of Tours, St, 25, 29 

Mathois, 62, 84, 99, 112, 163-4 

Matrona, 43 



INDEXES 



365 



Mazicae, barbarians, 159 
Melania, 22 
Memphis, 159 

Messalians ( = Euchites), 142 
Methodius, 15, 2i-2> 
Mihdus, 84 
Monte Cassino, 29 
Moschus, 360 

Moses, monk, 42, 52, 60, 71, 99, 102, 
136, 145, 160, 164, 177, 195 ff., 284 

Nathyra, disciple of Silvanus, 112 

Nau, F., 360 

Nesteros, 38, 99, 164, 247 

Nilopolis, 100 

Nilus, 42 

Nitria, 45, 161, 182 

Olivar, A,, 322 
Olympius, 164 
Origen, 16, 22, 224 
Orsisius, 137, 167 
Ostracine, 81 
Oxyrhynchus, 96, 148, 160 

Pachomius, St, 17, 18, 19, 24, 26, 30 
Paesius, brother of Poeincn ( ssPaysius), 

* ! 35 ' I77 
Palamon, 19 

Palladms, Bishop of Helenopolis 23, 33, 

34 n 9 
Pambo, 37, 39, 46, 53-4, 79, 118-19, 

151, 1 66, 183 
Panephysis, 97, 144, 246 
Paphnutius, 180-1, 183, 234,263,274- 

5-6, 284, 360 
Patrick, St, 29 

Paul, chief disciple of Antony, 181 
Paul (with John), 150, 279-80 
Paul (first monk^, 267 
Paysius, see Paesius 
Pelagius the deacon, 35, 187 
Pelusium, 121, 142 
Peter, disciple of Lot, 106, 135 
Peter Pyomus, 54 
Petra, 157 
Petschemg, M. 192 
Pharan, 112 
Philagrius, 80 
Philo, 13 

Photinus, deacon from Cappadocia, 234 
Photius of Constantinople, 36 
Piamun, 264 ff. 
Pior, 54, 104 
Pistamon, 80 
Poemen, 39, 42, 45, 53-4, 62-3, 70, 84, 

100, 103-4, "* n 3-4-5-6-7-8, 

'34-5, *45-^> '56, i*fi~Gi> 164, 165, 

170, 177, i8a-s 



Prayer, hours of, 16, 24, 304 ff. 
Pnscillian, 25 
Provence, 25, 190 
Pystus, 166 



Raythu, 100, 163, 

Regula Magistn, 28, 290, 293, 301, 334 
Rome, asceticism in, 25, 29, 412, 121 
Rosweyde, H., 35-6, 338 ff. 
Rufinus, 26 



Sarabaites, 266, 294 

Sarah, 62, 87, 121 

Sarapion the Sindomte, 360 

Sarapion, see Serapion 

Scete, 41-2, 45, 50, 51, 56-7, 59, 65-6, 
71, 74, 77, 81, 83, 84,85, 96, 99, 102, 
104, 107, m, 121, 126, 129, 133-4, 
140, 145, 149, 150-2, 158, 159, 161, 
163, 164, 165, 176, 177, 182, 184, 
187, 193, 234, 259, 274, 275 

Sentences of Sixttts, 304 

Serapion, 52, 80, 98, 99, 136, 160, 234, 
271 

Siegmund, A., 36, 339 

Silvanus, 46, 55, 98, 112, 119, 124, 125, 
136* 150, I5 1 * 

Simon, 101 

Sinai, H 2, 119, 136, 143 

Sisois, 39, 42, 55, 56, 80, 100, 113, 119, 
136, 143, 151, 166-7, *77> 187 

Socrates, ecclesiastical historian, 33, 78 

Spain, asceticism in, 25 

Steidle, B., 20, 142 

Stocchades Islands, 264 

Sulpicius Severus, 34, 51, 150 

Syncletice, 46, 55-6, 80, 85-7, 101, 
i ao-i, 137* 153 

Syncleticus, 79 



Terenuthis, 84, 159 

Tertullian, 15, 16, 17, 20 

Thais, i8o~i 

Theodore of Pherme, 37, 78, 83, 97, 98, 

1 10, 161 

Theodore (with Hor), 46 
Theodosius the Great, Emperor, 158 
Thcodosius II, Emperor, 170 
Theonas, 52, 132 
Theophilus, Bishop of Alexandria, 40, 

41,44,58, i6z, 165 
Traube, Ludwig, 290 
Trohe, 158-9 



Valens, Emperor, 270 



366 INDEXES 

Wallis Budge, E. A., 36, 50, 53, 167, 

r 75>339 

Wilmart, Dom A., 36, 188 
Wynkyn de Worde, 36 

Zacharias, 55, 119 



Zacharias, disciple of Moses, i6o~i 

Zacharias, disciple of Serapion, 160 

Zacharias, disciple of Silvanus, 119 

Zeno, 51, no 

Zeno, disciple of Silvanus, 98 

Zoega, G., 339 

Zoilus, 157 



BIBLICAL REFERENCES 


Genesis 




Psalms continued 


Psalms continued 


1:26 


..234 


6, Vulgate 


.. 308 


58:i 


107 


22:9 and 12 ,. 




6.5, 


...204 


62, Vulgate. . 


306 


33:13 


332 


6.6 


...228 


63, Vulgate. , 


306 






7:9 


30 1 


64, Vulgate. , 


306 


Exodus 




9, Vulgate 


...308 


66, Vulgate. , 


306 


22:21 and 27. . . . . 


,.230 




...302 


66:10-12 


303 




. .207 


j.d/0 


. . . 302 


66:12 


, 86 






15* 1-3 


.. 292 


70: i 


240 


Deuteronomy 




17, Vulgate 


...308 


73:21-2 


164,303 


6:7 


. .242 


18:23 


...301 




128 


32121, LXX 
32:33 and 32, LXX 


"258 

..379 
. .2*6 


18:29-30 
18:44 
19, Vulgate 


.,.U7 
' f. 


74:21 
75, Vulgate.. 
76:10 


243 
306 
301 






20, Vulgate 


.,.308 


77:6-7. LXX 


209 


Joshua 






. . . 222 


85:8 


208 


5:14 ,.. 


,..16 


22:6..,,, 


,.,304 


86:17 


315 


14:6 


-.133 


26:2 


...287 


87, Vulgate.. 


306 


X4:xo-xx 




32:5 


...303 
,..303 


88:15 
89, Vulgate,. 


304 
., 306 


I Samuel 




34:9 


. 253 


90, Vulgate, . 


39 


2:6 


, , .62 




. . . 296 


91, Vulgate,, 


306 






84* n 


...291 


94, Vulgate, . 


305 


I Kings 




34:12-15 


...291 




...209,301 


22:22 


.,208 


34:22 


...248 


95:8 


291 






q*t, Vulffate 


. . . qo6 


07:10 , , 




II Kings 




36:11 


...241 


102:7-8 


,, 268,384 


25:8-9 


--53 


37:5 


,..303 


102:9,,.,.,, 


228 






37J27 


...141 


104:18 


243 


Job 




38:9 


. . .302 


106:1 


303 


1:21 


..177 


39:i-2 


...300 


107:2-6 


268 


39:5^8, LXX 


..268 


40:8 


...232 
295 


107 33 rT. , . , . 
109, Vulgate. 


247 
308 


4 ' 5 


..176 


40:17, LXX 
42, Vulgate 


...243 
...306 


115, Vulgate. 


135 
39 


Psalms 




42:3-4 


.,,828 


xx5!i7~i8. , < 


204 


i, Vulgate, 
113 .,, 


..308 
-.357 


47?7 
48:9 


...309 
.. 324 


jtx6 Vulgate. 
116:16-17. ,, 


309 


2, Vulgate , , 


,,308 


50, Vulgate 


. . . 306 


117, Vulgate, 


.,.306,308 


2:11 254*309 


50:16^x7 


295 


1 1 8, Vulgate. 


308 


3, Vulgate , 


-35 








86 


4, Vulgate 






.,.143 


1x9, Vulgate. 


3^8 


5, Vulgate 


,,106 


53:2-3 
56, Vulgate , 


,.,302 
...306 


1x9:60 


287 
307 



INDEXES 



3^7 



Psalms continued 


Isaiah continued 


Ecclesiasticus continued 


119:71 


304 


3:12 


178 


18:17.-.. 


-313 


119:107 


304 


ch. 6 


164 


18,30..,. 


301 


119:112 


253 


10:15 




19:2 


318 


119:116 


328 


11:2 * , . 


256 


21:20 


3^4 


119:164 


307 


2919 


216 


29:15--.. 


230 


I20:i 


230 


35:10 


203 


32:19---. 


297 


120:5, LXX.. 


228 


42:3 


332 


34:10.... 


226 


125*1 


64 


49.6, LXX.... 


. ...254 






127, Vulgate.. 


308 


5 I: 3 


203 


Matthew 




128:1 


254 




232 


3.10 


107 


131:1-2 


301 


58*5 


112 


4-6 


210 


133 


..308,309 


58-6 and 9. ... 


230 




. . 162, 228, 243 


138, Vulgate.. 
138:1 


309 
309 


58:13-14 
00:17-20 


884 
203 


|:5e 


201 
223 


139.23-4 


301 
287 


65:17-18 
66:23 


203 
203 


5*22 
5:41 


.Il6 
184 


140.11 


304 






5-44-5... 


252 


141:2 


233 


Jeremiah 




5:48 .... 


249 


142, Vulgate. . 


. 306,308 


1:18-19 


272 


6:i9 


.212 


143, Vulgate 


.. . .309 


2:11 


.. ..236 


6:21 


208 


143.2 


228 


8:17 


.277,279 


6 = 33 


296 


144, Vulgate. . 


309 


9".* 


.. ..228 




295 


147, Vulgate. . 


308 


17:16 


28l 




124,300 


150:6 


204 






7.22-3. .. 


258, 261 






Lamentations 




7:24-5... 


292 


Proverbs 




8:18 


... .228 


9'4 


209 


4:23 


60 


3:27-8 


.268,884 


9:12. ... 


gU 


8:13 


248 






9^5 


H5 


10:4 


262 


Ezekiel 


293 


10:8 
10.20. . . . 


208 


11:15, JLXX. . 


211 


34^3-4 


312 


I0'22 


303 


12:5 


209 






10:42. ... 


800 


12:10, LXX . 


oeo 


Daniel 




1 1 : 12. ... 


.QC 


13:7, LXX... 


253 


3:86, LXX.... 


204 


11:15 ... 


.891 


14*29, LXX.. 


272 






11:25-6. . 


228 


15:3 


..302,309 


Joel 




11:28-9.. 


s6x 


16:4 


249 


1:5, LXX 


2l6 


11:29. . . . 


388 


16:25 


302 






12:20. . .. 


62,338 


16:25, LXX,, 
16:32, LXX.. 


211 
272 


Micah 


223 


12.37. . . . 


- 53 




258 


18:2 


296 


7:5 


233 


15:32. . . . 


257 


18:17, LXX.. 


271 






17:20. ... 


230,831 


18:21 




Zechariah 




18:6 


314 


21:13, LXX., 


253 


1:3, , 


138 


*8:n.,.. 


.,832 


23:i3-H 


2 9 6 




208 


18:19.... 


..330 


24:11 


62 






19:27 


184 


25: 14, LXX,, 


262 


Malachi 




19:28. . ,. 




27:4, LXX... 


878 


1,6 


251 


20:28. . . . 


238 


29:19 


2 9 6 


1:6, LXX 


256 




231 


30:26, LXX.. 


243 






22:31-2.. 


805 






Tobit 




23:3 


299 


Ecclcsiastcs 




4^5 


336 


24:24. . . . 


258 


513-4 


220 






24:46.,,, 


854 


10:4 


208 


Wisdom 




24:47..,. 


333 


io:n,LXX.. 


278 


2:24 


877 




200 










25:35- . . 


324 


Isaiah 




Ecclcsiasticus 




25:36-40. 


3*6 


1*'2 ** 


295 


11:8 


H7 


26:39.... 


222,332 



368 



INDEXES 



Matthew continued 


Acts continued 


Philippians 




26:41 


257 


3:12 


, 261 


1:23 - 


206 


26:50 


329 


4:32 




2:8 


283 


Mark 
6:5-6 
11:24. .... 


258 
229 


4:32-5 
4:35 
5:3 
11:24 


, 266 
,..314,326 
, 208 


4:6 

Colossians 


197 

222 


Luke 




15:29 


, 266 


4:6 


169 


4:27 


258 


20:34 


271 


I Thessalonians 




6:25 


. . . 204 


Romans 




5:i7 


,215,218 


7H7 

9:49-50. . 
10:16 


221 
26l 
299 


1:23 
1.28 
2:4 


, 236 
279 
293 


II Thessalonians 
3:8 


271 


10:19 ... 
10:20 


119 
261, 262 


6:22 
8:15 


......197 
..256,294 


I Timothy 


, . . . .210 


10:40-2. . 


199 


8:26 


, 231 


2:1-2 


22O 




H9 


8-32 


232 




224 


n :8 


230 


12:10 


33 I > SS^ 




,215, 218 


11:9-10,. 
12:47 


231 
251 


13:11 


, 291 

, 202 


J*!::::::::::: 


313 

. . . . .201 


15:19 
17:10.. .. 


301 
249 
249 


I Corinthians 
2:9 


299 


I-.6 :.... 

5:20 

6*7 


. . . . 204 
335 

177 


17:20-1 . . 


202 


3:22 


249 






17:21.. . . 
18:13 


276 
109,304 


4:20 
5:5 


259 


II Timothy 


256 


19:17 and 
21:34 


19 204 
. ..60,216,317 


5^3 
7:7 


3!2 
317 


4:2 




23:34 


222,252 


7:15 


312 


James 




23:43- 


205 


10:12 




ina 


226, 273 


John 




10:13 
13*4-7 


226 
253 


2:13 


226, 332 


2:19 


232 


13:3 


198 


Hebrews 




3:ig 


205 


13:8 


248 


11:16 


...,205 


3:16 


232 


13:8 and 10. . 


2O2 






6:27 , 
6:38 


..283,300,302 


15-10 
15:28 


292 
237 


12:9 


206 


8:35. 
10:18 


223 
256 
232 


15:44 


254 
201 
201 


12:15 
12:22-3 
12:20 


....279 
... ,206 
4,6 


11:41-2.., 


222 










12:26 


204 


II Corinthians 




I Peter 




I2:35. < 


291 


5:6 


206 


4:8 


248 


13:2 and 27 208 


5:16 


236 




327 


14:23 


202 
208 
78 


9:7 
10:17 
12:8-9 


300 
292 
231 


I John 


,..,252 


15:14-15.. 


256 


12:9 
13:3 


273 
208 


3:9 


.... 252 

209, 327 


16:15 


249 


13:9 


223 




....237 


16:20 


204 






4:i7 


252 


17=4 


. ... 222 


Galaiians 




4:18 


181,254 


17:19 


, 222 


1:1 


232 


4:18-19 


250 


17:21-6... 


237 


1:4 


232 


5=14 


.. . ,231 


17:24 


, 222 




200 


5:10 


. . . .252 






6:3. 


CO 


R* 18 


OKJ> 


Acts 






93 






i : i 


222 


Ephesians 




Revelation 




2:45 


266 


5:18 


60 


2:7 


,. . .291